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THE BOOK OF THE DISCIPLINE 

VOLUME IV 



THE BOOK 
OF THE DISCIPLINE 

(VINAYA-PITAKA) 

VOLUME IV 
(MAHAVAGGA) 



Translated by 

I. B. HORNER, M.A. 

Associate of Newnham College, Cambridge 




LONDON 
LUZAC & COMPANY LTD. 
46 Great Russell Street, W.C.i 

1 962 



6L 






^0BRAij^^ 



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" JUPi 5 1954 » 






903801 



First published 1951 

Reprinted in Belgium 

Gregg Associates - Brussels - Belgium 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

The present volume of the Book of the Discipline covers the 
whole of the Mahavagga, the Great, or Greater Division of 
the Vinaya, and is thus a translation of the first volume of 
Oldenberg's Vinaya Pitakam, published in 1879. The Maha- 
vagga was translated in full by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, 
and comprises most of Volume I and the first part of Volume II 
of their Vinaya Texts (their Culavagga translation also begins 
in Volume II), pubHshed in the Sacred Books of the East, 
Volumes XIII and XVII, in 1881, 1882. These volumes, 
although they first appeared seventy years ago, are stiU 
indispensable for a study of early Buddhist monastic Ufe. 

Tlds new translation in the Book of the Discipline is, however, 
justified I think, for various reasons. For example, recent 
events have focused attention on the Buddhist lands of South- 
East Asia where Buddhist monks still follow these ancient 
rules ; Buddhism itself is stirring and seeking to know more 
of its own treasures, and it is attractiug non-Buddhists to 
become acquainted with them likewise. The moment is 
therefore not unsuitable to re-translate one of the principal 
works of the Pali canon, the more especially as many Western 
students are now debarred from consulting the original EngUsh 
translation, Vinaya Texts, since unfortunately it is out of print. 
Moreover, the scholarship which has been lavished on the Pah 
canon during roughly the last century has inevitably resulted 
in an increased understanding of the technical and other terms 
so abundant in the Vinaya and which in many cases also occur 
iu other parts of the Pah canon. Following this, there has 
resulted a surer knowledge of PaU Buddhism as a whole. Now 
that references, allusions, remarks, not to mention words 
themselves, can be compared with other contexts, which had 
been either not edited in roman letters or not translated by 
the time Vinaya Texts was pubhshed, they are able to take on 
a fresh and a fuller meaning. For the same reason variou' 
terms and phrases, hitherto difficult and perhaps baffling, have 
become easier to understand, and hence to translate. 

I have therefore attempted translations of various words 
that Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, for one reason or another, 
kept in the Pah. I do not claim originality, however, for my 



vi TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

renderings, for most, if not all of these terms have already 
been translated where they occur in other canonical texts and 
have appeared in their appropriate books in the PaU Text 
Society's Translation Series or in the Sacred Books of the 
Buddhists. Some of these words may be mentioned here. 
For example, as in the first three volumes of the Book of the 
Discipline, samgha is rendered as Order ; dukkata as wrong- 
doing (a type of offence) of constant occurrence in this volume , 
sdmunera as novice ; titthiyd as other sects ; bhikkhu and 
hhikkhunt as monk and nun ; chahhaggiyd bhikkhu as the sixfold 
group of monks ; vassa as the rains ; parivdsa as probation ; 
upajjhdya as preceptor ; saddhivihdrika as the one who shares 
his cell ; dcariya as teacher (in a technical sense), and antevdsin 
as his pupil ; and pavdrand as Invitation. 

In this volume I have also translated a number of other words, 
likewise left untranslated by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, and 
which have not occurred in my three preceding volumes. For 
example, I have translated pdrisuddhi as entire purity ; nissaya 
as dependence ; and natti as motion while natticatuttha is a 
motion followed by a resolution put three times. I have also 
given the names of the formal acts of the Order in English. 
All these are technical terms, and should be understood, for 
they naturally help to clarify some of the depths and compUca- 
tions of the Vinaya. In almost every case the notes which 
Rhys Davids and Oldenberg append to their imtranslated words 
are of great value and merit careful consultation. I have made 
no attempt to translate dhamma and nibbana. But I hope 
by translating such terms as I have mentioned above I have, 
while keeping to the Pali intention, perhaps clothed them in 
a meaning and significance easier for the English reader to 
grasp than when he is confronted with the Pali forms. 

This volmne opens with the account, of the greatest import- 
ance to historians and devotees of Buddhism aUke, of the days 
immediately preceding the formation of the Order itself, 
beginning with the seven days' contemplation under the Bo-tree 
where Gotama sat enjoying the bliss of deUverance just after 
he had attained that full awakening, illumination or enlighten- 
ment which marked his passage from Bodhisattahood to 
Buddhahood. 

According to this Mahavagga accoimt, during each of " the 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION vii 

three watches of the night " — ^presumably the last of the seven 
spent under the Bo-tree — ^he uttered a solemn utterance 
concerned with cause, and then with the routing of Mara (in 
the third watch). The Dhammapada Commentary {DhA. m. 
127) says that in the first watch he dissipated the darkness 
(ignorance) veiling his former abodes, or Uves, births ; that 
in the second he purified his deva- vision ; and that in the third, 
out of compassion for creatures, he paid right mindfulness to 
dependent origination both in forward and reverse order. 
Then, self-awakened to the fullest self-awakening, he uttered 
the solemn utterance common to hundreds of thousands of 
Buddhas, namely the two verses beginning anekajdtisamsdram 
{Dhp. 153 ; Thag. 183 ; J a. i. 76). The Introduction to the 
Vinaya Commentary {Samantapdsddikd) , Vol. I, p. 17, and the 
Digha Commentary {DA. i. 16), agree that these verses are the 
first Buddhavacana ; while the Uddna Commentary (p. 208) 
and the Suttanipdta Commentary (ii. 392) also say that he 
uttered these verses after he had attained the three knowledges 
in the three watches of the night. The Khuddakapdtha 
Commentary (p. 12-13), elaborating further, or perhaps follow- 
ing some other tradition, says that while these two verses were 
the first of all words to be uttered by the Buddha (Buddha, 
because now, although very recently, " awakened "), they were 
only spoken mentally and not out loud. For what he first 
spoke out loud, so this Commentary continues, was the verse 
which in the Mahavagga is attributed to the end of the first 
watch of the night of awakening. 

At the end of the third watch of this crucial night the Buddha 
went, according to the Mahavagga, to the foot of the Ajapala 
banyan and sat there for seven days ; he then spent another 
seven days at the foot of the Mucalinda tree, and a still further 
seven at the foot of the Raj^yatana. WhUe he was at the first 
of these three trees he was visited by a brahman, representative 
of one of the sects which abounded in India at that time, and 
the Buddha stated his view on what it is to be a " brahman " 
(in the true sense). While he was at the second tree a naga-king 
arrived to offer him protection — indicative of the close and, 
on the whole, friendly relations which in the Buddhist tradition 
existed between serpents and human beings. Again Gotama 
made a short statement, this time on what it is that constitutes 



viii TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

" highest bliss ", parama sukha. Although this statement lacks 
the terseness of that attributed to Gotama in the Mdgandiya 
SuUa {M. Sta. 75) : that " nibbana is the highest bliss ", it 
nevertheless contains tenets that throughout the long history 
of Buddhism have remained at the heart of its teaching : that 
the absence of malice, the absence of feeling attracted to 
conditioned things, the transcending of sense-pleasures, and 
the averting (or control, vinaya) of pride in the thought " I am " 
—that these are the highest bliss. 

In the " Talk on Brahma's Entreaty " during the time of 
the Buddha's hesitation to teach dhamma, concepts emerge 
which, with more insistence or less, are found in most of the 
Pali canonical texts : the deepness and difficulty of dhamma, 
its peace, and the consequent need to teach it in a world so 
delighting and rejoicing in sensual pleasure that it was averse 
to letting itself be persuaded that dhamma, earnestly practised, 
led upstream, against the current, patisotagdmin, and by the 
death of craving opened the doors of deathlessness to nibbana, 
the source of true and supreme bliss. 

The first Khandhaka, Section or Chapter of the Mahavagga, 
called the Great {mahd) Section, also contains Gotama's famous 
utterance to Upaka, the Naked Ascetic, of his victoriousness, 
perfection and self-awakening, of his uniqueness, and of his 
having had no teacher (I. 6. 8). He is therefore different from 
other human beings. Then there comes, preceded by further 
stress on the finding of deathlessness, the First Discourse, 
deUvered to the five earliest followers, and called elsewhere 
the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, the Discourse on the 
RoUing of the Wheel of Dhamma, in which the Middle Course 
between the two extremes, the dead-ends of too great luxury 
and too great austerity, is called the Ariyan Eightfold Way. 
This Way is graded into stla, samddhi and pannd (M. i. 301) 
and centres on dukkha, unsatisfactoriness, iU or suffering, and 
the stopping of it, epitomised later by Gotama when he is 
recorded to say {M. i. 140) : "As formerly, so now, this is 
precisely what I teach : ill and the stopping of ill." Aiiiiata 
Kon^afifia was the first of the disciples to apprehend th;s 
central fact in causahty, that " whatever is of the nature to 
arise, all that is of the nature to stop ". It was his vision of 
dhamma, as it was soon afterwards that of his four companions. 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION ix 

As this dhamma-vision arose in each one of them he asked 
for the " going forth " or admission, pabbajjd, and for the 
ordination, upasampadd, in the Lord's presence. In response, 
Gotama uttered the words, " Come, monk, ehi hhikkhu, well 
taught is dhamma, fare the Brahma-faring for the utter ending 
of ill." This, the original formula, used by Gotama when the 
Order was beginning to form and while it was still in its infancy, 
covers simultaneous admission and ordination. Later, two 
separate procedures supervened, and as the Mahavagga shows, 
admission into the Order had to be gained before ordination 
could be conferred. 

After the Second Discourse, that on the impossibility of the 
five- khandhas being self because they are impermanent and 
suffering, and also spoken to the five original followers, and 
after the ordination of Yasa, his four friends, and then his 
fifty friends, there were sixty-one arahants in the world (I. 10. 
4). " Freed from all snares," they were told by Gotama to go 
out on tour and preach dhamma for the good and the welfare 
of the multitude. As a result many people became anxious 
for admission and ordination, but, journeying to Gotama so as 
to be admitted and ordained by him, they arrived exhausted. 
Accordingly he thereupon allowed monks themselves to admit 
and ordain in any district, in any quarter. They were not, 
however, instructed to use the words " Come, monk." On 
the contrary, it is now the candidate who has three times to 
repeat another formula. This is called admission and ordina- 
tion by the " three goings for refuge ". This marks the second 
stage in the ordination proceedings. In the usage to be followed 
by those who wished to be monastic followers, the three refuges 
became stabilised as huddham saranam gacchdmi, dhammam 
saranam gacchdmi, samgham saranam gacchdmi, each phrase to 
be repeated three times. Those who wished to be counted as 
lay-disciples {updsaka, fem. updsikd) asked for this status by 
repeating the slightly different formula of taking refuge not 
in huddham, dhammam and samgham, but in hhagavantam, 
dhammam and bhikkhusamgham,^ or in bhavantam Gotamam, 
dhammam and bhikkhusamgham.^ 



* Besides the Mahavagga references, see e.g. M. i. 368, 379, 391, 396. 

* See also e.g. M. i. 290, 413, 489, 501. 



X TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

rt is probable that this method of admitting and ordaining 
did not last very long. The reasons given for abolishing it are 
perhaps not very convincing, and we should have expected 
more details and tales of mishaps showing that it no longer 
sufficed and therefore needed revising. At all events, as the 
Mahavagga stands, on an occasion when Sariputta asked him 
how he should admit and ordain a certain brahman, Gotama 
did not answer that the brahman's repetition of the three goings 
for refuge would constitute his ordination. (I. 28. 3.) Instead 
the third phase now arose : that of the Order ordaining a 
candidate, presented by his preceptor, by means of a formal 
act {kamma) consisting of a motion and a resolution proclaimed 
three times {natticatuttha). This means that it is now the 
Order alone which has the authority, the power and the legal 
right to ordain. In addition, the candidate for ordination now 
has to have a preceptor, agreed upon by the Order, who must 
present him to the Order — that is to the one dwelling within 
the boundary where he wants to take up his residence — and 
who must have prepared him beforehand so that, without 
feeling ashamed or confused, he will be able to answer a number 
of routine questions that will be put to him in the midst of 
the Order. No doubt of gradual growth, these routine questions 
form a kind of examination, and it is impressed on the candidate 
by his preceptor that now, above all times, is a time for 
truth-speaking. 

These are, however, merely some of the features among the 
many leading to the finalised form of the ordination proceedings. 
These multiplied and became intricate to suit the dynamic 
and progressive phase in which they took shape. Gone is the 
old simplicity of " Come, monk ". Regulations have to 
increase to meet a complexity of emergent eventuaHties. The 
resources, nissaya, the minimum number of monks composing 
an Order competent to ordain, the number of years a monk 
must have been ordained before he is reckoned as suitable or 
competent to ordain others, living in dependence, nissaya 
vaithum, on a teacher, giving guidance, nissayafn datum, the 
quaUties that a monk should be possessed of in order to ordain, 
and the ordination and probation of former members of other 
sects, and the age at which a person may be ordained, are all 
subjects brought under review. The inner life of the Order 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION xi 

had to be safeguarded as much as had its relations to the 
world outside. 

That the candidate for ordination had to undergo a prior 
period of preparation and instruction at the hands of a preceptor 
implies a passage of time elapsing between " going forth " or 
preliminary admission, and " ordination ", or final admission. 
It would seem that in order to meet difficulties, perhaps created 
by the drawing power of Gotama's Order itself, what had once 
been one operation became spUt into two. This is the intention 
of Chapter 28 of Mahavagga I which, without mentioning 
admission, allows monks to ordain by a formal act consisting 
of the motion and the resolution put to the Order three times. 
Since the method of admission is not formulated here, although 
Sariputta had asked how to admit and how to ordain, it becomes 
clear that these two proceedings, hitherto simultaneous, are 
now in the process of separating. Chapter 30 shows even more 
confusion. It cites an instance where monks admit and ordain 
a brahman who had asked for admission (only). Gotama 
reproved them for admitting anyone who went forth for the 
sake of the good meals the monks were reputed to enjoy — 
and then pointed out the four " resources " for one being 
ordained, saying that admission was for the sake, not of good 
food, but of each one of the resources. 

It is, however, clear that two stages were becoming necessary 
before the full status of a monk could be acquired, and that 
in the earlier of these two stages, entered on to by pahhajjd, 
admission, the monk's standing, rights and duties would be 
different from those in the latter stage, entered on to by 
upasampadd, ordination. Hence when pabbajj a was functionally 
separated from upasampadd, it received a new and specialised 
significance, coming to mean admission to noviciateship. One 
became a novice, sdmanera, by the conferment of pahhajjd, a 
newly ordained monk, nava, by the conferment of upasampadd. 
The former, like the latter, had its own machinery for its proper 
enactment (I. 50-61). For example, a boy should not be 
allowed to "go forth " unless he had his parents' consent, 
and imless he had reached the age of fifteen, except on the 
strange condition that he could scare crows (I. 51) — a test 
perhaps that his first infancy was past. Methods of dealing 
with refractory novices are laid down (I. 57-60). As depraved 



xii TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

monks could be expelled after they had been ordained, so 
depraved novices could be expelled before they were ordained. 
The going for refuge in the huddha, dhamma and samgha, 
although abolished from the normal procedure of ordination, 
was retained as the formula novices are to repeat when being 
allowed to go forth (I. 54. 3). It is also the formula to be used 
by those former members of other sects, who later will be 
eligible for ordination, when they are asking to enter on a 
four months' probationary period which they have to observe 
first (I. 38). 

By enlarging the Order to include novices, who might be 
those who shared a cell (with a preceptor) or pupils (of a 
teacher), by not limiting it to Gotama himself and the first 
sixty monks, all of whom were arahants, by exhorting these 
original " adepts " to go forth and teach dhamma and as a 
result of their returning with an unspecified number of people 
seeking for admission and ordination, the Order was rendered 
accessible to men whose powers of attaining the matchless 
deliverance (I. 13. i) were not so great as those of the original 
disciples. These were monks who therefore stood in need of 
training. But in spite of many opportunities of submitting 
to it and profiting by it, they did not always turn out 
satisfactorily* Hence it may be presumed that the hhikk- 
husamgha of the third refuge for lay followers said less than 
was intended. The samgha of arahants, or at least of ariyans 
is meant, not that of average men. The Samgha of the Triple 
Gem is not the community of monks as such, not the community 
that includes the groups of six or seventeen monks, notorious 
for their bad habits and as makers of trouble, or the quarrelsome 
monks of Kosambi, or those depraved or iU-behaved individuals 
on account of all of whom rules were formulated, regulations 
devised, and offences discriminated from what were not classed 
as offences, and whose misdoings provide the raison d'etre of 
discipUne, of vinaya, of the outward standard of self-control 
so much needed not merely to distinguish the monks from 
members of other sects, although in some cases a certain amount 
of imitation was permitted, but also to gain the loyalty and 
support of the lay followers. For on these depended to a large 
extent the physical conditions which would make a monk free 
to devote himself to his training, the goal of which was the 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION xiii 

vision of nibbana. The Satngha of the third refuge has in 
reality reference only to those steadfast disciples who, having 
entered the sotdpanna stage are on the supramundane parts 
of the Way, and so are themselves of supramundane stature 
and attainments — lokuttara because unaffected by all that is 
lokiya, of the world, compounded and conditioned. " They are 
united by the communion of understanding and ethical behav- 
iour," according to the Commentaries on the Bhayabherava 
Sidta {MA. i. 130 ff.) and the Khuddakapdtha {KhA. 18-19), 
in both of which the meaning of " going for refuge " is discussed 
at length and at a high level not approached in the Vinaya 
Commentary. 

The first twenty-four chapters of the First Section, the 
Mahakhandhaka, of the Mahavagga appear to give a chrono- 
logical account of events from the night of Awakening under 
the Bo-tree on the banks of the river Neraiijara to the admission 
and ordination of Sariputta and Moggallana, the pair of chief 
disciples, already gone forth from home into homelessness as 
wanderers. From this point on, a precise historical narration 
is not so apparent, for the Mahavagga now begins to group 
together subject-matter that belongs together. Strict chron- 
ology is suspended, no doubt in the interests of classifying this 
subject-matter and reducing its complexity to some kind of 
manageable order, the better to be fixed in the memory. What 
need was there for the existing or for any subsequent Order 
to know the exact procession of events ? It was of greater 
value to learn and master the rules and procedure governing 
both the recurrent occasions and the daily conduct of monastic 
life, and this could be more easily accomphshed if the material 
for the various topics were grouped together instead of being 
scattered throughout the immense compilation known as the 
Vinaya-Pitaka. 

If, in the hands of the early editors the sequence of events 
became secondary to systematisation, this plan nonetheless well 
shows both the development and the stabilisation of the Order 
as a uniform institution, the growth of several monastic 
practices, of government within it for the sake of its own 
preservation and continuance which, in turn, depended on the 
essential qualities of scrupulousness and striving on the part 
of the individuals who became its members. These therefore 



xiv TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

were being continually brought to live in conformity with a 
standard of behaviour specially suitable to recluses, samana, 
and worthy of those who had " left the world " with its 
evanescent pleasures and its troubles and had instead entered 
on a way of life where worldly joys and sorrows were gradually 
to be renounced so that the other-worldly and higher joy that 
transcended them could be apprehended. 

For achieving this, the Hfe of the Order regarded as a whole 
came to be, no doubt gradually, planned and arranged and 
adapted to circumstances, while, running parallel to such 
developments, the Ufe of its members became carefully regu- 
lated. Thus the first steps of all — admission and ordination 
into the Order — were experimented with until various types 
of appUcants regarded as not eligible for entry could be excluded 
by rules, based either on experience or on forethought. This 
left the Order open only to the sort of person whom it was 
not unreasonable to suppose might be assimilated without 
bringing it into disgrace. Even so, there were backsliders, as 
already mentioned. Disgrace would have been courted if, for 
example, debtors and those in the royal service had been allowed 
to escape their obligations by becoming monks. Therefore 
they were debarred from entering the Order. 

After its first Section on Admission and Ordination, the 
Mahavagga proceeds to an account of the nature and establish- 
ment of the great fortnightly Observance of uposatha, whose 
principal feature is the recital of the Patimokkha rules. This 
provides monks with an occasion to reveal any offence they 
may have committed. Their silence, on the other hand, is 
taken to mean that they have " entire purity ", pdrisuddhi, 
in respect of adherence to the rules. As usual, all kinds of 
subsidiary matters had to be defined and regularised in order 
to achieve the smooth running of the main concerns. In the 
case of the Uposatha it was for example determined that only 
monks living within the same recognised boundary should 
gather together on an Uposatha day. Therefore methods of 
fixing boundaries had to be established. Moreover the Uposatha 
could not be held at some place chosen at random ; a place 
of a maximum size for the current needs had to be agreed upon 
within each boundary so that all the monks living there should 
know where to go and arrive in time. If they had difficulty 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION xv 



in crossing a river — one that ran through their boundary — to 
get there, it might be agreed by the Order that they need not 
come bringing all their three robes ; but if they left them behind 
they must not lay them aside in an unsuitable place where 
they might get lost or burnt or eaten by rats (11. 12). 

Right and wrong methods of reciting the Patimokkha are 
given : whether or not it should be recited in full or in brief, 
which to some extent depended on the absence or presence 
of ten sources of danger. It was, ideally, to be recited by an 
elder (thera), but if he was incompetent, then it was to be 
recited by some other experienced, competent monk ; if there 
were none within the boundary, a newly ordained monk was 
to be sent to a neighboimng residence to learn it there, either 
in full or in brief, and then return (II. 17. 6). 

If a monk, owing to illness, could not attend the recital of the 
Patimokkha, he had to send his " entire purity ", pdrisuddhi, 
by another. This monk conveyed it on behalf of the one who 
was ill and declared it {datum) to the Order; but many 
occasions are posited when the entire purity comes to be not 
conveyed on account of a variety of things that might happen 
to the conveyer both while on his way from the invalid to the 
meeting-place and after his arrival there but before he had 
given the entire purity. This, and the conveyance and giving, 
or declaration of the consent [chandam datum) on behalf of a 
monk who is ill for the carrying out of a formal act of the Order, 
serve to show how extremely important it was held to be — a 
point stressed over and over again — that an Order should be 
" complete " whenever its business was being discharged. 
This was not to fall into the hands of the few. Even those 
who, like Mahakappina, claimed to be " purified with the high- 
est purity " (II. 5. 5), were not not to go. For an Order would 
not have been complete if even one monk were absent. It 
would seem that the only reasons for not going to the 
Observance in person were severe illness and madness. In the 
former case the Order could be regarded as complete although 
in fact not complete, provided that the entire purity and the 
consent were properly and safely conveyed and declared. In 
the latter, the Order must grant the mad monk, here typified 
by Gagga, the agreement for a madman. This agreement is to 
the effect that whether the mad monk remembers the 



xvi TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

Observance or not, comes for it or not, whether he remembers a 
formal act of the Order or not, comes for it or not, the Order 
either with him or without him can legitimately carry out 
both the Observance and the formal act. 

Such are some of the items and problems which had to be 
settled and solved before the recital of the Patimokkha received 
its final form. I do not recapitulate all these here, for they 
may be read in the text. Those I have given may be regarded 
as typical of the care taken to forestall and circumvent 
deleterious contingencies that might arise and. disrupt the 
monk's standing either in his own eyes or in those of his fellows 
or those of the world. The strength of the regulations govern- 
ing monastic proceedings and individual conduct lies in the 
standard or criterion they give of how to act in a multitude 
of circimistances affecting a monk's life. 

When the Mahavagga comes to deal with the rainy season 
it pays almost equal attention to entering on the rains and 
then keeping them by residing in one monastery for either the 
first three or the second three of the four months of this period, 
as it does to the journeys monks may take away from their 
rains-residence. The prime motive underlying the establish- 
ment of rains-residences was protection or non-injury : the 
protection of crops — the economic mainspring of life — and the 
protection of the teeming small creatures that some Pacittiyas 
also seek to safeguard. One of the results of this anxiety not 
to harm vegetable or animal Ufe, and which sometimes received 
an impetus from the criticisms the laity made, was the allowance 
given monks and nuns to enter on the rains, followed by an 
attempt to immobilise them during this season. But restric- 
tions such as this latter were at variance with the inmiense 
vitality the Orders possessed, as is shown by the numerous 
occasions when it is deemed not only permissible but desirable 
for monks to leave the rains-residence on various kinds of 
monastic business or on compassionate missions. Even as hfe 
must go on, so the Order's business must go on. And the life 
of this smaller world within the larger one could not close down 
entirely for a third of each year^ ; monks were too much 

^ The rains lasted for four months. Each monk could choose whether 
he would observe the first three months or the second three months, but he 
was not expected to observe all four. 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION xvii 

involved with the world outside, they were dependent on it 
(III. 10.-11. 4), and had commitments towards it, and their 
lives were too much interlocked with those of the laity to make 
this feasible. A compromise had therefore to be found between, 
on the one hand, staying in a residence for the whole of the 
three months of the rains, whereby the minimum of harm 
would be brought to the crops and the life of minute creatures, 
and, on the other, leaving the residence for business which 
might reasonably be regarded as urgent. This compromise was 
effected by Umiting the time of absence to seven days ; and 
the business calling for a monk's presence being carefully 
defined, if he could not transact it within this time, he should 
not undertake it at all. 

The end of the rains was marked by two ceremonies. One 
of these was the Pavarana, when monks invited one another 
to speak of offences they had seen, heard or suspected to have 
been committed during the rains. The recital of the Pati- 
mokkha was to " remove " offences, by confessing them, during 
the nine dry months of the year ; the Invitation was to remove 
any offences that monks had committed during the three wet 
months, and would help them to aim at grasping discipline 
(IV. 1. 13). 

The other ceremony held at the end of the rains was not 
disciplinary in nature or connected with the confession of 
offences. It was for the making up of the kathina cloth, or 
cotton cloth that had accrued by way of gift to the monks, 
into robes to replace those that had become thin and shabby 
or spoiled by the rains (Section VII). Thus the replenishment 
of robe-material comes under consideration, and had to be 
managed in an orderly and prescribed way. 

Further, various officers were created for looking after robe- 
material : the acceptor, the guardian, the distributor ; places 
suitable for store-rooms are prescribed : dyes and methods of 
dyeing laid down ; the use of three robes only (one doubled 
however) allowed ; while the kinds of medicine monks might 
take are discussed in considerable detail. The kinds of shoes 
and sandals they might wear, and the use they might make of 
animals' skins are treated with equal precision. Both of these 
categories no doubt spring from the desire not to take Ufe, 
however infinitesimal. Wooden shoes, or clogs, are objected to 



xviii TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

because if monks wore them and stepped on insects they might 
kill them (V. 6. 3), besides disturbing monks who were 
meditating. Further, sandals made of young palmjn-a palms 
and young bamboos came to be forbidden after people had 
complained to monks that, in cutting these down, they were 
destro5Hbng life that was one-facultied. Other complaints must 
also have tended to reduce the slaughter of animals. Rugs 
— or garments (VIII. 28. 2) — ^made of black antelope skin were 
forbidden to monks and also sheets made of the hide of the 
Kadali deer (V. 10. 4), and it became an offence of wrong-doing 
to recline upon the hides of lions, tigers and leopards (V. 10. 6) 
or of smaller animals. Cowhides were forbidden because 
scandalised monks found that one of their number had incited 
a depraved lay follower to kill a calf for his benefit, and they 
remembered that Gotama had condemned " onslaught on 
creatures ". But, at the end of Section V, an exception is made 
in favour of the border districts (V. 13. 13) where, because of 
the hardships and discomfort, the hides of sheep, goats and 
deer were allowed to be used as coverings. 

The last two Sections of the Mahavagga point to an Order 
that was indubitably growing and that, in order to meet this 
expansion, had to be carefully controlled. Section IX engages 
on a thorough discussion of what it is that constitutes vaUd 
as against invalid formal acts that an Order can carry out. In 
the first place an Order to carry out a legally valid formal act 
must be complete ; those monks not able to be present because 
of illness must send their leave for absence, and those who are 
present must not protest against the proceedings. A " complete 
Order " also refers, as before, to the one residing within a 
determined boundary. The actions and business of every such 
Order must be transacted on a uniform pattern, and conform 
to one uniform standard, so that each Order transacts its 
business in the same way as every other, all following the same 
regulations. This must therefore be done, in the second place, 
dhammena, rightly, properly, by rule. To carry out a formal 
act dhammena, by rule, means that if it is to be carried out by 
a motion and one resolution', nattidutiya, the motion must be 
put and the resolution proposed once only. But if it is to be 
carried out by a motion and a resolution put three times, 
natticcUuttha, then this must be done, in all cases the motion 



TRAISSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION xix 

being put before the resolution is proclaimed. The formal act 
wiU then be irreversible, fit to stand, and protests against its 
validity of no avail. Immense pains are taken to distinguish 
a formal act carried out in a complete assembly and by rule 
from one carried out in an incomplete assembly and either by 
what has the appearance of rule or not by rule. The formal acts 
under the jurisdiction of an Order number sixteen. They 
comprise (IX. 4. i) : invitation, rehabilitation, ordination, but 
only an Order consisting of twenty monks or more can carry 
out aU of these. They also include verdicts of innocence, of 
past insanity, specific depravity, formal acts of suspension for 
not seeing an offence, for not making amends for it, for not 
giving up a wrong view ; and of banishment, censure, placing 
under guidance, reconciliation, sending one who merits proba- 
tion back to the beginning, and the imposing of mdnatta (two 
features in the penalty for Samghadisesa offences). When 
circumstances justify, these formal acts may be revoked by 
the Order. 

Finally, the tenth and last Section strikes a different note 
again by promulgating regulations and advice for allaying 
schisms. These might arise through genuine disagreement 
upon what constituted an offence and what did not, or upon 
the particular kind of offence incurred by a particular action ; 
or when factions formed to support a monk or monks who had 
quarrelled with their fellows from other causes, among which 
must be included the positive wish to create a schism, a wish 
put into practice by, for example, suspending a monk for an 
offence he had not committed and that he therefore refused 
to see as an offence of his. On one such an occasion Gotama 
is reputed to have tried, unsuccessfully, to make the bickering 
monks compose their differences by telling them a Jataka story 
illustrating the conquest of wrath by non-wrath (X. 2). The 
Mahavagga therefore contains dhamma or doctrine as well as 
discipline. Indeed the latter would be nugatory if it were not 
based on the former and promulgated in conjunction with it. 
How great is the contrast between the quarrelsome monks of 
KosambI whose brawls and dissensions caused Gotama to seek 
solitude like the great bull-elephant who was beset and annoyed 
by the rest of the herd (X. 4. 6), and the peaceable monks, 
Anuruddha, Nandiya and Kimbila who lived harmoniously 



XX TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

together as milk and water blend, regarding one another with 
the eye of affection, full of amity in gesture, speech and thought, 
surrendering their minds to each other and so, although having 
different bodies, having only one mind {nana hi kho no kayd 
ekan ca pana manne cittam, X. 4. 3-4). 

The Mahavagga deals with a time when, at the beginning of 
Gotama's ministry, the number of monks — and nuns too — was 
fast increasing, and when they, travelling to more distant parts 
of India, bore the new doctrine with them and so started the 
influx of members that has gone on until to-day. If the 
geographical expansion of the Order can be gauged by the 
relaxations in the rules for the outlying districts or border 
countries, made necessary by the conditions prevailing there, 
harder than those of the Middle Country where otherwise the 
scene is laid — principally at Rajagaha, also at SavatthI, Vesali, 
Kapilavatthu and other neighbouring places — its numerical 
expansion can equally well be gauged by the awareness of 
schisms arising to the danger and detriment of the Order, and 
which could only have occurred some time after its formation. 

Although the beginning of the Mahavagga gives not only 
an impression but an account of an Order expanding and taking 
shape immediately after its inception, the remainder appears 
to refer to a time when the Order already had a considerable 
amount of history behind it, and to a time therefore when many 
rules had been laid down and when, in spite of attempted 
schisms, a certain amount of stability had been achieved in 
the matter of the Order's government and legislation. This 
may to some extent be judged, for example, by the number 
of times, thirteen in all, that the phrase yathddhammo kdretabbo, 
should be dealt with according to the rule, occurs. The rule 
referred to wUl in each case be found complete with the penalty 
incurred for infringing it, in the Vibhangas. That the use of 
this phrase assumes the prior existence of the rule is confirmed, 
in addition, by the fact that the material contained in the 
Mahavagga is placed in the palm-leaf MSS. after the Maha- 
(or Bhikkhu-) and Bhikkhuni-Vibhangas. Although this 
sequence is not followed by Oldenberg in his edition of the 
Vinaya Pitakam, it is that rightly adopted in the Vinaya Texts ^ 
for here the Vibhanga for monks, although drastically curtailed^ 
precedes the Mahavagga — that for nuns being omitted entirely 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION xxi 

The question then arises why, in the middle of the Vtnaya, 
an account is incorporated " of the very first events in the 
history of the Samgha " {Vin. Texts i. 72, n.). Rhys Davids 
and Oldenberg think it " natiu-al " to connect " the stories or 
legends concerning the ordination of bhikkhus " with these 
early events because, so they argue, " it was impossible to 
realise the idea of a Samgha without rules showing who was to 
be regarded as a duly admitted member of the fraternity, and 
who was not ". I agree that this provides a good reason for 
prefacing the record of the development of the first and most 
vital step in a monk's life by a short history of how there came 
to be a life for monks at all. From their admission and 
ordination, all the rest follows. At the same time many stories 
are interspersed throughout the whole of the Vtnaya, excepting 
the Parivara. Not only are there several in the Mahavagga 
itself, for example about Ambapali and the Licchavis, about 
Jivaka Komarabhacca, Visakha, Mendaka, Dighavu, and about 
Pilindavaccha, and about the boy Upali (both told elsewhere 
in the Vtnaya), and countless shorter ones, but every rule in 
the Vibhangas 4s introduced by some story, long or short, as 
the case may be. This being so, it seems not only " natural " 
but logical to introduce the rules governing the initial and most 
important step in a monk's life by an account of the first events 
which occurred after the supreme moment when Gotama 
attained full self-awakening. Since this was the initial and 
most important step in a Buddha's career, to recount it was 
therefore the greatest of all stories a Buddhist " book " could 
tell. 

The Mahavagga possibly derives its name from that of its 
first Section, the Mahakhandhaka, the Great (or Greater) 
Section because it deals with great (or greater) events. The 
plan of naming a Division after its first Section, or a Section 
after its first chapter, is of fairly common occurrence in the 
Pitakas, and was perhaps adopted here. On the other hand, 
it might be conceded that the Mahavagga, including as it does 
matter concerned with admission and ordination, with the 
Uposatha, Patimokkha, Pavarana and Kathina ceremonies, the 
clarification of what are valid formal acts, and the ways of 
dealing with a schism, contains subjects exceeding in importance 
those contained in the Culavagga. It is again possible that 



xxii TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

the Culavagga was regarded as the "Less " or " Lesser " or 
the Small Division because of its two Sections on the Councils 
of Rajagaha and VesaH. As the first of these purports to have 
been convened shortly after Gotama had died, and the second 
a century later, the Cdlavagga takes us to a time when he, 
as the living fount of authority, was no longer promulgating 
discipline, and when discipline was no longer growing. 

Yet the mass of the rules attributed to him and held to 
have been laid down by him when he was alive, many large 
in their scope, others concerned with small details, but having 
their own significance nonetheless, together yield a formidable 
body of that discipline, vinaya, which with dhamma, was to be 
the teacher after Gotama had passed away. The text at Dtgha 
ii. 154 is I think sufficiently clear in its meaning, although it 
has been accused of gloss. It reads jyo vo Ananda may a dhammo 
ca vinayo ca desito pannatto so vo mam' accayena satthd. Gotama 
was speaking to Ananda, a monk ; he would not therefore 
have omitted to speak of vinaya which, together with dhamma, 
gives a surer basis for progress towards the final vision and 
ultimate bUss than dhamma alone can give. Had the sentence 
run : yo vo may a dhammo ca desito vinayo ca pannatto, it might 
have been more apparent that the reference of the following so 
was to both dhamma and vinaya. Dhamma is taught, desita, 
showing the Way ; vinaya is laid down, pannatta, for keeping 
one's footsteps on the Way by strict adherence to it. Both 
are satthu sdsanam, the Teacher's instruction. 

Discipline, as promulgated, is itself an authority. According 
to the early editors {Vin. i. 99) the teaching will stand firm 
so long as vinaya is not lost even if the Suttanta (Pitaka) and 
the Abhidhamma be forgotten. It is moreover capable of 
almost indefinite extension and application, and can regulate 
items of behaviour that, in spite of the multitude of rules, 
offences and " allowances " {anujandmi) that were laid down by 
the Teacher, were not legislated for in particular in his Ufetime. 
The monk must make up his mind about what has not been 
legislated for, measuring any course of action by the general 
standard of what he knows to be discipline. He must remember 
this and apply it to his problem. When Mahapajapati asked 
to be taught dhamma in brief {Vin. ii. 258) a general standard 
was given to her by which she might know of other things 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION xxiii 

eso dhammo eso vinayo etam satihu sdsanam (this is dhaxrima, 
this is discipline, this is the Teacher's instructioi)). Similarly 
in the Mahavagga, when some monks were doubtful or had 
scruples about what had been allowed, anunndta, and what 
had not, they were told that anything not fitting in with what 
had been allowed, anything tallying with what had not been 
allowed, was not allowable, na kappati, not suitable ; and the 
contrary. 

In the Mahavagga alone there are about 280 occasions when 
Gotama, by uttering the word anujdndmi, I allow, I permit, 
made some thing or some usage permissible to rrionks. The 
variety of cases covered is so large, ranging as it does from 
accepting a monastery to the preparation of a foot-salve, from 
using three robes to the insertion of a patch, from the novices 
training in ten rules to the use of a trough for dye, that anyone 
acquainted with these would stand a good chance of knowing 
how to act in circumstances not specifically either allowed or 
objected to by Gotama. Or they could extend an " allowance " 
to suit circumstances beyond those legislated for. Gotama 
himself, as recorded, once gave a hint in this direction when, 
after making ten " allowances " for curing a boil a monk was 
suffering from, finally said, " I allow, monks, a linen bandage, 
and every treatment for curing a sore " (VI. 14, 4-5). 

Besides the use of anujdndmi, the Buddha is often represented 
as saying to monks, " you may " or " you should not ", a 
prohibition apt to be followed by intimating that contravention 
results in an offence of wrong-doing. This kind of offence, 
with thullaccaya, grave offences, mentioned infrequently in this 
volume, and three other types of offence, not mentioned here 
at all, are regarded as a " falling away from right habits " 
(IV. 16. 12). 

Whether Gotama himself was responsible for all these allow- 
ances and prohibitions we shall probably never know. In the 
story of the three monks who had spent the rains at Rajagaha 
and who journeyed to Patahputta to ask elders residing there 
to solve their problem there is a hint that power might be 
delegated (VIII. 24. 6). This story may, however, be included 
in the Mahavagga for the simple reason that it was recording 
exceptional events. Or it may have been left in because in fact 
the practice of turning to others instead of to Gotama to 



xxiv TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION 

interpret dhamma, a rule, was becoming more generally adopted 
than is evident in the rest of the Mahavagga. 

It is true that there is not much philosophy in the Vinaya. 
It is by nature as by name a book or basket of discipline. But 
as it is rather hollow to lay down rules for training and for 
outward behaviour without giving the underlying reasons why 
they should be observed, it is not possible to exclude 
philosophical concepts completely from a " book " principally 
concerned with discipline. I have already mentioned some of 
these philosophical concepts (above, p. viii). The Mahavagga, 
especially at its beginning, is not in fact devoid of some of 
the notions which are recognised features in Buddhist philo- 
sophy. In the first place, to mention but a few examples, 
the goal is spoken of and is named. It is atnata, deathlessness, 
the undying. Its gates have been opened by Gotama, the 
Way-finder, so that those who hear dhamma may arrive at 
the object of their quest. The notion of gaining the goal by 
travelling on a Way between two opposites is conmion to many 
traditions and in Pali Buddhism finds expression in the First 
Utterance, but which is merely one example among several 
the PaU canon contains of the philosophical rightness of 
adopting the mean between two opposing extremes. The First 
Sermon also defines the four truths of ill, or the unsatisf actoriness 
and suffering which possesses every compounded thing. It is 
because these truths are not imderstood or grasped that there 
is this long long faring-on (in samsara) " both for me and for 
you " {Vin. i. 230). Ill has to be eradicated by cutting off its 
root, ignorant craving, before recurrent birth, again-becoming, 
Punabbhava, can be stopped, and deathlessness won. 

Then, the young men are told, in a passage that with the 
passing of time has become controversial, that they should 
seek, gaveseyydiha, the self, aUdnant (singular). Anyone 
acquainted with the importance of Atman, self, in the Upani- 
shads might be inclined to think that this was the greatest of 
all philosophical concepts in Ancient India. Various passages 
in the PaU canon, including the Attavagga of the Dhammapada, 
should not be ignored in estimating the position of attd as a 
philosophical concept in Early Buddhism. The Second Utter- 
ance, for example, lays the idea of self beside that of not-self 
when it says in its opening words : rUpam bhikkhave anattd, 



TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION xxv 

rUpafi ca h' idatn bhikkhave aUd abhavissa, " material shape 
(or body), monks, is not self, for if, monks, material shape 
had been self ..." and similarly of the four other khandhas: 
if they had been self they would not be as we know them : 
impermanent, suffering and liable to alteration. Everything 
that is compoimded or constructed is not-self. What is 
constructed is to be escaped from \Uddna, 80) ; and the self 
is to be sought {Vin. i. 23), that self which therefore by inference 
is not made, is not compoimded, and which is unaffected by 
kamma, the deeds or actions done in a series of individual Hves 
while the being is bound to samsara, satto samsdram dpddi 
(5. i. 38). 

The message of the Third Utterance is that if one turns away 
from feelings of pleasure and pain derived from the impingement 
of the sixfold sensory data on their appropriate sense-organs, 
then one knows that one is freed and comprehends that birth 
(rebirth) is destroyed, the walk to the Highest is brought to 
a close, done is what was to be done, and there is now no more 
of being this or that {Vin. i. 34-35). The content of this 
Disquisition on Burning is purely philosophical. 

Nor will the various allusions to cause and dependent 
origination be missed. The whole system was based on cause : 
if this comes to be that will come to be. Discipline therefore 
will lead to something not yet existing for the man who is 
earnestly training in it and cultivating it. The Buddha would 
not have spent so much time in laying down rules and precepts 
unless he had thought they woidd be effective in the quest 
for the goal. 

At the top of each right hand page the chapter number 
and paragraph number of each Section are given. The figures 
in heavy type in square brackets in the body of the text refer 
to the page numbers of Oldenberg's Vinaya Pitakam, Volume I, 
and are placed so as to mark the end of each such page. 

I gratefully acknowledge the care and attention given by 
the Burleigh Press to the production of this volume. 

I. B. Horner. 
London, 

February, 195 1. 



CONTENTS 

Translator's Introduction ----- v 

MAHAVAGGA : 

I. The Great Section ------- i 

II. Observance -------- 130 

III. The Rains- -------- 183 

IV. Invitation --------- 208 

V. On Hides --------- 236 

VI. On Medicines -------- 269 

Vll. On Kathina -------- 351 

VIII. On Robe-Material ------- 379 

IX. On (the monks at) Campa ----- 446 

X. On (the monks of) Kosambi ----- 483 

INDEXES: 

1. Words and Subjects _--__- 515 

2. Names --------- 524 

3. Some Pali Words discussed in the Notes - - 527 

4. Abbreviations used in the Notes - - - - 528 



xxvii 



THE GREAT DIVISION (MAHAVAGGA) I 

Praise to the Lord, the Perfected One, the 
Fully Self-Awakened One. 

At one time* the awakened one, the Lord, being recently 
fully awakened, was staying at Univela on the bank of the 
river Neraiijara at the foot of the Tree of Awakening. ^ Then 
the Lord sat cross-legged in one (posture)' for seven days at 
the foot of the Tree of Awakening* experiencing the bliss of 
freedom.^ || i || 

Then the Lord during the first watch of the night paid 
attention to" causal uprising in direct and reverse order : 
conditioned by ignorance' are the habitual tendencies* ; 
conditioned by the habitual tendencies is consciousness* ; 
conditioned by consciousness is psycho-physicality^^^ ; con- 
ditioned by psycho-physicality are the six (sense-) spheres ; 
conditioned by the six (sense-) spheres is awareness*'^ ; con- 
ditioned by awareness is feeling; conditioned by feeling ^^ js 
craving ; conditioned by craving is grasping ; conditioned by 
grasping is becoming ; conditioned by becoming is birth ; 
conditioned by birth, old age and dying, grief, sorrow and 
lamentation, suffering, dejection and despair come into being. 

1 From here to the end of || 2. 3 || cf. Ud. p. 1-3. I largely follow translation 
at Ver. Uplift, which also see for notes. 

• bodhirukkha is the Bo-tree, ficus religiosa. VA. 952 says " bodhi is 
knowledge of the four ways ; the lord attained that awakening here, so the 
tree acquired the name of the tree of awakening." Cf. MA. iii. 326 and 

i. 54- 

' eka-pallankena. 

• bodhirukkhamule ; cf. bodhiya mUle at Pts. i. 174 = Nd. i. 458 ; and 
bodhimule at SnA. 32, 391. 

• vimuttisukha. 

• manasdkdsi, worked with the mind. 

' The " causal chain " occurs, with explanations of its terms, at S. ii. i ff. 
See also Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual, p. 76 ff. 

• sankhdra. 

" vinndna. See Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual, pp. 77, 150 ; Indian Religion 
and Survival, p. 66; Original Gospel, pp. 63, 112, 114; Dial, ii, 2nd edn.. 
Preface, p. ix. for tiie view that vinndpa has a meaning of " man as sur- 
viving." 

^° ndmarUpa, name and shape. 

^ ^ phassa, perhaps contact. It is the known or realised impingement of a 
sense-datum on its appropriate sense-organ. 

1* From here to " dejection and despair come into being", cf. D. i. 45. 



BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 



Such is the arising of this entire mass of ill. But from the 
utter fading away and stopping of this very ignorance (comes) 
the stopping of habitual tendencies ; from the stopping of 
habitual tendencies the stopping of consciousness ; from the 
stopping of consciousness^ the stopping of psycho-physicality ; 
from the stopping of psycho-physicaUty the stopping of the 
six (sense-) spheres ; from the stopping of the six (sense-) 
spheres the stopping of awareness ; from the stopping of 
awareness the stopping of feeling ; from the stopping of feeling 
the stopping of craving ; from the stopping of craving the 
stopping of grasping ; from the stopping of grasping the 
stopping of becoming ; from the stopping of becoming the 
stopping of birth ; from the stopping of birth, old age and 
dying, grief, sorrow and lamentation, suffering, dejection and 
despair are stopped. Such is the stopping of this entire mass 
of iU. II 2 II [1] 

Then the Lord, having understood this matter, at that time 
uttered this (solemn) utterance : 

" Truly, when things^ grow plain to the ardent meditating 
brahman. 
His doubts all vanish in that he comprehends thing-with- 
cause." II 3 || 

Then the Lord during the middle watch of the night paid 
attention to causal uprising in direct and reverse order : 
conditioned by ignorance are the habitual tendencies ; con- 
ditioned by the habitual tendencies is consciousness. . . . Such 
is the arising. . . . Such is the stopping of this entire mass 
ofiU. II 4 II 

Then the Lord, having understood this matter, at that time 
uttered this (solemn) utterance : 

" Truly, when things grow plain to the ardent meditating 
brahman. 
His doubts all vanish in that he discerns destruction of cause." 

II 5 II 

^ From here to the end of the paragraph c/. D. ii. 35. 

• dhamma. According to VA. 954-5 the (thirty-seven) things helpful 
to awakening and the four ariyan true things. These last are not necessarily 
the four truSis of ill, for see J. v. 56 (the four stations of mindfulness) and 
Min. Anth. I, Intr. p. li fi. But see also Pts. Contr., p. 118, n. i. This verse 
and the two following occur 3.t Kvu. 186. 



1.7—2.3] MAHAVAGGAI 3 

Then the Lord during the last watch of the night paid 
attention to causal uprising in direct and reverse order : 
conditioned by ignorance are the habitual tendencies ; con- 
ditioned by the habitual tendenceis is consciousness. . . . Such 
is the arising. . . . Such is the stopping of this entire mass 
ofiU. ||6|I 

Then the Lord, having understood this matter, at that time 
uttered this (solemn) utterance : 

" Truly, when things grow plain to the ardent meditating 
brahman. 
Routing the host of Mara does he stand 
Like as the sun when lighting up the sky." || 7 || 

Told is the Talk on Awakening.^ || 1 1| 



Then the Lord, having emerged from that contemplation at 
the end of seven days, approached the Goatherds' Banyan^ 
from the foot of the Tree of Awakening ; having approached, 
he sat cross-legged in one (posture) for seven days at the foot 
of the Goatherds' Banyan experiencing the bliss of 
freedom. || i || 

Then a certain brahman of the class uttering the sound 
hum^ approached the Lord ; having approached, he exchanged 
greetings with the Lord ; having exchanged greetings of 
friendliness and courtesy, he stood at a respectful distance. 
As he was standing at a respectful distance, that brahman 
[2] spoke thus to the Lord : "To what extent, good Gotama, 
does one become a brahman ? And again, what are the 
things which make a brahman* ? " || 2 || 

Then the Lord, having understood this matter, at that time 
uttered this (solemn) utterance : 



* This is probably an abbreviation for " Told is the Talk at the Tree 
of Awakening " : see titles of 2, 8 and 4. 

* Although UdA. 51 gives two more possible explanations for this name 
than VA. 957, both agree that goatherds used to come and sit in the shade 
of this tree. 

» huhuiikajcUiko brahmano. See JPTS, 1901, p. 42, and Ver. Uplift, 
p. 3, n. VA. 957 calls him one who believes in omens that are seen, 
ditthamangalika, and who walks about making (the sound) hum from arrogance 
and in anger. 

* brahmana-karana. Ud. 3 reads -kdrakd^ 



BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 



" That brahman who bars out evil things, not uttering the 
sound huw?-, with no impurity, curbed-of-self, 

Master of Vedas^, who Uves the Brahma-faring — this is the 
brahman who may rightly speak the Brahma-speech', 

Who has no blemishes* anywhere in the world ^." || 3 || 

Told is the Talk at the Goatherds'. || 2 || 

Then the Lord, at the end of seven days, having emerged 
from that contemplation, approached the MucaUnda (tree) 
from the foot of the Goatherds' Banyan ; having approached, 
he sat cross-legged in one (posture) for seven days at the foot 
of the Mucalinda experiencing the bUss of freedom. || i || 

Now at that time^ a great storm arose out of due season, 
for seven days there was rainy weather, cold winds and overcast 
skies. Then Mucalinda, the serpent king, having come forth 
from his own haunt, having encircled the Lord's body seven 
times with his coils, having spread a great hood over his head, 
stood saying : " Let no cold (annoy) the Lord, let no heat 
(annoy) the Lord, let not the touch of flies, mosquitoes, wind 
and heat or creeping things (annoy) the Lord." || 2 i| 

Then Mucalinda, the serpent king, at the end of those' 
seven days, having known that the sky^ was clear and without 
a cloud, having imwoimd his coils from the Lord's body, having 
given up his own form and assumed a youth's form, stood 
in front of the Lord honouring the Lord with joined palms. || 3 || 

Then the Lord, having understood this matter, at that time 
uttered this (solemn) utterance : 

1 nihuhunka. He is to give up having confidence in his superstitious 
omens and formulae, and to believe instead in the new teaching. " Brahman " 
came to mean, in this, the best and highest kind of man. 

* veddntagii, as at Sn. 463. VA . 958 says there has been a going either to the 
end by means of the " lores " {vedas), those called the knowledge of the 
four ways, or to the end of the three Vedas. 

' dhammena so brdhmano brahmavadam vadeyya. VA. 958 = UdA. 55 
take this to mean he can rightly say " I am a brahman". Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
Manual, p. 85, translates brahmavada by " Brahma-faith ", with a note, 
p. 84, that vdda is equally to be rendered by -cult or -teaching. 

* ussdda, prominence, excresence ; conceit, arrogance. VA. 958 = UdA. 
55 give five: passion, hatred, stupidity, pride, false view. SnA. ii. 521 
gives seven, enumerated at SnA. ii. 425 as the five of VA. and UdA. with 
the addition of the obstructions and wrong conduct. See my Early Buddhist 
Theory of Man Perfected, p. 262 and p. 265, n. 2. 

* This verse occurs at Ud. p. 3, Netti. 150. Last line = last line of Sn. 783. 

* l|2|| to II4II = Ud. II. I, Mucalindavagga ; verses quoted Kvu. 212, 
see Pts. Contr., 129, n. 3, for further references. 

' tassa, omitted at Vin. i. 3, but found at Ud. 10. 
' deva. 



8.4—4.4] MAHAVAGGA I 5 

" Happy his solitude who glad at heart 
Hath dhamma leamt and doth the vision see ! 
Happy is that benignity towards 
The world which on no creature worketh harm. 
Happy the absence of all lust, th' ascent 
Past and beyond the needs of sense-desires. 
He who doth crush the great * I am ' conceit — 
This, truly this, is happiness supreme." || 4 || 

Told is the Talk at the Mucalinda. || 3 J| 

Then the Lord, at the end of seven dajTS, having emerged 
from that contemplation, approached the Raj^yatana^ from 
the foot of the Mucalinda ; having approached, he sat cross- 
legged in one (posture) for seven day« at the foot of the 
Raj^yatana experiencing the bUss of freedom. || i || 

Now [3] at that time^ the merchants Tapussa* and Bhallika' 
were going along the high-road from Ukkala to that district.* 
Then a devatd who was a blood-relation of the merchants 
Tapussa and Bhallika spoke thus to the merchants Tapussa 
and Bhallika : " My good fellows, this Lord, having just 
(become) wholly awakened, is staying at the foot of the 
Raj3.yatana, go and serve that Lord with, barley-gruel* and 
honey-balls, and this will be a blessing and happiness for you 
for a long time." || 2 || 

Then the merchants Taf>ussa and Bhallika, taking barley- 
gruel and honey-balls, approached the Lord ; having 
approached, having greeted the Lord, they stood at a respect- 
ful distance. As they were standing at a respectful distance, 
the merchants Tapussa and BhalHka spoke thus to the Lord : 
" Lord, let the Lord receive our barley-gruel and honey-balls, 
that this may be a blessing and happiness for us for a long 
time." II 3 II 

Then it occurred to the Lord : " Truth-finders* do not 

^ Name of a tree. Called by Mrs. Rhys Davids, ManucU, p. 80, " Kingstead 
tree." See Vin. Texts, i. 8i, n. 
« Cf. Ja. I 80 f. 

• Chief of the disciples who first came for refuge, A. i. 26; included in 
a list of eminent householders and upasakas at ^. iii. 450-1. Bhalliy(k)a 
has a verse at Thag. 7, while ThagA . 50 gives in outline the story of their 
ministering to the Lord. 

• According to VA. 959, the Middle District (or Country) where the Lord 
was staying. 

' mantha, defined at Vin. iv. 80, see B.D. ii. 324. 

• Fur. Dial. i. 118, n. 4, claims that " the first use of the term TathSgata 
in the Buddha's life-history " occurs at M, i. 168. 



BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 



receive with their hands. Now with what shall I receive 
the barley-gruel and honey-balls ? " Then the four Great 
Kings, knowing with their minds the reasoning in the Lord's 
mind, from the four quarters presented the Lord with four 
bowls made of rock crystal, saying : " Lord, let the Lord 
receive the barley-gruel and honey-baUs herein." The Lord 
received the barley-gruel and the honey-balls in a new* bowl 
made of rock crjrstal, and having received them he partook 
of them. II 4 II 

Then the merchants Tapussa and Bhallika, having found 
that the Lord had removed his hand from the bowl, having 
inclined their heads towards the Lord's feet, spoke thus to 
the Lord : " We, Lord, are those going to the Lord for refuge 
and to dhamma ; let the Lord accept us as lay-disciples gone 
for refuge for life from this day forth." Thus these came to be 
the first lay-disciples in the world using the two-word 
formula.* || 5 || 

Told is the Talk at the Rajiyatana. || 4 1| 

Then the Lord, having emerged from that contemplation 
at the end of seven days, approached the Goatherds' Banyan 
from the foot of the Rajiyatana ; having approached, the 
Lord stayed there at the foot of the Goatherds' Banyan, jj i || 

Then as the Lord was meditating in seclusion a reasoning 
arose in his mind thus :' " This dhamma, won to by me, is 
deep, dijB5cult to see, difficult to understand, peaceful, excellent, 
beyond dialectic, subtle, intelligible to the learned.* But 
this is a creation delighting in sensual pleasure,* delighted by 
sensual pleasure, rejoicing in sensual pleasure. So that for a 
creation delighting in sensual pleasure, delighted by sensual 
pleasure, rejoicing in sensual pleasure, this were a matter 
difficult to see, [4] that is to say causal uprising by way of 

* paccagghe. VA. 960 says this usually means very costly ; but it can 
mean, as here, quite new and quite hot (abbhufiha), produced at that very 
moment. 

• dvevdcikd, i.e. bhagavd (and not, as at some time became usual, bttddha) 
and dhamma, there being at that time no samgha, 

» For the Great Hesitation, cf. S. i. 136, D. ii. 36, M. i. 167, and see K.S. 
L 171, Dial. ii. 29 f. and Fur. Dial, i 118 for notes. See also Mrs. Rhys 
Davids, Manual, p. 73 H. 

* Quoted at BudvA. 9. 

• alaya, what is clung to, " habit." But VA. 961 = MA. iL 174 explain 
by the five strands of sense-pleasure. 



5.2-6] MAHAVAGGAI 7 

cause. This too were a matter very difficult to see,^ that 
is to say the calming of all the habitual tendencies, the renun- 
ciation of all attachment, the destruction of craving, dispassion, 
stopping, nirvana. And so if I were to teach dhamma and 
others were not to understand me, this would be a weariness 
to me, this would be a vexation to me." || 2 || 

And further, these verses not heard before in the past 
occurred spontaneously to the Lord : 

" This that through many toils I've won — 
Enough ! Why should I make it known ? 
By folk with lust and hate consumed 
This dhamma is not imderstood.^ 
Leading on against the stream', 
Subtle, deep, difficult to see, deUcate, 
Unseen 'twill be by passion's slaves 
Cloaked in the murk of ignorance."* || 3 H 

In such wise, as the Lord pondered, his mind inclined to 
little effort^ and not to teaching dhamma. Then it occurred 
to Brahma Sahampati,* knowing with his mind the reasoning 
in the Lord's mind : " Alas,' the world is lost,^ alas, the world 
is destroyed, inasmuch as the mind of the Truth-finder, the 
perfected one, the fuUy awakened one, inclines to little effort 
and not to teaching dhamma." || 4 || 

Then as a strong man might stretch forth his bent arm or 
might bend back his outstretched arm, even so did Brahma 
Sahampati, vanishing from the Brahma-world, become mani- 
fest before the Lord. » |j 5 || 

Then Brahma Sahampati, having arranged his upper robe 

1 sududdasa, as at Dh. 36. 

* Cf. Sn. 764. 

* patisotagamin, against the stream up to the source (nibbS.na), not with the 
stream, for that leads to dangerous whirlpools and waves in a pool (here in 
an unfavoiurable sense) lower down. VA. 962 says that patisota is called 
nibbana. A stream can be a River of Life or a River of Death, according 
as to whether one goes against the current, striving with hands and feet, 
or with the current. Cf. Lamotte, vol. I, p. 59, n. i. 

* This translation follows that at Dial. ii. 30, with the important exception 
that patisotagamin is not " against the stream of common thought." Verse 
also found at M. i. 168, D. ii. 38, S. i. 136 ; Mahdvastu iii. 314, Lalitavistara, 
ed. Lefmann, p. 397. 

^ appossukhatd, indifference, "rest quiet" {Fur. Dial. i.ii8), "to be 
averse from exertion " (K.S. i.173), " to remain quiet " [Vin. Texts, i.85). 

* A Great Brahma. 
' vata bho. 

' Quoted BudvA. 10. 

» For this paragraph and the beginning of the next, see A. ii. 21, 



8 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

over one shoulder, having stooped his right knee to the ground, 
having saluted the Lord with joined palms, spoke thus to the 
Lord : " Lord, let the Lord teach dhamma, let the Well-farer 
teach dhamma ; there are beings with little dust in their eyes 
who, not hearing dhamma, are decaying, (but if) they are 
learners of dhamma, they will grow."^ || 6 || 

Thus spoke Brahma Sahampati ; having said this, he 
further spoke thus :* 

" There has appeared in Magadha before thee 
An unclean dhamma by impure minds devised. 
Open this door of deathlessness, let' them hear 
Dhamma awakened to by the stainless one. 
As on a crag on crest of mountain standing 
A man might watch the people far below. 
E'en so do thou, O Wisdom fair, ascending, 
O Seer of all, the terraced heights of truth,* [5] 
Look down, from grief released, upon the peoples 
Sunken in grief, oppressed with birth and age. 
Arise, thou hero ! Conqueror in the battle ! 
Thou freed from debt ! Man of the caravan ! 
Walk the world over, let the Blessed One 
Teach dhamma. They who learn will grow."* || 7 || 

When he had spoken thus, the Lord spoke thus to Brahma 
Sahampati : " Brahma, it occurred to me : ' This dhamma 
penetrated by me is deep . . . that would be a vexation to me.' 
And further, Brahma, these verses not heard before in the 
past occurred spontaneously to me : ' This that through many 
toils I've won . . . cloaked in the murk of ignorance.' In 
such wise, Brahma, as I pondered, my mind inclined to Uttle 
effort and not to teaching dhamma." \\ 8 || 

Then a second time did Brahma Sahampati speak thus to 
the Lord : " Lord, let the Lord teach dhamma ... if they are 

^ Quoted BudvA. lo. See Mrs. Rhys Davids, Dial. ii. 2 nd edn. Preface, 
xii. Also her Note to Gotama the Man (added in 1938) where she says, " The 
only rational translation (of aiindtdro bhavissanti) is that ' they who come 
to know (i.e. the dhamma you should teach), wiU come to be, will become', 
that is will grow. Thus rendered the last clause balances the opposed clause, 
that men are in a decline." 

* As at M. i, 168, S. i. 137 ; quoted BudvA. 10. For references to parallel 
Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan Texts, see Lamotte, TraiU de la Grands Vertu 
de Sagesse, vol. I, p. 57, n. i, 

• To end of this verse = Sn. 384. 

* dhammamaya p&sada ; cf. paHnapasada at Dhp. 28. 

• Second part of verses taken fronti Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual, p. 82. 
The Dlgha version omits tiie first four lines. Last four lines at 5. i. 234. 



5.9-12] MAHAVAGGA I 9 

learners of dhamma, they will grow." Then a second time did' 
the Lord speak thus to Brahma Sahampati : " But, Brahma, 
it occurred to me : . . . my mind inclined to little effort and 
and not to teaching dhamma." \\ g \\ 

Then a third time did Brahma Sahampati speak thus to the 
Lord : " Lord, let the Lord teach dhamma ... if they are 
learners of dhamma, they will grow." Then the Lord, having 
understood Brahma's entreaty and, out of compassion for 
beings, surveyed the world with the eye of an awakened one. 
As the Lord was surveying the world with the eye of an awak- 
ened one, he saw beings with little dust in their eyes, with 
much dust in their eyes, with acute faculties, with dull faculties, 
of good dispositions, of bad dispositions, docile, indocile, few 
seeing fear in sins and the worlds beyond.^ II lo II 

Even as in^ a pond of blue lotuses or in a pond of red lotuses 
or in a pond of white lotuses, a few blue or red or white lotuses 
are bom in the water, grow in the water, do not rise above the 
water but thrive while altogether immersed ; a few blue or 
red or white lotuses are born in the water, grow in the water 
and reach to the surface of the water ; a few blue or red or 
white lotuses are bom in the water, grow in the water, and 
stand up rising out of the water, undefiled by the water. — 1| ii || 

Even so, did the Lord, surveying the world with the eye 
of an awakened one, see beings with little dust in their eyes, 
with much dust in their eyes, [6] with acute faculties, with 
dull faculties, of good dispositions, of bad dispositions, docile, 
indocile, few seeing fear in sins and the worlds beyond. Seeing 
Brahma Sahampati, he addressed him with verses : 

"Open for those who hear are the doors of deathlessness' ; 
let them renounce their faith*. 
Thinking of useless fatigue, I have not preached, Brahma, the 
sublime and excellent dhamma to men^." 11 12 II 



^ paralokavajjabhayadassdvino, VA. 963 saying that these are those 
who see by fear (bhayato) the world{s) beyond and sin. 
" Cf. D. i. 75, M. iii. 93. 5. i. 138. 

* VA. 963 CEills this " tile noble Way", ariyamagga. The " quest" in 
folklore and in the great religious traditions aiike is for immortality, the 
undying. Early Buddhism is in line with these traditions. 

* saddhd must refer to their (own, VA. 963) present wrong beliefs. 

* Verse also at D. ii. 39, M. i. 169, S. i. 138 ; and cf. Mahdvastu iii. 319 ; 
Lalitavistara, p. 400. See discussion on some of the expressions found in the 
verse by Lamotte, vol. I, p. 60, n. i. 



10 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Then Brahma Sahampati, thinking : "The opportunity was 
made by me for the Lord to teach dhamma,"^ greeting the 
Lord, keeping his right side towards him, vanished then and 
there.* ||i3ll 

Told is the Talk on Brahma's Entreaty. || 5 || 

Then it occurred to the Lord : " Now, to whom should I 
first teach dhamma ? Who will understand this dhamma 
quickly ? " Then it occurred to the Lord : " Indeed, this 
Alaxa the Kalama^ is learned, experienced, wise, and for a 
long time has had little dust in his eyes. Suppose I were 
to teach dhamma first to Alaxa the Kalama ? He will under- 
stand this dhamma quickly." || i [| 

But then an invisible devatd announced to the Lord : " Lord, 
Alara the Kalama passed away seven days ago." And the 
knowledge arose to the Lord that Alara the Kalama had passed 
away seven days ago. Then it occurred to the Lord : " Alara 
the Kalama was of great intelligence. If he had heard this 
dhamma, he would have understood it quickly." || 2 || 

Then it occurred to the Lord : " Now, to whom should I 
first teach dhamma ? Who wiU understand this dhamma. 
quickly ? " Then it occurred to the Lord : " Indeed, this 
Uddaka, Rama's son,* is learned, experienced, wise, and for a 
long time has had little dust in his eyes. Suppose I were 
to teach dhamma first to Uddaka, Rama's son ? He will 
understand this dhamma quickly." |1 3 || 

But then an invisible devatd announced to the Lord : " Lord, 
Uddaka, Rama's son, passed away last night." And the 
knowledge arose to the Lord that Uddaka, Rama's son, had 
passed away last night. Then it occurred to the Lord : 
" Uddaka, Rama's son, was of great intelligence. If he had 

* From the beginning of the verses to here is quoted at BudvA. i8. 

• tatth' eva can mean " as before " ; if it does so here, it would mean by 
the same method of vanishing from the Brahma-world as in || 5 1| above. 

• The teacher to whom, according to the biographical record (also preserved 
in the Ariyapariyesana Sutta, M. Sta. 26), Gotama first went for instruction 
after he had gone forth (from home into homelessness). 

* According to the same account, the teacher to whom Gotama went 
next when he had mastered Alara's teaching. See Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual, 
57 ff. for some remarks on both these teachers, and E. J. Thomas, Life of 
Buddha, 184. Miln. 236 says that Alara and Uddaka were Gotama's fourth 
and fifth teachers ; and ThigA. 2 that he went first to Bhaggava (not men- 
tioned at Miln. 236). 



6.4-8] MAHAVAGGAI ii 

heard this dhamma, he would have understood it quickly." 

II 4 II 

Then it occurred to the Lord : " Now, to whom should I 
first teach dhamma ? Who [7] will understand this dhamma 
quickly ? " Then it occurred to the Lord : " That group of 
five monks^ who waited on me when I was self-resolute in 
striving^ were very helpful. Suppose I were to teach dhamma 
first to the group of five monks ? " || 5 || 

Then it occurred to the Lord : " But where is this group of 
five monks staying at present P^ Then the Lord with deva- 
vision, purified and surpassing that of men, saw the group of 
five monks staying near Bpnares at Isipatana in the deer- 
park. Then the Lord, having stayed at Uruvela for as long 
as he found suiting, set out on tour for Benares. || 6 || 

Upaka, a Naked Ascetic,* saw the Lord going along the 
highroad between Gay a and the (Tree of) Awakening ; seeing 
him, h€! spoke thus to the Lord : " Your reverence, your 
sense-organs are quite pure, your complexion very bright, 
very clear. On account of whom have you, your reverence, 
gone forth, or who is your teacher, or whose dhamma do you 
profess ? " II 7 II 

When this had been said, the Lord addressed Upaka, the 
Naked Ascetic, in verses :* 

" Victorious over all, omniscient am I, 
Among aU things undefiled. 
Leaving all, through death of craving freed. 
By knowing for myself, whom should I follow ?' 

For me there is no teacher. 
One like me does not exist. 
In the world with its devas 
No one equals me.' 



^ Afina-Koi;idanna, Bhaddiya, Vappa, Mahanama, Assaji, as below 6, 31 
ff. See DPPN ; Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual, 62 f. ; and " Unknown Co- 
founders of Buddhism", JRAS. 1927. 

' padhdnapakitattam. 

» Quoted at BudvA. 18. 

* ajivika, " man of the livelihood ", Bud. Ind., p. 143. At Divy. 393 
Upaka appears to be called Upaganena. 

' Verses also at Af , L 171 ; quoted at Kvu. 289 ; ThigA. 220. 

• This verse = Dh. 353. 

' This verse is quoted at Miln. 235. Cf. also Mahavastu liL 326. 



12 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

For I am perfected in the world. 
The teacher supreme am 1/ 
I alone am all-awakened,* 
Become cool am I, nirvana-attained. 

To turn the dhamma-wheel 

I go to Kasi's city. 

Beating the drmn of deathlessness 

In a world that's blind become." || 8 || 

" According to what you claim, your reverence, you ought 
to be' victor of the unending* " (Upaka said). 

" Like me, they are victors indeed. 
Who have won to destruction of the cankers ; 
Vanquished by me are evil things. 
Therefore am I, Upaka, a victor. "^ 

When this had been said, Upaka, the Naked Ascetic, having 
said, "It may be (so),* your reverence," having shaken his 
head,' went off taking a different road. || 9 || 

1 Cf. Sn. 179. 

* Or, " I am unique, the all-awakened." 

• arah' asi, also meaning " you deserve to be, are worthy or fit to be ". 
There is also the reading arahd asi, as at Kvu. 289, and see Pss. Sisters, 129 f. 

* anantajina. VA. 964 merely says " You are set on becoming a victor 
of the unending." Ananta, the unending, may refer to dhamma, also to 
nibbana. 

» This verse and Upaka's remarks are quoted at Kvu. 289. 

• hupeyya. M. i. 171, SnA. 258, TkigA. 220 read huveyya (which is 
interchangeable with hupeyya). It is a dialectical form of bhaveyya. According 
to B. M. Barua, The Ajlvikas, p. 50, it is an expression found in the " Ajivika 
language " and " is not a recognised Pali word." He translates " perhaps 
it may be so," Oldenberg " it may be so," Chalmers, preserving the patois, 
" mebbe ", E. J. Thomas, The Life of Buddha, p. 83, " would that it might 
be so ", DPPN (under Upaka) " it may be so " ; while Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
To Become or not to Become, p. 85, would prefer " may he become ", the 
" he " referring to the man, everyman, to whom Gotama was prepared to 
teach his message. She suggests that he will have rehearsed this message 
to Upaka, and maintains that what has survived — " a glaringly imperfect 
misrepresentation " — makes omission and glossing all but certain. 

» I think that as the text stands, had Upaka been convinced or even 
interested he would not have departed by a different road {ummagga, also 
meaning the wrong road). It is perhaps odd that this episode, if it shows 
disagreement, is presumed to have occurred at the beginning of Gotama's 
ministry. But it may be included to emphasize his determination to preach 
first of all to the " five " in accordance with his decision ; or to show that 
Upaka spoke somewhat as a prophet — in the " key ", below, p. 127, he is 
C£dled Upako isi, Upaka the seer. According to ThigA. 220 f., when Upaka 
was an old man, tormented by his wife's gibes, he sought Gotama and went 



6.IO-I2] MAHAVAGGA I 13 

Then the Lord, walking on tour, in due course approached 
Benares, the deer-park of Isipatana, the group of five monks. 
The group of five monks saw the Lord coming in the distance ; 
seeing him, they agreed among themselves, saying : " Your 
reverences, this recluse Gotama is coming, he lives in abundance, 
[8] he is wavering in his striving, he has reverted to a life of 
abundance.^ He should neither be greeted, nor stood up for, 
nor should his bowl and robe be received ; all the same a seat 
may be put out, he can sit down if he wants to." || 10 || 

But as the Lord gradually approached this group of 
five monks, so this group of five monks, not adhering to their 
own agreement; having gone towards the Lord, one received 
his bowl and robe, one made ready a seat, one brought water 
for washing the feet, a foot-stool, a foot-stand. ^ The Lord 
sat down on the seat made ready, and the Lord, while he was 
sitting down, washed his feet.' Further, they addressed the 
Lord by name and with the epithet of " your reverence."* 

Hull 

When this had been said, the Lord spoke thus to the group 
of five monks : " Do not, monks, address a Truthfinder by 
name, and with the epithet ' your reverence '. A Truthfinder, 
monks, is a perfected one, a fully awakened one. Give ear, 
monks, the deathless has been found ; / instruct, / teach 
dhamma. Going along in accordance with what has been 
enjoined, having soon realised here and now by your own 
super-knowledge that supreme goal of the Brahma-faring^ for 
the sake of which young men of family rightly go forth from 
home into homelessness, you will abide in it." || 12 || 

forth into homelessness ; he then soon attained the stage of non-returning 
and died. From this account it does not appear that he had had any great 
urge earlier to -become one of Gotama' s disciples. 

In the translation above I have put a slight bias on three words, each 
of which admits of more than one rendering, so as to mark consistently what 
seems to me to be Upaka's apparent failure to be convinced : (i) arahasi = (a) 
you ought to be (slightly contemptuous), (b) you are worthy to be (respectful) ; 
(2) huveyya, discussed in preceding note ; (3) slsam okampetvd, having shaken 
his head. Okampeti may mean, according to FED, both to wag and to 
shake. Indians shake their heads from side to side to show disagreement, 
but wag them up and down to show agreement. 

1 bahulla. As Mrs, Rhys Davids observes. Manual, 69, this means literally 
"muchness", VA. 964 taking it to mean abundance of robes, etc. 

• Cf. Vin. iv. 231, 310 ; see B.D. iii. 191. 

• As at M. ii. 139. 

• avusovddena. 

' At M. i. 197, 201, this goal is said to be unshakeable freedom of mind. 



14 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

When this had been said, the group of five monks spoke 
thus to the Lord : " But you, reverend Gotama, did not come 
to a state of further-men,^ to the eminence of truly ariyan 
vision of knowledge, by this conduct, by this course, by this 
practice of austerities. So how can you now come to a state 
of further-men, to the eminence of the truly ariyan, vision 
of knowledge, when you Hve in abundance, are wavering in 
striving, and have reverted to a life of abundance ? " || 13 || 

When this had been said, the Lord spoke thus to the group 
of five monks : "A Truthfinder, monks, does not live in abund- 
ance, he does not waver in striving, he does not revert to a life 
of abundance. A Truthfinder, monks, is a perfected one, a fully 
awakened one. Give ear, monks, the deathless has been 
found ; / instruct, / teach dhamma. Going along in accordance 
with what has been enjoined, having soon realised here 2ind 
now by your own super-knowledge that supreme goal of the 
Brahma-faring for the sake of which young men of family 
rightly go forth from home into homelessness, you will abide 
in it." II 14 II 

And a second time did the group of five monks speak thus 
to the Lord. . . . And a second time did the Lord speak thus 
to the group of five monks. . . . And a third time did the 
group of five monks speak thus to the Lord : [9] " But you, 
reverend Gotama, did not come to a state of further-men . . . 
by this practice of austerities ... to a life of abundance ? " 

II 151! 

When this had been said, the Lord spoke thus to the group 
of five monks : "Do you allow, monks, that I have never 
spoken^ to you like this before ? " 

" You have not. Lord." 

" A Truthfinder, monks, is a perfected one, a fully awakened 
one. Give ear . . . you will abide in it." And the Lord 
was able to convince the group of five monks.' Then the 
group of five monks listened to the Lord again, gave ear to 
him and aroused their minds for profound knowledge.* 
II 16 II 

1 Cf. Defeat IV (and see B.D. i. Intr. xxiv). 

* bhdsitatfi. M. i. 172 reads vabbhacitatfi. VA. 965 and MA. u. 191 explain 
by vdkyabhsdatft. 

• From here the Majjkima version diverges. 

« arliidcittat}t upafthdpesuift ; cf. D. i, 230, 231. 



6.17, i8] M A H A V A G G A I 15 

Then^ the Lord addressed the group of five monks, saying : 
"These^ two (dead) ends,' monks, should not be followed 
by one who has gone forth. Which two ? That which is, 
among sense-pleasures, addiction to attractive sense-pleasures, 
low, of the villager,* of the average man,^ unariyan, not con- 
nected with the goal*; and that which is addiction to self- 
torment, ill, unariyan, not connected with the goal. Now, 
monks, without adopting either of these two (dead) ends, 
there is a middle course, fully awakened to by the Truthfinder, 
making for vision,' making for knowledge, which conduces 
to calming,* to super-knowledge,* to awakening, ^° to 
nirvana. || 17 || 

" And what, monks, is this middle course fully awakened to 
by the Truthfinder, making for vision, making for knowledge, 
which conduces to calming, to super-knowledge, to awakening, 
to nirvana ? It is this ariyan eightfold Way itself, that is 
to say : right view, right thought, right speech, right action, 
right mode of Uving, right endeavour, right mindfulness, right 
concentration. 1^ This, monks, is the middle course, fuUy 
awakened to by the Truthfinder, making for vision, making 



1 C/. S. V. 420. 

* See Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual, p. 109 for a literal translation of the 
First Utterance, and a discussion of many of its terms ; also E. J. Thomas, 
Life of Buddha, p. 87. This Utterance given at 5. iv. 330, v. 420, and the 
" middle course " part of it at M. i. 15, to whose Corny. {MA. i. 104 f.) VA. 
965 refers. 

' anta is end, then contrast, extreme, opposite, side. See Manual, p. 118, 
for discussion of the meaning. SA. hi. 297 explains by kotthdsd, parts, 
divisions. MA. i. 104 says " the Way does not lead to, does not approach 
these sides, it is freed from these sides, therefore it is called the middle course." 
The " mean " between two extremes also found at S. ii. 17, 20, 61, iii. 135. 

• gammo. Another debatable term. I follow SA. iii. 297 {cf. A A. iii. 360) 
whose explanation is gdma-vdslnam santako, belonging to village dwellers ; 
meaning I think more " common " than " pagan ", by both of which it has 
been rendered. " Boorish " would be better. 

• pothujjaniko, ordinary, of the many-folk, the " blind " and fools. 

• anatthasamhita, defined at MA. iii. no as na vu^dhinissita, not bent on 
growth. 

' According to MA. i. 104 vision of the knowledge of the truths. 

• Of passion, etc., MA. i. 104, AA. Hi. 360 ; of the corruptions, SA. iii. 297. 

• abhinnd, of the four truths, MA. and SA. 

^^ MA. i. 104 says that awakening is the Way, sambodho ti maggo. 

*^ A. K. Coomaraswamy, Hinduism and Buddhism, p. 69 uses "composure" 
for samddhi, and elsewhere " synthesis." MA. i. 105 gives the interpretations 
which the Ancients, porana, used to put upon the eight " fitnesses " of the 
Way : " the way of insight is right view, the way of thorough furthering, 
abhiniropana, is right thought, the way of equanimity is right concentration." 
The gaps may be filled up from what follows at MA. i. 105. 



i6 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

for knowledge, which conduces to calming, to super-knowledge, 
to awakening, to nirvana. || i8 || 

" And this, monks, is the ariyan truth of ill : birth is ill, and 
old age is ill and disease is ill and dying is ill, association with 
what is not dear is ill, separation from what is dear is iU, not 
getting what one wants is ill — ^in short the five groups of 
grasping are ill. || 19 || 

" And this, monks, is the ariyan truth of the uprising of ill :* 
that which is craving connected with again-becoming, accom- 
panied by delight and passion, finding deUght in this and that, 
that is to say : craving for sense-pleasures, craving for becom- 
ing, craving for de-becoming. ^ || 20 || 

" And this, monks, is the ariyan truth of the stopping of ill : 
the utter and passionless stopping of that very craving, 
its renunciation, surrender, release, the lack of pleasure in 
it.3 II 21 II 

" And this, monks, is the ariyan truth of the course leading 
to the stopping of ill* : this aryan eightfold Way itself, that 
is to say : right view . . . right concentration. || 22 || [10] 

On thinking, ' This is the ariyan truth of ill ', among things 
not heard before by me, monks, vision arose, knowledge^ 
arose, wisdom' arose, higher knowledge' arose, light arose. 
On thinking, ' Now that which is the ariyan truth of ill must 
be completely known ' . . . - Now that which is the ariyan 
truth of ill is completely known ', among things not heard 
before by me, monks, vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom 
arose, higher knowledge arose, light arose. || 23 || 

" On thinking, ' This is the ariyan truth of the uprising of 
ill ' . . . light arose. On thinking, ' Now that which is this 

^ This paragraph is debated at Kvu. 488-489, 

* vi-bhava, meanings ascribed : (i) wealth, property, prosperity ; (2) non- 
becoming, ceasing (although there is the word a-bhava) ; (3) more becoming, 
more birtiis. Fur. Dial. i. 214 " annihilation." See also Dial. ii. 340, n. 
I think it means, with tanhd. craving or thirst, the longing for sensations 
to come and go, rise and fall. Et. Lamotte, Le Traits de la Grande Vertu de 
Sagesse, vol. I, p. 3, n. 4, translates these three cravings {tat^hd) as cravings 
for piaisir, existence, impermanence. 

» andlaya. On dlaya, pleasure (clinging, abode, habit) see above, p. 6. 
Fur. Dial. i. 214 " ejection ", iii. 298 " aversion from." SA. iii 112 defines 
it in connection with kama, 

* The " four truths of ill " are cited at Kvu. 290. 

• Haxia. 

• pa^aaa. 

' vijja. We have nothing in English corresponding to the number of 
Pali words for " knowledge." 



6.24-30] MAHAVAGGA I 17 

ariyan truth of the uprising of ill must be given up '^ . . . 
' ... is given up ' . . . light arose. |1 24 I| 

" On thinking, ' This is the ariyan truth of the stopping of 
ill ' . . . light arose. On thinking, ' Now that which is this 
ariyan truth of the stopping of ill must be reaUsed ' . . . 
' ... is realised ' . . . light arose. || 25 || 

" On thinking, ' This is the ariyan truth of the course going 
to the stopping of ill ' . . . light arose. On thinking, ' Now 
that which is this ariyan truth of the course leading to the 
stopping of ill must be made to become '...'.... is made 
to become ' . . . light arose. || 26 || 

" And so long, monks, the vision of knowledge of these four 
ariyan truths, with the three sections and twelve modes^ as 
they really are, was not well purified by me, so long was I, 
monks, not thoroughly awakened with the supreme full 
awakening as to the world with its devas, with its Mar-as, with 
its Brahmas, with its recluses and brahmans, its creatures 
with devas and men. This I knew. || 27 || 

" But when, monks, the vision of knowledge of these four 
ariyan truths, with the three sections and twelve modes as 
they really are, was well purified by me, then was I, monks, 
thoroughly awakened with the supreme full awakening as to 
the world . . . with its recluses and brahmans, its creatures 
with devas and men. This I knew. || 28 || 

" Moreover, the vision of knowledge arose in me : ' Freedom 
of mind is for me unshakeable, this the last birth, there is not 
now again-becoming. '^ " Thus spoke the Lord ; delighted, 
the group of five monks rejoiced in the Lord's utterance. 
Moreover, while this discourse* was being uttered, dhamma- 
vision, dustless, stainless, arose to the venerable Kon^anfia 
that " whatever is of the nature to uprise, all that is of the 
nature to stop." || 29 || 

And when the Lord had rolled the dhamma-yfhiiei, the earth 
devas made this soimd heard' : [11] " The supreme dhamma- 
wheel rolled thus by the Lord at Benares in the deer-park at 

• I.e. the craving or thirst (tain.ha) which leads to the uprising of ill must 
be given up. 

• Each of the four truths is treated as (i) a truth which (2) must be in 
some way responded to, and which (3) has been in that way responded to. 

• One of the formulae of arahanship. 

« veyydkoraxLa, called at DA. 130 a sutta (discourse) without verses. 
» Cf. Vin. iii. 18-19 {B.D. i. 33). 



i8 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Isipatana cannot be rolled back by a recluse or brahmin or 
deva or by Mara or by Brahma or by anyone in the world." 
Having heard the sound of the earth devas, the devas of the 
Four Great Kings^ made this sound heard . . . the Thirty 
devas . . . Yama's devas . . . the Happy devas . . . the devas 
who delight in creation . . . the devas who delight in the creation 
of others . . . the devas of Brahma's retinue made this sound 
heard : " The supreme dhamma-wheel rolled thus by the Lord 
at Benares in the deer-park at Isipatana cannot be rolled back 
by a recluse or brahmin or deva or by Mara or by Br£ihma or 
by anyone in the world." || 30 I| 

In this wise in that moment, in that second, in that instant, 
the sound reached as far as the Brahma-world, and the ten 
thousandfold world-system^ trembled, quaked, shook violently 
and a radiance, splendid, measureless, surpassing the devas' 
own glory,* was manifest in the world. Then the Lord uttered 
this solemn utterance : " Indeed, Kon^aiiiia has understood, 
indeed, Kondaiiiia has understood." Thus it was that 
Afinata Kondaiiiia* became the venerable Kon^aiiiia's name. ^ 

l!3i|! 

Then the venerable Aiiiiata Kondaiiiia, having seen dhamma, * 
attained dhamma,^ known dhamma,^ plunged into dhamma, 
having crossedover doubt, having put away uncertainty, having 
attained without another's help to full confidence in the 
teacher's instruction,' spoke thus to the Lord : " May I, 
Lord, receive the going forth^ in the Lord's presence, may I 
receive ordination ?' " 

" Come, monk^*'," the Lord said, " well taught is dhamma 

^ I.e. the Regents of the four quarters. A longer list of devas is to be 
found at M. i. 289. ^ Cf. A. i. 227. 

' devdnam devdnuhhavam, cf. D. ii. 12, M. iii. 120. 

• annata meaning " who has understood ". He is often called Anna 
Kondaniia. At ^. i. 23 he is called " foremost of the disciples of long stand- 
ing." Verses at Thag. 673-88. For view that Anna was his personal name, 
see Mrs. Rhys Davids, Gotama the Man, p. 102, G.S. i. 16. n. 2. Verses of 
Uplift {S.B.B. VIII). p. 93, n. i. See too UdA. 371, Pss. Breth. p. 284. 

' Samyutta account breaiks off here. 

• Quoted BudvA. 13, the last two in reverse order. 
' Cf. D. i. no, 148; A. iv. 186; M. i. 234, 501. 

• pabbajjd. • upasampadd. 

*o The first time that this, thought to be the oldest formula for leave to 
become a disciple of Gotama's. is used in the Vinaya. The Order was not 
as yet in existence, and the ordination regulations were neither appointed 
nor was ordination separated by a period of probation from the time of a 
disciple's " going forth", pabbajjd, from home, or the household life, into 
homelessuess. 



6.32-37] MAHAVAGGA I 19 

fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill." So 
this came to be this venerable one's ordination. || 32 || 

Then the Lord exhorted, instructed those remaining monks 
with dhamma-talk. Then while they were being exhorted, 
instructed by the Lord with dhamma-talk, dhamma-visioii, 
dustless, staMess, arose to the venerable Vappa^ and to the 
venerable Bhaddiya,^ that " whatever is of the nature to 
uprise, all that is of the nature to stop." || 33 || 

These, having seen dhamma, attained dhamma, known 
dhamma. . . . having attained without another's help to full 
confidence in the teacher's instruction, spoke thus to the Lord: 
" May we, Lord, receive the going forth in the Lord's presence, 
may we receive ordination ? " 

"Come, monks," the Lord said, "well taught is dhamma, fare 
[12] the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill." So 
this came to be these venerable ones' ordination. || 34 || 

Then the Lord, eating the food brought back by these,* 
exhorted, instructed those remaining monks with dhamma-talk, 
saying : " Let the group of six* live on whatever the three 
monks* bring when they have walked for almsfood." || 35 [| 

Then while they were being exhorted, instructed by the Lord 
with dhamma-talk, dhamma-^nsion, dustless, stainless, arose 
to the venerable Mahanama* and to the venerable Assaji,* 
that "whatever is of the nature to uprise, all that is of the 
nature to stop." 1| 36 || 

These, having seen dhamma, attained dhamma . . having 
attained without another's help to full confidence in the 
teacher's instruction, spoke thus to the Lord : " May we, Lord, 
receive the going forth in the Lord's presence, may we receive 
ordination ? " 

" Come, monks," the Lord said, " well taught is dhamma, 
fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill." So 

^ Verses at Thag. 61, see also ThagA. 150, VA. 965, MA. ii. ig2, AA. i. 147, 
Jd. i. 82 ; Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual, p. 63. 

" No verses ascribed to him. See VA. 965, MA. ii. 192, AA. i. 147, Jd. i. 82. 
Omitted from D.P.P.N. 

• Kondanna. Vappa and Bhaddiya. 

• I.e. Gotama and the group of five. 

• References as under n. 2 above. See also DhA. ii. 74. Included in 
D.P.P.N. 

• The disciple through whom Sariputta and so Moggallana became followers 
of Gotama, see Vin. i. 39 ff. (below, p. 52) ; also M. i. 227 {Culasaccaka 
Sutta), S. iii. 124 flf., MA. ii. 270, 271, and p. 52, n. 3 below. 



20 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

this came to be these venerable ones' ordination. || 37 1| 
Then the Lord addressed the group of five monks, saying : 
" Body, monks, is not self> Now were this body self, monks, 
this body would not tend to sickness, and one might get the 
chance of sajring in, regard to body, ' Let body become thus 
for me, let body not become thus for me '. But inasmuch, 
monks, as body is not self, therefore body tends to sickness, 
and one does not get the chance of saying in regard to body, 
' Let body become thus for me, let body not become thus for 
me'. II 38 II 

Feeling is not self . . . and one does not get the chance of 
saying in regard to feeUng, 'Let feeling become thus for me, 
let feeling not become thus for me '. |I 39 || 

" Perception^ is not self. . . . The habitual tendencies are not 
self . . . one does not get the chance of sa5dng in regard to the 
habitual tendencies, ' Let the habitual tendencies become thus 
for me, let the habitual tendencies not become thus for me '. 

II40II 

" Consciousness is not self . . . [13] . . . Inasmuch, monks, as 
consciousness is not self, therefore consciousness tends to 
sickness, and one does not get the chance to say in regard to 
consciousness, ' Let consciousness become such for me, let 
consciousness not become thus for me.' || 41 || 

What do you think about this, monks ? Is body permanent 
or impermanent ? " 

" Impermanent, Lord." 

" But is that which is impermanent painful or pleasurable* ? " 

" Painful, Lord." 

" But is it fit to consider that which is impermanent, painful, 
of a nature to change, as ' This is mine, this am I, this is my 
self ' ? " 

" It is not Lord." || 42 |1 

" Is feehng . . . perception . . . are the habitual tendencies 
... is consciousness pennanent or impermanent ? " 

* This famous Second Utterance given also at S. iii. 66, where called 
" The Five ", doubtless referring to the five disciples who heard it, and 
to the five topics, body . . . consciousness (or mind) which it covered ; 
cf. M. iii. 19. Translated at K.S. iii. 59, Fur. Dial, ii, 165 f., Mrs. Rhys 
Davids, Manual, p. 150, E. J. Thomas, Life of Buddha, p. 88. 

• saimd. 

' sukha, happiness, mental and physical ease ; used in opposition to 
dukkha. 



6.43-47] MAHAVAGGA I 21 

" Impermanent, Lord." 

" But is that which is impermanent painful or pleasurable ? " 

" Painful, Lord." 

" But is it fit to consider that which is impermanent, painiul, 
of a nature to change, as ' This is mine, this am I, this is my 
self ' ? " 

" It is not so. Lord." || 43 || 

"Wherefore, monks, whatever is body, past, future, present, 
or internal or external, or gross or subtle, or low or excellent, 
whether it is far or near — all body should, by means of right 
wisdom, be seen, as it really is, thus : This is not mine, this 
am I not, this is not my self. || 44 || 

" Whatever is feeling . . . whatever is perception . . . whatever 
are the habitual tendencies . . . whatever is consciousness, 
past, future, present, or internal or external, or gross or subtle, 
or low or excellent, whether far or near — all consciousness 
should, by means of right wisdom, be seen as it really is, 
thus : This is not mine, this am I not, this is not my self. || 45 || 

" Seeing in this way, monks, the instructed^ disciple of the 
ariyans disregards^ body and he disregards feeling and he 
disregards perception and he disregards the habitual tendencies 
and he disregards consciousness ; disregarding he is dispassion- 
ate ; through dispassion he is freed ; in freedom the knowledge 
comes to be : 'I am freed '', and he knows : Destroyed is 
birth, lived is the Brahma-faring, done is what was to be 
done, there is no more of being such or such." || 46 || 

Thus spoke the Lord ; delighted, the group of five monks 
rejoiced in what the Lord had said. Moreover while this dis- 
course was being uttered, the minds of the group of five monks 
were freed from the cankers without grasping. At that time 
there were six perfected ones in the world. || 47 || 6 || 

The First Portion for Recital. [14] 

At that time in Benares there was a young man of family, 
the son of a (great) merchant*, delicately reared, called Yasa*. 

^ sutavant, one who has heard, hence learnt (the oral teaching). 

• nibbindati, turns away from, is disgusted by. He " disregards " be- 
cause he refuses to know. 

• See B.D. i. 10 and its n. 2, 3. 

• See B.D. ii. Intr., xlvii and p. 42, n. 4. 

• Verses at Thag. 117. 



22 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

He had three mansions, one for the cold weather, one for the 
hot weather, one for the rains. Being ministered to by bands 
of female musicians^ for four months in the mansion for the 
rains, he did not come down from that mansion^. Then while 
Yasa, the yomig man of family, was possessed of and provided 
with the five kinds of sense-pleasuf es^, and was being ministered 
to, he fell asleep first and his suite fell asleep after him, and 
an oil lamp was burning all through the night. || i || 

Then Yasa, the young man of family, having awoken first, 
saw his own suite sleeping, one with a lute in the hollow of her 
arm, one with a tabor at her neck, one with a drum in the hollow 
of her arm, one with dishevelled hair, one with saliva dripping 
from her mouth, muttering in their sleep, like a cemetery 
before his very eyes.* Seeing this, its peril grew plain, and his 
mind was set on disregarding it.^ Then Yasa, the young man 
of family, uttered a solemn utterance : " What distress indeed, 
what affliction indeed." \\2 \\ 

Then Yasa, the young man of family, having put on his 
golden sandals, approached the door of the dwelling. Non- 
human beings opened the door, thinking : " Let there be no 
obstacle for the going forth from home into homelessness of 
Yasa, the young man of family." Then Yasa, the young man 
of family, approached the city-door. Non-human beings 
opened the door, thinking : " Let there be no obstacle for the 
going forth from home into homelessness of Yasa, the young 
man of family." Then Yasa, the young man of family, 
approached the deer-park at Isipatana. || 3 || 

At that time, the Lord having risen in the night towards 
dawn, was pacing up and down in the open air. The Lord saw 
Yasa, the young man of family, coming in the distance : seeing 
him, having come down from (the place) where he was pacing 
up and down, he sat down on an appointed seat. Then Yasa, 
the young man of family, when he was near, uttered this solemn 
utterance to the Lord : " What distress indeed, what affliction 

1 nippurisehi turiyehi ; see n. at Dial. ii. i8 ; also Fur. Dial i. 356. 

• Reading hetthd pdsddd. D. ii. 21, M. i. 504 read hetthdpdsddatn, " to the 
lower (parts of the) mansion." On pdsdda, see B.D. ii. 16, n. 5, 6. 

• Cf. Vin. iii 72, D. i. 36, 60, and DA. 121. 

• hatthapattam susdnam marine, lit. one would think one's hand had 
reached a cemetery. Hatthappatta, what one can put one's hand on, and 
so what is before one's eyes. 

' nibbiddya cittarn saftthasi. 



7.4-8] MAHAVAGGA I 23 

indeed." Then the Lord spoke thus to Yasa, the young man 
of family : " This, Yasa, is not distress, this, Yasa, is not 
affliction. Come, sit down, Yasa, I will teach you dhamma." 

II 4 II 
Then Yasa, the young man of family, thinking : " It is 

said that this is not distress, that this is not aflfliction ", 

exultant and uplifted, having taken off his golden sandals, 

approached the Lord ; having approached, having greeted the" 

Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting 

down at a respectful distance, the Lord talked a progressive 

talk* to Yasa, the young man of family, that is to say, talk 

on giving, talk on moral habit, talk on heaven, he explained 

the peril, the vanity, the depravity of pleasures of the senses, 

the advantage in renouncing them. || 5 || 

When the Lord [15] knew that the mind of Yasa, the young 
man of family, was ready, malleable, devoid of hindrances, 
uplifted, pleased^, then he explained to him the teaching on 
dhamma which the awakened ones have themselves discovered : 
ill, uprising, stopping, the Way^. And just as a clean cloth 
without black specks will take a dye easily, even so (as 
he was sitting) on that very seat, dhamma-Yision, dustless, 
stainless, arose to Yasa, the young man of family, that " what- 
ever is of a nature to uprise, all that is of a nature to stop." 
I|6|| 

Then the mother of Yasa, the young man of family, having 
mounted up to the mansion, not seeing Yasa, the young man 
of family, approached the (great) merchant, the householder ; 
having approached she spoke thus to the (great) merchant, 
the householder : " Householder, your son, Yasa, is not to 
be seen." Then the (great) merchant, the householder, having 
dispatched messengers on horse-back to the four quarters, 
himself approached the deer-park at Isipatana. The (great) 
merchant, the householder, saw the prints of golden sandals, 
and seeing them he followed them along. || 7 || 

The Lord saw the (great) merchant, the householder, coming 

* This passage is frequently found in connection with " conversions "; 
cf. Vin ii. 156, 192, D. i. no, 148, ii. 41, M i. 379, A. iv. 186, 209. Ud. 49, 

* In sense of with llie teaching, prepared to follow it. 

* Note that patipadd (of the fourth truth), the course which leads to 
the ceasing of Ul, is here represented by the one word magga. This may 
not be a substitution for the " fourth truth ", but the original notion, 
left in. 



24 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

in the distance ; seeing him, it occurred to the Lord : " Suppose 
I were to perform such a psychic wonder that the (great) 
merchant, the householder, sitting here, should not see Yasa, 
the young man of family, sitting here ? " Then the Lord 
performed such a psychic wonder. || 8 || 

Then the (great) merchant, the householder, approached the 
Lord ; having approached he spoke thus to the Lord : " Lord, 
has the Lord not seen Yasa, the young man of family ? " 

" Well, householder, sit down. Perhaps, sitting here, you 
may see Yasa, the young man of family, sitting here." 

Then the (great) merchant, the householder, thinking : 
" It is said that I, sitting here, will see Yasa, the young man 
of family, sitting here ", and exultant, uplifted, having greeted 
the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. || 9 || 

As the (great) merchant, the householder was sitting down 
at a respectful distance, the Lord talked a progressive talk . . . 
attained without the help of another to full confidence in the 
teacher's instruction, spoke thus to the Lord : " Excellent, 
Lord ! Excellent, Lord ! Just as one might set upright what 
has been upset, or might uncover what was concealed, or 
might show the way to one who is astray, or might bring an 
oil lamp into the darkness, thinking, ' Those with eyes may 
see shapes ', even so is dhamma explained in many a figure by 
the Lord. I myself go to the Lord as refuge, to dhamma, 
and to the Order ot monks. Let the Lord accept me as a 
lay-disciple gone for refuge from this day forth for as long as 
life lasts." Thus he came to be the first lay-disciple in the 
world [16] using the three-word formula.^ || 10 || 

Then while the father of Yasa, the young man of family, 
was being taught dhamma, as he^ was reviewing his stage 
(of knowledge) as it was seen, as it was known, his mind was 
freed from the cankers without grasping. Then it occurred 
to the Lord : " While the father of Yasa, the young man of 
family, was being taught dhamma, as he was reviewing his 
stage (of knowledge) as it was seen, as it was known, his mind 
was freed from the cankers without grasping. Now Yasa, the 

^ tevacika, instead of the dvevacika of I.. 4 5, for here the bhikkhusamgha 
is included in the refuge-formula. We must therefore assume that when 
the group of five monks became disciples of Gotama a samgha was formed. 

» I.e. Yasa. 



7.II-I5] MAHAVAGGAI 25 

young man of family, cannot become one, having turned back 
to the low life, to enjoy pleasures of the senses as he did formerly 
when leading a household life. Suppose I were to annul that 
pyschic wonder ? " Then the Lord annulled that psychic 
wonder. || 11 || 

Then the (great) merchant, the householder, saw Yasa, the 
young man of family sitting down ; seeing him, he spoke thus 
to Yasa, the young man of family : " Dear Yasa, your mother 
is full of lamentation and grief, give your mother life." || 12 || 

Then Yasa, the young man of family, looked towards the 
Lord. Then the Lord spoke thus to the (great) merchant, 
the householder : " What do you think about this, house- 
holder, that dhamma was seen by Yasa with a learner's 
knowledge, with a learner's insight, even as by you ? 
As he was reviewing his stage (of knowledge), as it was 
seen, as it was known, his mind was freed from the 
cankers without grasping. Now can Yasa, householder, 
having turned back to the low life, become one to enjoy 
pleasures of the senses, as he did formerly when leading a 
household life ? " 

" No, Lord." 

" Dhamma was seen by Yasa, the young man of family, 
householder, with a learner's knowledge, with a learner's 
insight, even as by you. As he was reviewing his stage (of 
knowledge), as it was seen, as it was known, his mind was 
freed from the cankers without grasping. Now Yasa, the 
young man of family, householder, cannot become one, having 
turned back to the low life, to enjoy pleasures of the senses, 
as he did formerly when leading a household life." || 13 || 

" Lord, it is a gain for Yasa, the young man of family. 
Lord, it is well gotten for Yasa, the young man of family, 
inasmuch as the mind of Yasa, the young man of family, is 
freed from the cankers without grasping. Lord, may the Lord 
consent to a meal with me on the morrow with Yasa, the young 
man of family, as his attendant ? " The Lord consented by 
becoming silent. Then the (great) merchant, the householder, 
knowing that the Lord had consented, rising from his seat, 
having greeted the Lord, departed keeping his right side 
towards him. || 14 || 

Then Yasa, the young man of family, soon after the (great) 



26 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

merchant, the householder, had departed, spoke thus to the 
Lord : " Lord, may I receive the going forth in the Lord's 
presence, may I receive ordination ? " 

" Come, monk," the Lord said, " well preached is dhamma, 
lead the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill." So 
this [17] came to be that venerable one's ordination. At that 
time there were seven perfected ones in the world, || 15 || 

Told is the Going Forth of Yasa. || 7 || 

Then the Lord, having dressed in the morning, taking his 
bowl and robe, approached the dwelling of the (great) merchant, 
the householder, with the venerable Yasa as attendant ; having 
approached, he sat down on an appointed seat. Then the mother 
and the former wife of the venerable Yasa approached the 
Lord ; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat 
down at a respectful distance. || i || 

The Lord talked a progressive talk to these, that is to say, 
talk on giving, talk on moral habit, talk on heaven . . . 
dhamma-vision, dustless, stainless, arose to them that, " what- 
ever is of a nature to uprise, all that is of a nature to stop." || 2 |I 

These, having seen dhamma, attained dhamma . . . spoke 
thus to the Lord : " Excellent Lord ! ... we ourselves. Lord, 
go to the Lord as refuge, to dhamma and to the Order of monks. 
Let the Lord accept us as women lay-disciples, gone for refuge 
from this day forth for as long as life lasts." Thus these were 
the first women lay-disciples in the world using the three-word 
formula. || 3 || 

Then the venerable Yasa's mother and father and former 
wife, having with their own hand(s) served the Lord and the 
venerable Yasa and having offered them sumptuous foods, 
solid and soft, sat down when the Lord had finished his meal 
and had removed his hand from the bowl. Then the Lord, 
having gladdened, roused, rejoiced, delighted the venerable 
Yasa's mother and father and former wife with talk on dhamma, 
rising from his seat departed. || 4 || 8 || 

Four householder friends of the venerable Yasa, young men 
of families of (great) merchants and lesser (great) merchants^ 

^ setthdnusetthi. See Ja. v. 384 for mahd-setthi, setthi (but with v. 1. 
anuseUhi) and anusetthi ; also Vin. Texts i. 102, n. 3. 



9.1-4] MAHAVAGGA I 27 

in Benares, Vimala,[18] Subahu, Punnaji, Gavampati^, heard : 
" They say that Yasa, the young man of family, having cut 
off his hair and beard, having put on yellow robes, has gone 
forth from home into homelessness." Having heard this, it 
occurred to them : " Now this can be no ordinary dhamma 
and discipline, nor can this be an ordinary going forth, in that 
Yasa, the young man of family, having cut off his hair and beard, 
having put on the yellow robes, has gone forth from home 
into homelessness." || i || 

These four people approached the venerable Yasa ; having 
approached, having greeted the venerable Yasa, they stood at 
a respectful distance. Then the venerable Yasa, taking these 
four householder friends, approached the Lord ; having 
approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respect- 
ful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, 
the venerable Yasa spoke thus to the Lord : " These four 
householder friends of mine. Lord, young men of families of 
(great) merchants and lesser (great) merchants in Benares, 
Vimala, Subahu, Punnaji, Gavampati, may the Lord exhort, 
may he instruct these four." || 2 || 

The Lord talked a progressive talk to these, that is to say, 
talk on giving, talk on moral habit, talk on heaven . . . 
dhamma-yision, dustless, stainless, arose to them that " what- 
ever is of the nature to uprise, all that is of the nature to stop." 

II 3 It 

These, having seen dhamma, attained dhamma . . . spoke 
thus to the Lord : " Lord, may we receive the going forth in 
the Lord's presence, may we receive ordination? " 

" Come, monks," the Lord said, " well preached is dhamma, 
fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill." So 
this came to be these venerable ones' ordination. Then the 
Lord exhorted, instructed these monks with dhamma tedk. 
While they were being exhorted, instructed by the Lord with 
dhamma talk, their minds were freed from the cankers without 
grasping. At that time there were eleven perfected ones in 
the world. || 4 || 

Told is the Going Forth of the. four Householders, jj 9 || [19] 

* Verses attributed only to Gavampati, Thag. 38, and he appears to be 
the only one mentioned elsewhere in the canon, e.g. D. ii. 356, 5. v. 436. 



28 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Fifty householder friends of the venerable Yasa, young men 
of the first families and of those next to the first^ in the district 
heard : " They say that Yasa, the young man of family . . . 
{as in 9. 1-4 down to :) While they were being exhorted, 
instructed by the Lord with dhamma talk, their minds were 
freed from the cankers without grasping. At that time there 
were sixty-one perfected ones in the worM. || 4 || 10 || 

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying* : "I, monks, 
am freed from all snares, both those of devas^ and those of 
men. And you, [20] monks, are freed from all snares, both 
those of devas and those of men. Walk, monks, on tour for 
the blessing of the manyf oik, for the happiness of the man57f oik 
out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, the blessing, 
the happiness of devas and men. Let not two (of you) go by 
one (way.)* Monks, teach dhamma which is lovely at the 
beginning, lovely in the middle, lovely at the ending.^ Explain 
with the spirit and the letter the Brahma-faring completely 
fulfilled, wholly pure. There are beings with little dust in 
their eyes, who, not hearing dhamma, are decaying, (but) if 
they are learners of dhamma, they will grow. And I, monks, 
will go along to Uruvela, to the Camp township,® in order 
to teach dhamma," \\ i || 

Then Mara, the Evil One, approached the Lord ; having 
approached, he addressed the Lord with verses : 

" Bound art thou by all the snares. 
Both those of devas and of men, 
In great bondage art thou bound. 
Recluse, thou'lt not be freed from me."' 

* pubbdnupubbaka. Explained by VA. 966 as the oldest and next to 
the oldest in regard^ to lineage. 

» S. i. 105-6. 

• dibba ; neither "divine" {Vin. Texts L 112) nor "celestial" {K.S. i. 
131) is exactly right for this difficult adjective which means <^a-ish, 
pertaining to devas. 

* ekena can also mean together, but above is interpretation given at 
VA. 966, and cf. SA. i, 172. 

' SA. i. 172 gives differing but related arrangements of subjects in- 
cluded under " beginning, middle and end ". 

• Senanigama here and at M. i. 166 ; for the variant spelling used at 
e.g. S. I. 106, Jd. i. 68, see Vin. Texts i. 113, n. i, K.S. i. 132, n. 5 ; D.P.P.N. ; 
E. J. Thomas, Life of Buddha, p. 230. There was a tradition that in old 
times it had been an army's camping place, MA. ii 173, SA. i. 172, also 
the town where Senani, SujatS.'s father lived. 

' These four lines with the next four also at 5. i. 106. 



11.2—12.2] MAHAVAGGA I 29 

" Freed am I from all the snares. 
Both those of devas and of men, 
From great bondage am I freed. 
Humbled art thou, O End-maker. "^ 

" The tale of mind-impressions is a snare 
That weaves its tallies to and fro in air. 
With these will I have wherewith to fetter thee, 
Recluse, thou wilt not be freed from me."^ 

" Sights, sounds, scents, tastes,' and things to touch. 
Bringing delights to mind of man — for such 
All wish, all will, for me is past and gone. 
Humbled art thou, O End-maker." 

Then Mara, the Evil One, thinking, " The Lord knows me, 
the well-farer knows me," pained, afflicted, vanished then 
and there. || 2 || 

Told is the Talk on Mara. || 11 1| 

At that time monks brought (to the Lord) from various 
quarters, from various districts those wishing for the going 
forth, those wishing for ordination, thinking : " The Lord will 
let these go forth, he will ordain them." Thereby both the 
monks as well as those wishing for the going forth and those 
wishing for ordination were tired. Then a reasoning arose in 
the Lord's mind as he was meditating in seclusion, thus : 
" At present monks are bringing (to me) from various quarters 
. . . and those wishing for ordination are tired. Suppose I 
were to allow it to monks, sa5dng : ' You, monks, may now 
yomrselves let go forth, may ordain in any* quarter, in any 
district ' ? " II I II 

Then the Lord, emerging from seclusion towards evening, 
on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned 
talk, [21] addressed the monks, saying : " While I was meditat- 
ing in seclusion, monks, a reasoning arose in my mind, thus : 

^ Antaka, expl. at VA . 966 as an inferior, low being ; a name of Mara. 
Cf. Thtg. 59, 62, 195 ; also Dhp. 48, where not used in this way. 

* These four lines and the next four occur also at S. i. iii. 

* The Vin. version puts scents before tastes in the usual way. 5. i. m 
reverses the order; see K.S. i. 140, n. 3. Cf. MV. V. 1. 27; Sn. 387, 759, 
Thag. 455, 643, 895, A. iii. 69. 

* tasu tasu. Tarn tarn means whatever, each, this and that. 



30 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

' At present monks axe bringing ... in any quarter, in any 
district ' ? II 2 II 

" I allow, monks, that you yourselves may now let go forth, 
may ordain in any quarter, in any district. And thus, monks, 
should one let go forth, should one ordain : First, having 
made him have his hair and beard cut off, having made him 
put on yellow robes, having made him arrange an upper robe 
over one shoulder, having made him honour the monks' feet, 
having made him sit down on his haunches, having made him 
salute with joined palms, he should be told : ' Speak thus, || 3 || 
"I go to the awakened one for refuge, I go to dhamma for 
refuge, I go to the Order for refuge. And a second time I 
go . . . And a third time I go to . . . the Order for refuge " '. 
I allow, monks, the going forth and the ordination by these 
three goings for refuge.^" || 4 || 

Told is the Talk on Ordination by the three Goings 
for Refuge. || 12 || 

Then the Lord, having kept the rains, addressed the monks, 
saying : " Monks, by proper attention, by proper right effort 
was supreme freedom attained by me, supreme freedom^ 
realised. You, too, monks, by proper attention, by proper 
right effort may attain supreme freedom, may realise supreme 
freedom." || i || 

Then Mara, the Evil One, approached the Lord ; having 
approached, he addressed the Lord with verses : 

" Bound art thou by Mara's snares. 
Both those of devas and of men. 
In great bondage art thou boimd, 
Recluse, thou wilt not be freed from me."' 

" Freed am I from Mara's snares. 
Both those of devas and of men, 
From great bondage am I freed, 
Hmnbled art thou, O End-maker." 

* Apparently this was the second stage in admitting disciples to the 
religious life, the first being by the formula spoken by the Lord, ' come, 
monk '. Responsibility is now being delegated to his followers themselves. 
Note that bhagavantam (the lord) has given way to buddham (the awakened 
one) in the first sentence of the formula. 

* Cf. A. iu. 218. 

» These iova lines occur at S. i. 105, but there the third line of each 
verse reads, " In (From) MSra's bondage . . ." 



13.2—14.2] MAHAVAGGAI 31 

Then Mara, the Evil One, thinking, " The Lord knows me, the 
well-farer knows me," pained, afflicted, vanished then and 
there. || 2 1| 13 || [22] 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Benares for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Uruvela. Then the Lord, 
turning off from the road, approached a certain woodland 
grove^ ; having approached, having plunged into that woodland 
grove, he sat down at the root of a certain tree. At that time 
a group of as many as thirty friends of high standing, ^ with 
their wives, were amusing themselves in that same woodland 
grove. One had no wife, (so) a woman of low standing^ was 
brought along for him. Then while they were heedlessly 
amusing themselves that woman of low standing, taking 
(their) belongings, ran away. || i || 

Then these friends, doing their friend a service and seeking 
for that woman, roaming about that woodland grove, saw 
the Lord sitting at the root of a certain tree ; seeing him, 
they approached the Lord, having approached, they spoke 
thus to the Lord : " Lord, has the Lord not seen a woman ? " 

" But what have you, young men, to do with a woman ? " 

" We, Lord, a group of as many as thirty friends of high 
standing, with our wives, were amusing ourselves in this 
woodland grove ; one had no wife, (so) a woman of low standing 
was brought along for him. Then, Lord, as we were heedlessly 
amusing ourselves, that woman of low standing, taking our 
belongings, ran away. Consequently, Lord, we friends, doing 
our friend a service and seeking for that woman, are roaming 
about this woodland grove." || 2 || 

^ At Jd. i. 82 this is called Kappasiya woodland grove. 

• timsamatta bhaddavaggiyd sahdyakd. VA. 971 says " sons of rajas, of 
high repute [bhaddaka, honoured, of good quality), bound into a group 
{vagga, party) by their bodies and minds, were wandering about"; and 
VA. 1 106 says " because they were brothers by one father of the King of 
Kosala, a synonym for these elders is the group who are of high standing ". 
For both here and at DhA . ii. 32 they are identified with the thirty monks 
of Pava (see Vin. i. 253, S. ii. 187). The bhaddavaggiyd = kumdra are 
referred to at Jd. i. 82 = DhA. i. 87, DhA. i. 97 as among the/' converts " 
who, because converted first, should, so some monks thought, have been 
given precedence over the Great Pair; at DhA. i. 100, as having heard 
the Tundilovada {cf. VA. 1106 and Jd. No. 388). Mhvs. xxx. 79 mentions 
their conversion as a subject to be represented in the relic shrine of the 
Maha Thupa. 

* vesl can also mean a prostitute, but here probably used in opposition 
to bhadda, high standing. 



32 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" What do you think of this, young men ? Which is better 
for you, that you should seek for a woman or that you should 
seek for the self^ ? " 

" Truly this were better for us. Lord, that we should seek 
for the self." 

" Well then, young men, you sit down, I will teach you 
dhamma." 

Saying, " Yes, Lord," this group of friends of high standing, 
having greeted the Lord, sat down at a respectful distance. || 3 || 

The Lord talked a progressive talk to these, that is to say, 
talk on giving, talk on moral habit, talk on heaven . . .that 
" whatever is of the nature to uprise, all that is of the nature 
tostop."2 II 4 II 

These, having seen dhamma, attained dhamma, known 
dhamma, plunged into dhamma,'^ [23] . . . spoke thus to the 
Lord : " May we. Lord, receive the going forth in the Lord's 
presence, may we receive ordination ? " 

" Come, monks," the Lord said, " well taught is dhamma, 
fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill." So 
this came to be these venerable ones' ordination. || 5 || 

Told is the Case of the Group of Friends of High Standing. || 14 |! 
The Second Portion for Repeating. 

Then the Lord, walking on tour, in due course arrived at 
Uruvela. Now at that time three matted hair ascetics, 
Kassapa of Uruvela,* Kassapa of the River, ^ Kassapa of Gaya,* 
were living at Uruvela. Of these, the matted hair ascetic 
Kassapa of Uruvela was leader, guide, highest, chief, head of 

^ attanam gaveseyyatha. Cf. Dhp. 146 andhakdreria onaddha padipam 
na gavessatha, that ye in the bonds of darkness should not hunt for a lamp ; 
and the compound attadlpd of D. ii. 100 and S-n. 501. 

* As in I. 7. 5-6. 
' As in I. 6. 32. 

* Verses at Thag 375-380. At ^. i. 25 he is called chief of those disciples 
who have large followings. ThagA. i. 71 recounts that one of this Kassapa's 
followers, Belatthaslsa, was tamed with him (see below, 20. 18, 19) and 
afterwards became Ananda's preceptor. These three Kassapas were brothers. 
They had a sister whose son, Senaka, was converted by the Lord, see Pss. 
Breth., p. 180. On the three brothers, see Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual, 
p. 206 n. 

• I.e. of the river Neranjara. His verses at Thag. 341-344. ThagA. 
on Uruvelakassapa says that Kassapa of the River was so called because 
he " went forth " at a bend in a great river ; and that Kassapa of GayS 
was so called because he went forth at Gayi^sa. 

• Verses at Thag. 345-349. 



15.1-4] MAHAVAGGA I 33 

five hundred matted hair ascetics ; the matted hair ascetic 
Kassapa of the River was leader . . . head of three hundred 
matted hair ascetics ; the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of 
Gaya was leader . . . head of two hundred matted hair 
ascetics. |I i || 

Then the Lord approached the hermitage^ of the matted 
hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvela ; having approached, he spoke 
thus to the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvela : " If it is 
not inconvenient to you, Kassapa, let me stay for one night in 
the fire-room." 

"It is not inconvenient to me, great recluse, (but) there is 
a fierce serpent king of psychic power there ; he is a terribly 
venemous snake. Do not let him harm you." And a second 
time the Lord spoke thus to the matted hair ascetic Kassapa 
of Uruvela : " If it is not inconvenient to you ..." And 
a third time the Lord spoke thus to the matted hair ascetic 
Kassapa of Uruvela : " If it is not inconvenient to you, 
Kassapa, let me stay for one night in the iire-room." 

" It is not inconvenient to me, great recluse, (but) there is 
a fierce serpent king of psychic power there ; he is a terribly 
venemous snake. Do not let him harm you." 

"It is not likely that he can harm me. Please do you, 
Kassapa, aUow (me the use of) the fire-room." 

" Stay, great recluse, as you wish it." || 2 || 

Then the Lord, having entered the fire-room, having laid 
down a grass mat, sat down cross-legged, keeping his back 
erect, having caused mindfulness to be present in front of him. 
Then that serpent saw that the Lord had entered, and seeing 
this, pained, affiicted, he blew forth smoke. Then it occurred 
to the Lord : " What now if I, without destroying this serpent's 
[24] skin and hide and flesh and ligaments and bones and the 
marrow of the bones, were to master (his) heat by heat ? " |1 3 || 

Then the Lord, having worked a work of psychic power, 
blew forth smoke. Then that serpent, not conquering anger, 
blazed up. The Lord, having attained the condition of heat, 
also blazed up. When both were in flames, the fire-room became 
as though burning, ablaze, in flames. Then the matted hair 
ascetics, having surrounded the fire-room, spoke thus : 

1 Cf. Vin. iv. 107 {B.D. ii. 382) for many similarities with this passage. 



34 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Beautiful indeed is the great recluse, (but) he will be harmed 
by the serpent."! ||4|| 

Then the Lord at the end of that night, without having 
destroyed that serpent's skin and hide and flesh and ligaments 
and bones and the marrow of the bones, having mastered (his) 
heat by heat, having placed him in his bowl, showed him to 
the matted hair ascetic, Uruvelakassapa, saying : " This, 
Kassapa, is your serpent, his heat was mastered by heat." 
Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa : 
" Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great 
majesty, in that he can master by heat the heat of the fierce 
serpent king who has psychic power and is a terribly venemous 
snake ; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am." || 5 || 

Near the Neranjara,^ the Lord spoke thus to the matted 
hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa : " If it is not inconvenient 
to you, Kassapa, let me stay this day (only)^ in the fire- 
hall.*" 

"It is not inconvenient to me, great recluse, (but) as I am 
anxious for your comfort I warn you that there is a fierce 
serpent king there, of psychic power, a terribly venemous 
snake. Do not let him harm you." 

" It is not likely that he can harm me. Please do you, 
Kassapa, allow (me the use of) the fire-room.*" 

"It is given " ; having understood this, the fearless one 
entered, fear overpassed. Having seen that the holy man^ 
had entered, the chief of snakes', afilicted, blew forth smoke. 
The chief of men, joyful, imperturbed, blew forth smoke there 

^ Text reads ndge na vihethissati, but should be corrected, as Vin. Texts 
i. 120, n. 3 indicates, by parallel passage at Vin. ii. 195 : ndgena vihethiyissati, 
which I follow. Cing. edn. reads ndgena vihethiyati, is harmed by the serpent, 
which also makes sense if the ascetics, seeing Gotama in flames, thought 
he was already brought to harm. 

* For note on this repetition of the story (in this and the next par.) in 
a more popular style, see Vin. Texts i. 120, n. 4. 

• ajjunho ; see B.D. ii. 64, n. i. VA. 971 also explains by ajja ekadivasam. 

* Text reads aggisdlamhi ; Cing. edn. aggisarapamhi ; v.l. at Vin. L 365 
aggisdldyam. 

' agydgara, as throughout, except for case just referred to. 

• isi = rsi, seer, sage. 

' Here, instead of being called ndgardja, king of serpents, he is called 
ahindga ; and here ndga is probably not to be taken as " serpent " but as 
balancing the ndga in manussandga, " chief of men," just below, and 
therefore as meaning chief, strongest, foremost (something awe-inspiring : 
cobra, elephant, saint). Cf. mahdndga, used of (chief) disciples, at M. i. 32, 
151 ; and definition of ndga at M. i. 145 as " synonym for that monk in 
whom the cankers are destroyed," and cf. also MA. i 153. 



15.6—16.2] MAHAVAGGA I 35 

too. But the chief of snakes, not conquering anger, blazed 
up hke a fire. The chief of men, highly proficient in 
the condition of heat, blazed up there too. When both were 
in flames, the matted hair ascetics, as they were looking at 
the fire-room, said : " Beautiful indeed is the great recluse, 
(but) he will be harmed by the serpent."^ || 6 || 

Then at the end of that night the serpent's flames became 
extinguished, but the multicoloured flames of him of psychic 
power remained, and multicoloured flames, dark green, then 
red, crimson, yellow and crystal-coloured were on Angirasa's^ 
body. Having put the chief of snakes into his bowl, he showed 
him to the brahmin,^ saying : " This, Kassapa, is your serpent, 
his heat was mastered by heat." Then the matted hair 
ascetic Uruvelakassapa, thoroughly believing in this wonder 
of psychic power of the Lord, spoke thus to the Lord : " Stay 
just here, great recluse, I (can offer you) a constant supply 
of food."* II 7 II 

The First Wonder. || 15 || [25] 

Then the Lord stayed in a certain woodland grove near the 
hermitage of the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakcissapa. Then the 
four Great Kings, having illumined the entire woodland grove 
on a glorious night with glorious colour, approached the Lord ; 
having approached, having greeted the Lord, they stood at 
the four quarters like huge fires. || i || 

Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached 
the Lord at the end of that night, and having approached 
he spoke thus to the Lord : " It is time, great recluse, the meal 
is ready. But now, who were these, great recluse, who, 
having illumined the entire woodland grove during the glorious 
night with glorious colour, approached you and having 
approached, having greeted you, stood at the four quarters 
like huge fires ? " 

^ See above, p. 34, n. i. 

' Name applied to Gotama now and again in the Pitakas ; D. iii. 196 
(" name of the son of the Sakyans "), S. i. 196 = Thag. 1252, A. iii. 239, 
^*^^- 536, Jd. i. 116. See D. P.P.N, and G.S. iii. 175, n. i. VA. 971 says 
angato ramsiyo satnsaranti, flames streamed from his body (limb). 

' Note that the jatila is here referred to as a brahmin. 

* This invitation seems to cancel the Lord's request to stay for "one 
day (only)," and to account for the fact that he stayed on in the woodland 
grove for seveial days. 



36 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Kassapa, these were the four Great Kings who approached 
me in order to hear dhamma." 

Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa : 
" Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great 
might, in that the four Great Kings also approach him in 
order to hear dhamma ; but yet he is not a perfected one as 
r am." 

Then the Lord, having eaten the meal (offered by) the matted 
hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, stayed in that same woodland 
grove. II 2 II 

The Second Wonder. || 16 || 

Then Sakka, lord of the devas, having illumined the entire 
woodland grove on a glorious night with glorious colour, 
approached the Lord ; having approached, having greeted the 
Lord, he stood at a respectful distance, like a huge fire, more 
glorious and more superb than the former splendours of 
colour. 1 II I II 

Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached 
the Lord at the end of that night . . . {as in^ 16. 2) [26] . . . 
stayed in that same woodland grove. || 2 || 

The Third Wonder. || 17|| 

Then Brahma Sahampati ... (as in 17.) . . . stayed in that 
same woodland grove. || i, 2 || 

The Fourth Wonder. || 18 || 

Now at that time a great sacrifice (made by) the matted 
hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa was going forward,' and the 
entire (population of) Anga and Magadha, taking abundant 
solid food and soft food, wanted to go (to it).* Then it occurred 
to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa : "At present my 
great sacrifice is going forward, and the entire (population of) 
Anga and Magadha, taking abundant soUd food and soft food, 
will come. If the great recluse does a wonder of psychic 

* I.e. the four Great Kings, so VA. 972. 

• Reading " SaJcka, lord of devas " instead of " the four Great Kings." 

• paccupatthito hoti. It was a sacrifice performed by him. 

* Cf. the people's annual festivals mentioned at Pss. Breth. 181, at one 
of which the Lord converted Kassapa of UruvelA's nephew. 



19.1— 20.1] MAHAVAGGAI 37 

power before the populace, the great recluse's gains and honour 
will much increase, my gains and honour will decline. Now 
the great recluse shall certainly not come to-morrow." || i || 

Then the Lord, [27] knowing by mind the reasoning in the 
mind of the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, having gone 
to Uttarakuru,^ having fetched almsfood from there, having 
eaten it by the Anotatta lake,^ took his midday rest there. 
Then at the end of that night the matted hair ascetic Uruvela- 
kassapa approached the Lord ; having approached, he spoke 
thus to the Lord : " It is time, great recluse, the meal is ready. 
But why did you not come yesterday, great recluse ? We 
thought of you however, saying ' How is it that the great 
recluse does not come ? ' A portion of solid food and soft 
food was put aside for you." || 2 || 

" Now did it not occur to you, Kassapa, ' At present my 
great sacrifice is going forward. . , . Now the great recluse shall 
certainly not come to-morrow ' ? || 3 || 

" So r, Kassapa, knowing by mind the reasoning in your mind, 
having gone to Uttarakuru, having fetched almsfood from there, 
having eaten it by the Anotatta lake, took my mid-day rest 
there." Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvela- 
kassapa, " Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, 
of great might, in that he also knows mind by mind ; but yet 
he is not a perfected one as I am." Then the Lord, having 
eaten the meal (offered by) the matted hair ascetic Uruvela- 
kassapa, stay^ed in that same woodland grove. || 4 || 

The Fifth Wonder. || 19 || 

Now at that time a rag-robe accrued to the Lord. Then it 
occurred to the Lord : " Now where can I wash the rag-robe ? " 
Then Sakka, lord of the devas, knowing by mind the reasoning 
in the Lord's mind, having dug a tank with his hand, spoke 
thus to the Lord : " Lord, the Lord may wash the rag-robe 
here." Then it occurred to the Lord : " Now on what can 
I knead the rag-robe ? " Then Sakka, lord of the devas, 
knowing by mind the reasoning in the Lord's mind, having 

* Mentioned at Vin. iii. 7 [B.D. i. 14). See D.P.P.N., especially for its 
being considered a mark of great psychic power to be able to go here — a 
somewhat mythical region. 

■ One of the seven great lakes of the Himalayas. See D.P.P.N. 



38 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

put down a large stone near him, said : " Lord, the Lord may 
knead the rag-robe here." || i || 

Then it occurred to the Lord : " Now holding on to what can 
I come up from (the water) ? " Then a devata inhabiting a 
kakudha (tree)^, knowing by mind the reasoning in the Lord's 
mind, bent down a bough, saying : " Lord, the Lord [28] may 
come up from (the water) holding on here." Then it occurred 
to the Lord : " Now on what can I stretch out^ the rag-robe ? " 
Then Sakka, lord of the devas, knowing by mind the reasoning 
in the Lord's mind, having put down a large stone near him, 
said: "Lord, the Lord may stretch out the rag-robe here." 

112 II 

Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached 
the Lord at the end of that night ; having approached, he 
spoke thus tp the Lord : " It is time, great recluse, the meal 
is ready. But how is it, great recluse, that this tank was not 
here before, and now this tank is here ? Nor was this stone 
put down before. By whom was this stone put down ? Nor 
was a bough of this kakudha (tree) bent down before, and now 
this bough is bent down." || 3 || 

" Kassapa, a rag-robe accrued to me here, and this occurred 
to me, Kassapa, ' Now where can I wash the rag-robe ? ' 
Then, Kassapa, Sakka, lord of the devas, knowing by mind the 
reasoning in my mind, having dug a tank with his hand, spoke 
thus to me : ' Lord, the Lord may wash the rag-robe here,' 
So this tank was dug by the hand of a non-human being. ^ 
Then this occurred to me, Kassapa, ' Now on what can I knead 
the rag-robe ? ' . . . So this stone was put* by a non-human 
being. || 4 || 

Then this occurred to me, Kassapa, ' Now holding on to what 
can I come up out of (the water) ? ' Then, Kassapa, a devatd 
. . . said : ' Lord, the Lord may come up from (the water) 
holding on here.' So this kakudha (tree) was a hold for my 
hand.^ Then this occurred to me, Kassapa, ' Now on what 

1 Terminalia Arjuna accord, to P.E.D. Cf. J a. vi. 518-9, DhA. iv. 153- 
Ajjuna at Budv. viii. 23 and DhA . i. 105 is the tree of the Buddha Anomadassin* 
VA. 972 calls it ajjunarukkha, which P.E.D. calls Pentaptera Arjuna. 

* vissajieyyam, expl. at VA. 972 as sukkhapanatthdya pasdretvd thapeyyam 
(where) can I put it, stretching it out to dry ? 

' amanussena. Cf. Vin. iii. 85 (and B.D. i. 147, n. 2). 

* nikkhittd, instead of, as previously, upanikkhi-. 
' ahara-hattha. 



20.5-IO] MAHAVAGGAI 39 

can I stretch out the rag-robe ? ' Then^ Sakka, lord of the 
devas ... So this stone was put by a non-human being." 

11511 

Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa : 
" Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great 
might, in that Sakka, lord of the devas, does him a service ; 
but yet he is not a perfected one as I am." Then the Lord, 
having eaten the meal (offered by) the matted hair ascetic 
Uruvelakassapa, stayed in that same woodland grove. || 6 || 

Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached 
the Lord at the end of that night ; having approached, [29] 
he announced the time to the Lord, saying : " It is time, 
great recluse, the meal is ready." 

" You go on, Kassapa, I am coming along," and having 
dismissed the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, having 
plucked a fruit from a rose-apple tree, after which this Land 
of the Rose-apples* is named, he sat down in the fire-room, 
having arrived first. || 7 || 

The matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa saw the Lord 
sitting in the fire-room ; seeing him he spoke thus to the 
Lord : " By what way have you come, great recluse ? I set 
out before you, but you are sitting in the fire-room, having 
arrived first." || 8 || 

" Now r, Kassapa, having dismissed you, having plucked 
a fruit from a rose-apple tree, after which this Land of the 
Rose-apples is named, am sitting in the fire-room, having 
arrived first. Truly, Kassapa, this rose-apple fruit is full of 
colour, full of scent, full of flavour ; if you like, do eat it." 

" No, great recluse, you alone are worthy of it, you alone 
eat it." Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic 
Uruvelakassapa : " Truly the great recluse is of great psychic 
power, of great might, in that having dismissed me first . . . 
he sat down in the fire-room, having arrived first ; but yet 
he is not a perfected one as I am." Then the Lord, having 
eaten the meal (offered by) the matted hair ascetic 
Uruvelakassapa, stayed in that same woodland grove. I| 9 || 

Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached 
the Lord at the end of that night ; having approached he 

* The name Kassapa is omitted here. 

• Jambudlpa, usually meaning India, 



40 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

announced the time to the Lord, sa5dng : " It is time, great 
recluse, the meal is ready." 

" You go on, Kassapa, I am coming along," and having 
dismissed the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, and having 
plucked a mango fruit not far from the rose-apple tree, after 
which this Land of the Rose-apples is named . . . having 
plucked a fruit of emblic myrobalan^ not far from the mango 
tree . . . having plucked a fruit of yellow myrobalan^ not 
far from the emblic myrobalan, having gone to the Thirty,' 
having plucked a flower from the Coral Tree,* he sat down in 
the fire-room, having arrived first. The matted hair ascetic 
Uruvelakassapa saw the Lord sitting in the fire-room, and 
seeing him he spoke thus to the Lord : " By what way 
have you come, great recluse ? 1 set out before you, but 
you are sitting in the fire-room, having arrived first." 
II 10 II 

" Now I, Kassapa, having dismissed you, having gone to the 
Thirty, having plucked a flower from the Coral Tree, am sitting 
in the fire-room, having arrived first. Truly, Kassapa, this 
flower of the Coral Tree is full of colour, full of scent ; if you 
like, do take it." 

" No, great recluse, you alone are worthy of it, you alone 
[30] take it." Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic 
Uruvelakassapa : " Truly the great recluse is of great psychic 
power, of great might, in that having dismissed me first, having 
gone to the Thirty, having plucked a flower from the Coral 
Tree, he is sitting in the fire-room, having arrived first ; but 
yet he is not a perfected one as 1 am." || ii || 

Now at that time these matted hair ascetics, wanting to 
tend the (sacred) fires, were unable to chop sticks. Then it 
occurred to these matted hair ascetics : " Doubtless it is 

^ dmalakl (here and at M. i. 456 ; elsewhere amalaka), phyllanthus 
emblica. The fruit allowed to monks as a medicine, Vin. i. 201. Cf. Vin. 
i. 278. 

' haritakl. Fruit also allowed as a medicine at Vin. i. 201. Cf. M. 
iii. 127. 

' I.e. to the realm of the Thirty (or Thirty-three) Devas, tavatitnsa. 

* pdricchattaka, " shading all round," Erythrina Indica. A (mythical) 
tree growing in the Tavatimsa realm. At A. iv. 117 the devas' rejoicings 
at each stage in the development of shoot and bloom are set out. See G.S, 
iv. 78 ff. for notes. D.P.P.N., missing the above Vin. reference, asserts 
that the flowers are never plucked. In that case this is a notewprthy 
exception. 



20.12-15] MAHAVAGGAI 41 

(owing to) the psychic might of the great recluse that we are 
unable to chop sticks." Then the Lord spoke thus to the 
matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa : " Kassapa, let sticks 
be chopped." 

"Let them be chopped, great recluse." Five hundred 
sticks were chopped simultaneously.* Then it occurred to the 
matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa : " Truly the great 
recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that also 
sticks are chopped ; but yet he is not a perfected one as I 
am." II 12 II 

Now at that time these matted hair ascetics, wanting to tend 
the (sacred) fires, were unable to kindle the fires. Then it 
occurred to these matted hair ascetics : " Doubtless . . . unable 
to kindle the fires." Then the Lord spoke thus to the matted 
hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa : " Kassapa, let the fires be 
kindled." 

" Let them be kindled, great recluse." Five hundred fires 
were kindled simultaneously ... "... in that also the fires 
are kindled ; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am." || 13 || 
Now at that time these matted hair ascetics, having tended 
the fires, were unable to extinguish the fires.^ . . . The five 
hundred fires were extinguished simultaneously ..."... in 
that also the fires are extinguished ; but yet he is not a per- 
fected one as I am." || 14 || 

Now at that time on the cold winter nights between the 
eights' in a time of snowfall these matted hair ascetics were 
plunging into the river Neranjara, then emerging and re- 

^ sakjd eva, just once, onCe only. There was doubtless one stick "for 
each of the five hundred jafilas over whom Kassapa was chief " {Vin. Texts 
L 129, n.). 

• Clear therefore that the fires were not kept burning perpetually. 

» antaratthakasu, the atthaka days which, according to VA. 1128, are 
" the eight (days) between Magha and Phagguna " (names of lunar man- 
sions). Cf. MA. ii. 48 (on M. i. 79) " four at the end of the month of 
Migha, four at the beginning of the month of Phagguria, thus between 
the two there are eight nights." Cf. A A. ii. 225 (on A. i. 136), " the time 
extends for eight days in the interval between Magha and Phagguna. For 
there are four days at the end of Magha and four at the beginning of 
Phagguna, this is called 'occurring between the eights'" (antaratthako) . 
See Vin. i. 288, Ud. i. 9, UdA. 74. Transld. at S.B.B. viii, p. 7 as " be- 
tween the eighths " ; at G.S. i. 119, Fur. Dial. i. 55 as " in the dark half 
of the month(s) " ; at Vin. Texts i. 130, ii. 211 as " between the Ashtak& 
festivals." C.P.D. gives " occurring between the eights." The translation 
" eighths " is justified by the meaning of ashtakd (fem.) as the " eighth day 
after full moon " (Monier Williams). But " eights " seem preferred by the 
Comys. See notes at S.B.B. viii. p. 7, G.S. i. 119, Vin. Texts i. X30. 



42 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

peatedly plunging in and out.^ Then the Lord created as 
many as five hundred fire-vessels^ just where these matted 
hair ascetics, having come up from (the river), warmed them- 
selves.' [31] Then it occurred to these matted hair ascetics : 
" Doubtless it is (owing to) the psychic might of the great 
recluse that these fire-vessels are created." Then it occurred 
to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa : " Truly the great 
recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that he 
can create these fire-vessels ; but yet he is not a perfected one 
as I am." || 15 || 

Now at that time a great rain fell out of the proper season, 
and a great flood resulted.* The Lord was staying in a place 
which became inundated by water. Then it occurred to the 
Lord : " Now suppose that I, having made the water recede 
all roimd, should pace up and down in the middle on dust- 
covered ground ? " Then the Lord, having made the water 
recede all round, paced up and down in the middle on dust- 
covered ground. Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, 
thinking : "I hope that the great recluse has not been carried 
away^ by the water," went together with a boat and many 
matted hair ascetics to that place where the Lord was staying. 
The matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa saw the Lord who, hav- 
ing made the water recede all round, was pacing up and down in 
the middle on dust-covered ground, and seeing him he spoke 
thus to the Lord: "Is it indeed you who are here, great 
recluse ? " 

" It is I,^ Kassapa," and the Lord having risen up above 
the ground, placed himself in the boat. Then it occurred to 
the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa : " Truly the great 
recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that also 
the water does not carry him away ; but yet he is not a per- 
fected one as I am." || 16 || 

Then it occurred to the Lord : " Now, for a long time it 
will occur to this foolish man, ' Truly the great recluse is of 

^ C/. Ud. 6 for parallel passage. It would appear that jatilas practised 
purification by fire and water ; cf. ceremonial bathing at Gaya mentioned 
by Kassapa of Gaya, Thag. 345. 

* tnanddntukhi. VA. 972 calls these aggibhdjdni. 

* Same word, visibbeti, as used in Pac. LVI ; see B.D. ii. 398, n. 3. 

* saHjayi, lit. was born, was produced. 

* Cf. same expression at Vin. iii. 213 (B.D. ii. 48). 

* Emphatic : ayam ah'asmi. 



20.17-19] MAHAVAGGA I 43 

great psychic power, of great might ; but yet he is not a per- 
fected one as I am.' Now, suppose I should deeply stir^ this 
matted hair ascetic ? " Then the Lord spoke thus to the 
matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvela : " Neither are you, 
Kassapa, a perfected one nor have you entered on the way to 
perfection, and that course is not for you by which you eiiher 
could be a perfected one or could have entered on the way to 
perfection." Then the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of 
Uruvela, having incUned his head to the Lord's feet, spoke 
thus to the Lord : " Lord, may I receive the going forth in the 
Lord's presence, may I receive ordination ? " || 17 !| 

" It is you, Kassapa> who are leader, guide, highest, chief, 
head of five hundred matted hair ascetics ; do consult these 
so that they can do what they think (right)." Then the 
matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvela approached these 
matted hair ascetics ; having approached, he spoke thus to 
these matted hair ascetics : " I want, [32] good sirs,^ to fare 
the Brahma-i iring under the great recluse ; let the revered 
sirs' do what they think (right)." 

" For a lon^^ time we, good sir,^ have been much pleased* 
by the great recluse ; if, revered sir,* you will fare the Brahma- 
faring under the great recluse, all of us will fare the Brahma- 
faring under the great recluse." || 18 || 

Then these matted hair ascetics, having let their hair, their 
braids, their bundles on the carrjdng-poles," their implements 
for fire-worship be carried away' all mixed up in the water, 
approached the Lord ; having approached, having inclined 
their heads to the Lord's feet, they spoke thus to the Lord : 
" Lord, may we receive the going forth in the Lord's presence, 
may we receive ordination ? " 

^ saffivejeyyam. Cf. this word, as used above, with other examples of it 
given by A. K. Coomaraswamy, Samvega, 'Aesthetic Shock', H.J.A.S., 
vol. 7, no. 3, Feb., 1943. 

• bho. » bhavanto. 

• In the sense of believing in his teaching. 

• bhavatfi. 

• khdrikdja, which VA. 972 explains as khari-bhdra. Khdri is a three 
bushel measure, kdja ( = vividha, vivadha) is the shoulder-pole on which 
some ascetics and wanderers carried their property, their khari. DA. 269 
calls khdri the requisites of ari ascetic : kindling wood, water pot, needle 
and so on. Cf. khdri-vividha at Ud. 65 = S. i. 78, and D. i. lOi. 

' pavdhetvd. Pavdheti is to cause to be carried away, and hence to 
cleanse, to wash away (evil). Perhaps a dual reference is intended here. 
Cf. Thag. 346 (Kassapa of GayS's verses). 



44 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Come, monks," the Lord said, " well taught is dhamma, 
fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill." So this 
came to be these venerable ones' ordination. || 19 || 

The matted hair ascetic Kassapa of the River saw the hair, 
the braids, the bundles on the carrying-poles, the implements 
for fire-worship being carried away all mixed up in the water ; 
seeing this, it occurred to him : "I hope my brother is not 
in danger," and he dispatched matted hair ascetics saying : 
" Go and find out about my brother, "and he himself with his 
three hundred matted hair ascetics approached the venerable 
Kassapa of Uruvela ; having approached he spoke thus to the 
venerable Kassapa of Uruvela : " Is this better, Kassapa ? " 

" Yes, friend, this is better." || 20 1| 

Then these matted hair ascetics . . .* So this came to be 
these venerable ones' ordination. || 21 i| 

The matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Gaya saw the hair, 
the braids, the bundles on the carrying-poles, the implements 
for fire-worship being carried away all mixed up in the water ; 
seeing this, it occurred to him : "I hope my brothers are not 
in danger," and he dispatched matted hair ascetics, saying : 
" Go and find out about my brothers," and he himself with his 
two hundred matted hair ascetics approached the venerable 
Kassapa of Uruvela ; having approached, he spoke thus to the 
venerable Kassapa of Uruvela : "Is this better, Kassapa ? " 

" Yes, friend, this is better." || 22 || 

Then these matted hair ascetics, having let their hair, their 
braids, their bundles on the carrying-poles, their implements 
for fire-worship be carried away all mixed up in the water, 
approached the Lord ; having approached, [34] having inclined 
their heads to the Lord's feet, they spoke thus to the Lord : 
" Lord, may we receive the going forth in the Lord's presence, 
may we receive ordination ? " 

" Come, monks," the Lord said, " well taught is dhamma, 
fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill." So 
this came to be these venerable ones' ordination. || 23 I| 

Through the Lord's psychic resolution, five hundred fire- 
sticks could not be chopped, (and) were chopped ; fires could 
not be kindled (and) were kindled ; could not be extinguished 

* Repeating i| 19 || for the followers of Kassapa of the River. 



20.24—21.4] MAHAVAGGAI 45 

(and) were extinguished ; five hundred fire-vessels were 
created. In this way there came to be three thousand five 
hundred marvels. f| 24 || 20 || 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Uruvela for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Gaya Head together with a 
large Order of monks, with all those same thousand monks 
who had formerly been matted hair ascetics. Then the Lord 
stayed near Gaya at Gaya Head together with the thousand 
monks. || i || 

And there the Lord addressed the monks, saying : " Monks, 
everything is burning.^ And what, monks, is everything that 
is burning ? The eye, monks, is burning, material shapes are 
burning, consciousness through the eye^ is burning, impinge- 
ment on the eye^ is burning, in other words the feeling which 
arises from impingement on the eye, be it pleasant or painful 
or neither painful nor pleasant, that too is burning. With 
^vhat is it burning ? I say it is burning with the fire of passion,* 
with the fire of hatred, with the fire of stupidity ; it is burning 
because of birth, ageing, dying, because of grief, sorrow, 
suffering, lamentation and despair. || 2 || 

" The ear is burning, sounds are burning . . . the nose is 
burning, odours are burning . . . the tongue is burning, tastes 
are burning . . . the body is burning, tangible objects are 
burning . . . the mind is burning, mental states are burning, 
consciousness through the mind^ is burning, impingement on 
the mind is burning, in other words the feeling which raises 
through impingement on the mind, be it pleasant or painful 
or neither painful nor pleasant, that too is burning. 
With what is it burning ? I say it is burning with the fire 
of passion, with the fire of hatred, with the fire of stupidity ; 
it is burning because of birth, ageing, dying, because of grief, 
sorrow, suffering, lamentation and despair. || 3 || 

" Seeing this, monks, the instructed disciple of the ariyans 
disregards the eye and he disregards material shapes and he 

^ Quoted at Kvu. 209. 

> caAAAMt;i«na«a, i.e. cognising by the eye, vision or seeing. See Bud. Psych. 
Ethics, 2nd edn., p. i6i, n. 5 ; Dial. ii. 340, iii. 230; and cf. M. i. iii f. 

• cakkhusamphassa, or impression on, or contact with, the eye. 

• Quoted at SnA. 32. 

• manoviniidna, i.e. cognising by the mind, ' apprehending '. 



46 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

disregards consciousness through the eye and he disregards 
impingement on the eye, in other words the feeUng which 
arises from impingement on the eye, be it pleasant or painful 
or neither painful nor pleasant, that too he disregards. And he 
disregards the ear and he disregards sounds, and he disregards 
the nose [34] and he disregards odours, and he disregards the 
tongue and he disregards tastes, and he disregards the body 
and he disregards tangible objects, and he disregards the mind 
and he disregards mental states and he disregards consciousness 
through the mind and he disregards impingement on the mind, 
in other words the feehng that arises from impingement on the 
mind, be it pleasant or painful or neither painful nor pleasant, 
that too he disregards ; disregarding, he is dispassionate ; 
through dispassion he is freed ; in freedom the knowledge 
comes to be, ' I am freed ', and he comprehends : Destroyed 
is birth, lived is the Brahma-faring, done is what was to be 
done, there is no more of being such or such.^" 

And while this discourse was being uttered, the minds of 
these thousand monks were freed from the cankers without 
grasping. || 4 || 

Told is the Disquisition^ on Burning. || 21 |I 

Told is the Third Portion for Repeating : the Wonder(s) 

at Uruvela. 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Gaya Head for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Rajagaha together with the 
large Order of monks, with all those same thousand monks 
who had formerly been matted hair ascetics. Then the Lord, 
walking on tour, in due course arrived at Rajagaha. The Lord 
stayed there at Rajagaha in the Palm Grove pleasure ground^ 
in the Supatittha shrine.* i| 1 1| 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha heard : " Verily, 
the recluse Gotama, the son of the Sakyans, who has gone 
forth from the Sakyan clan, has reached Rajagaha and is 

* As above, p. 21. i 

* pariyaya. 

■ Latthivanuyyana, lit. the pleasance, pleasure ground or park of the 
grove of sprouts (or canes or sticks). VA. 972 explains by tdluyydna, the 
palmyra, or talipot-palm pleasance. Cf. Ja. i. 68, 84 ; and D. P.P.N. 

* VA. 972 calls this a round tree. See E. J. Thomas, Life of Buddha, 
p. 230- 



22.2-4] MAHAVAGGAI 47 

staying at Rajagaha in the Palm Grove pleasure ground in 
the Supatittha shrine. A lovely reputation has gone forth 
concerning the Lord Gotama, thus : He is indeed Lord, 
perfected one, fully awakened one, endowed with knowledge 
and conduct, well-farer, knower of the worlds, unrivalled 
charioteer of men to be tamed, teacher of devas and mankind, 
awakened one. Lord. Having realised them by his own 
super-knowledge, he makes known this world with its devas, 
with its Maras, with its Brahmas, creatures with devas and 
men, with recluses and brahmans. He teaches dhamma, 
lovely at the beginning, lovely in the middle, lovely at the 
ending. He explains with the spirit and the letter the Brahma- 
faring completely fulfilled and wholly pure. Good indeed it 
were to see perfected ones like this." || 2 i| 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, surrounded by 
twelve myriad* brahmans and householders^ of Magadha, 
approached the Lord ; having approached, having greeted 
the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. Then some 
of these twelve myriad [35] brahmans and householders of 
Magadha having greeted the Lord, sat down at a respectful 
distance ; some exchanged greetings with the Lord, and having 
exchanged greetings of friendliness and courtesy, they sat 
down at a respectful distance ; some having saluted the Lord 
with joined palms, sat down at a respectful distance ; some 
having shouted out their name and clan before the Lord, sat 
down at a respectful distance ; some having become silent, 
sat down at a respectful distance. || 3 || 

Then it occurred to those twelve myriad brahmans and 
householders of Magadha : " Now,' does the great recluse 
fare the Brahma-faring under Kassapa of Uruvela, or does 
Kassapa of Uruvela fare the Brahma-faring under the great 
recluse ? " Then the Lord, knowing with his mind the 
reasoning in the minds of those twelve myriad brahmans and 
householders of Magadha, addressed Kassapa of Uruvela with 
the verses : 

* nahuti. Cf. Sn. 677. Exact meaning unknown, but some high number. 
VA. 972 says " here one. nahuta is ten thousand." 

■ brdhmanagahapatika, not " brahman householders " as at Burlingame, 
Bud. Legends i. 197, but as at Vin. Texts i. 137 (where see n.) and above. 
For see definition of " householder " at Vin. iii. 222, " setting aside king 
. . . and brahman, he who remains is called ' householder'." 

• Cf. Ja. vi. 220; To end of second verse quoted at BudvA. 20. 



48 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" What hast thou seen, O dweller in Uruvela, 
That thou, known as emaciate^, hast abandoned the 

(sacred) fire ? 
I ask thee about this matter, Kassapa : 
Hast thou abandoned thy fire-implements ? " 

'' The sacrifices speak of forms and sounds, 
Also of tastes*, pleasures and women. 
Knowing that ' This is dross ' among affections — 
Therefore I deUghted not in sacrifice, in offering." || 4 || 

" But if your mind delights not there, Kassapa," the Lord said, 
*' Among forms, sounds and also tastes. 

Then in the world of devas and men what does your mind 
delight in ? 

Kassapa, tell me that." 

*' When I had seen the path, peaceful, without substrate'. 
Stainless*, not attached to sensations' becoming. 
Not becoming otherwise*, where one cannot be led by 

others* — 
In consequence, I delighted not in sacrifice, in offering." || 5 || 

Then the venerable Kassapa of Uruvela, rising from his 
seat, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, 
having inclined his head towards the Lord's feet, spoke thus 
to the Lord : " Lord, the Lord is my teacher, I am a disciple' ; 
Lord, the Lord is my teacher, I am a disciple. " Then it occurred 
to those twelve myriad brahmans and householders of 
Magadha : " Kassapa of Uruvela fares the Brahma-faring 
under the great recluse." || 6 || 

Then the Lord, knowing by mind the reasoning in the minds 
of these twelve myriad brahmans and householders of Magadha, 

1 kisako vadano ; see note Vin. Texts i. 138, n. i. 

• rupe ca sadde ca atho rase ; cf. Sn. 974. 

» anupadhika, i.e. without substrate for or attachment to rebirth. 

• akincanam kamabhave asattam, also at Sn. 176, 1059, 1091. AkiUcana 
can also mean " having nothing ", " calling nothing one's own ", see Vin. 
Texts i. 139, n. i. VA. 973 says of it that it means without the stain of 
passion. 

» anaaaathabhavim, i.e. there is no becoming (for the path) as to birth, 
decrepitude, dying (according to VA. 973). Cf. S. iii. 225, iv. 23, 66. 

• anaHnaneyyam. VA, 973 says that one should oneself, by making the 
Way become, come to the path and should not be brought to it by anyone 
else. Cf. Sn. 55, 213, 364. 

' Ji. vi. 220, BudvA. 20. 



22.8-II] MAHAVAGGAI 49 

[36] talked a progressive talk . . . stopping, the Way.^ || 7 || 

And as a clean cloth without black specks will easily take 
a dye, even so as the twelve myriad brahmans and house- 
holders of Magadha with Bimbisara at their head were (sitting) 
in those very seats, dhainma-vision, dustless, stainless, arose 
to them, that " Whatever is of the nature to uprise, all that 
is of the nature to stop," and one myriad declared themselves 
to be lay-followers. || 8 || 

Then King Bimbisara of Magadha, having seen dhamma, 
attained dhamma, known dhamma, plunged into dhamma, 
having crossed over doubt, put away uncertainty, having 
attained without another's help to full confidence in the 
teacher's instruction, spoke thus to the Lord : " Formerly, 
Lord, when I was a young man I had five ambitions. ^ These 
are now realised^ by me. Formerly, Lord, when I was a 
young man it occurred to me : ' Might I be anointed into 
kingship.' This was my first ambition. Lord. It has now 
been realised by me. And ' Might the perfected one, the fully 
awakened one come into my realm.' -This, Lord, was my 
second ambition. It has now been realised by me. || 9 || 

" ' That I might pay homage to this Lord.' This, Lord, 
was my third ambition. It has now been realised by me. 
And ' May that Lord teach me dhamma.' This, Lord, was 
my fourth ambition. It has now been realised by me. And 
' Might I understand that Lord's dhamma.' This, Lord, was 
my fifth ambition. It has now been realised by me. Formerly, 
Lord, when I was a young man I had these five ambitions. 
They are now realised by me. || 10 |1 

" Excellent, Lord ! Excellent, Lord ! Even, Lord, as one 
might set upright what has been upset* . . . even so is 
dhamma explained in many a figure by the Lord. So I, Lord, 
go to the Lord^ as refuge and to dhamma and to the Order of 
monks. Lord, may the Lord accept me as a lay-disciple gone 
for refuge from this day forth for as long as life lasts. And, 
Lord, may the Lord consent [37] to a meal with me to-morrow 
together with the Order of monks." The Lord consented by 
becoming silent. || 11 |i 

^ As above, I. 7. 5-6. * assdsaka. 

• samiddha, well effected. ♦ As above, I. 7- 10. 

* bhagavantam. 



50 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, having understood 
the Lord's consent, rising from his seat, having greeted the 
Lord, departed keeping his right side towards him. Then 
King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, having had sumptuous 
food, soUd and soft, prepared, at the end of that night had 
the time announced to the Lord, saying : " Lord, it is time, 
the meal is ready." Then the Lord, having dressed in the 
morning, taking his bowl and robe, entered Rajagaha together 
with the large Order of monks, with all those same thousand 
monks who had formerly been matted-hair ascetics. I| 12 || 

Now at that time Sakka, lord of the devas, having assumed 
the form of a brahman youth, walked in front of the Order 
of monks with the Lord at its head, singing these verses : 

" The tamed with the tamed, with the former matted-hair 
ascetics, the well freed^ with the well freed. 
The Lord, beautifully . coloured like a golden ornament,* 

entered Rajagaha. 
The freed' with the freed, with the former matted-hair 

ascetics, the well freed with the well freed. 
The Lord ... 

The crossed over with the crossed over, with the former 
matted-hair ascetics, the well freed with the well 
freed. 
The Lord . . . 
He of the ten states,* of the ten powers,' versed in the 

ten things,* and furnished with the ten,' 

He, the Lord, surrounded by ten hundred, entered 

Rajagaha.«" 1| 13 || 

People having seen Sakka, lord of the devas, spoke thus : 

" Indeed this brahman youth is lovely, indeed this brahman 

youth is good to look upon, indeed this brahman youth is 

* vippamutta. 

» singtnikkhasuvafina. Cf. S. ii. 234. Gold is the colour for immor- 
tality. 
' mutta. 

* dasavdsa. Ten ariya-vasa given at D. iii. 269, A. v. 2Q. 

' dasdbaia became an epithet of this and the previous Buddhas. 

• According to VA. 973 the ten paths of action. 

' According to VA . 973 the ten factors of an adept, asekhehi aAgeki upeto. 
Cf. the adept's ten qualities, dhammd, at A. v. 222, and his ten powers, 
baldni, at Pis. ii. 173 : both consist of the eight " fitnesses " of the eight- 
fold Way with the addition of right knowledge and right freedom. 

• Quoted at JS. i. 84. 



22.14-18] MAHAVAGGAI 51 

charming. Whose, now, is this brahman youth ? " When 
they had spoken thus, Sakka, lord of the devas, addressed 
these people with a verse : 

" He who is steadfast, tamed in every way, awakened, 
peerless among men, 
Perfected, well-farer, I am his attendant in the world. "^ 

II 14 II 

Then the Lord approached the dwelling of King Seniya 
Bimbisara of Magadha ; having approached he sat down on 
the appointed seat together with the Order of monks. Then 
King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, with his own hand having 
offered, having satisfied the Order of monks with the awakened 
one at its head with sumptuous food, solid and soft, when the 
Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from the bowl, 
sat down at a respectful distance. || 15 || [38] 

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance it occurred 
to King Seni3'^a Bimbisara of IMagadha : " Now, where could 
the Lord stay that would be neither too far from a village nor 
too near, suitable for coming and going, accessible for people 
whenever they want^, not crowded by day, having little noise 
at night, little sound, without folk's breath, haunts of privacy, 
suitable for seclusion ? "^ II 16 || 

Then it occurred to King Seniya Bimbisara of JMagadha : 
" Now, this Bamboo Grove of ours, a pleasure park,* is neither 
too far from a village . . . suitable for seclusion. Suppose 
I were to give the Bamboo Grove, a pleasure park, to the 
Order of the monks with the awakened one at its head ? " 

II 17 II 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, having taken a 
ceremonial vessel made of gold, dedicated it to the Lord, 
sa3dng : " May I, Lord, give this Bamboo Grove, a pleasure 
park, to the Order of monks v/ith the awakened one at its 
head ? " The Lord accepted the park.* Then the Lord, 
having gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted King Seniya 
Bimbisara of Magadha with talk on dhamma, having risen 

1 Ja. i. 84. 

* atthikanam-atthikanam, explained at VA. 974 as going up to the 
awakened one and hearing dhamma. 

» This is stock, Vin. ii. 158, D. iii. 38, M. ii. 118, iii 13, A. iv. 88, Vbh, 224. 

* uyydna : see definition at Vin, iv. 298. {B.D. iii. 325). 



52 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

from his seat, departed. Then the Lord, oh this occasion, 
having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, sa5dng : 
" Monks, I allow a park.i" || i8 || 22 || 

At that time the wanderer Sanjaya^ was residing in Rajagaha 
together with a great company of wanderers, with two hmidred 
and fifty wanderers. Now at that time Sariputta and 
Moggallana fared the Brahma-faring under the wanderer 
Safijaya, and an agreement came to be formed by these : 
" Whoever attains the deathless first, let him announce it. " |I i || 

Then the venerable Assaji,^ having dressed in the morning, 
taking his bowl and robe, entered Rajagaha for almsfood. 
He was pleasing whether he was approaching or departing, 
whether he was looking in front or looking behind, whether 
he was drawing in or stretching out (his arm), his eyes were 
cast down, he was possessed of pleasant behaivour.* The 
wanderer Sariputta saw the venerable Assaji walking for 
almsfood in Rajagaha — pleasing whether he was approaching 
. . . possessed of pleasant behaviour — and seeing him, it 
occurred to him : " This is one of those monks who are indeed 
perfected ones in the world or who have entered on the way to 
perfection. What [39] now if I, having approached this monk, 
should ask him : ' On account of whom are you, your reverence, 
gone forth, or who is your teacher, or whose dhamma do you 
profess ' ?5 " II 2 11 

Then it occurred to the wanderer Sariputta : " But it is not 
the right time to question this monk, he has gone in among 
the houses, he is walking for almsfood. What now if I should 
follow close after this monk who has learnt a way for those 
who need it"? " Then the venerable Assaji, having walked 

^ Arama, a park, and then a monastery. 

* D. P.P.N, ii. p. looo identifies him with Saiijaya-Belatthiputta, one of 
the six famous heretical teachers of Gotama's days, ?nd whose doctrines 
are given at D. i. 58. See also Mrs. Rhys Davids, Sakya, p. 123. 

' This Assaji was one of " the group of five " friends to whom Gotama 
addressed his first and second Utterances. See Mrs. Rhys Davids, Sakya, 
p. 122 fl. for view that the" subject of causation ... is due directly to 
Assaji," and her Gotama the Man, p. 76 f., 108, 242, Manual, p. 215. 

* Stock. Cf. e.g. M. iii. 35, 90, D. i. 79, A. ii. 104, 106, 210, Vin. iii. 180. 

• Cf. above I. 6. 7. 

• atthikehi upaHnatatn maggam. VA. 975 says this means either a way 
that is known and practised ; 01, there will be death lessness for us who 
need it ; and thus upanHata means nirvana, and so the meaning here is : 
tracking (or wayfaring after, tnagganto), seeking this. 



23.3-5] MAHAVAGGA I 53 

for almsfood in Rajagaha, taking his silmsbowl, returned. 
Then the wanderer Sariputta approached the venerable 
Assaji ; having approached, he exchanged greetings with the 
venerable Assaji ; having exchanged courteous and friendly 
greetings, he stood at a respectful distance. As he was standing 
at a respectful distance, the wanderer Sariputta spoke thus 
to the venerable Assaji : " Your reverence, your faculties are 
quite pure, your complexion very bright, very clear. On 
account of whom, your reverence, have you gone forth, or 
who is your teacher, or whose dhamma do you profess^ ? " 

113 11 

" There is, friend, a great recluse, a son of the Sakyans, 
gone forth from a Sakyan family. I have gone forth on 
account of this Lord and this Lord is my teacher and I profess 
this Lord's dhamma." 

" But what is the doctrine of your reverence's teacher, what 
does he point out ? " 

" Now, I, friend, am new,^ not long gone forth, fresh to this 
dhamma and discipline. I am not able to teach you dhamma 
in full, but I can teU you its purport^ briefly." 

Then the wanderer Sariputta spoke thus to the venerable 
Assaji : " So be it, your reverence, tell me little or tell me much, 
(but) in any case explain to me its purport ; I want just its 
purport. Why should you make a great elaboration* ? " 

11 4 11 

Then the venerable Assaji uttered this terse expression* of 
dhamma to the wanderer Sariputta : 

1 As at MV. I. 6. 7. 

• nava. If occurring with bhikkhu means a recently ordained monk. 
But not so combined here. It can also mean young, but other evidence 
is lacking to show that Assaji, the last of the group of five to attain dhamma- 
vision (I. 6. 36 above) was young in years. He was however young in 
standing as a follower of Gotama, newly ordained. 

» attha. This whole passage is controversial. Mrs. Rhys Davids takes 
atiha here as " the well, the good," Sakya, p. 134 f. ; Coomaraswamy, 
Some Pali Words, H.J.A.S., vol. 4, no. 2, July 1939, p. 172 f. as "purport". 
On the whole I am inclined to agree with his interpretation of the passage. 
See also E. J. Thomas, Life of Buddha, etc., p. 93 f. 

* vyaHjana. See Coomaraswamy, op. cit., p. 171 flf. E. J. Thomas, Life 
of Buddha as Legend and History, p. 94, n. i, says that this is a verse " in 
5rya metre . . . even if now corrupted ", and he prints it as verse as does 
Norman at DhA. i. 92. 

' pariydya, formula, paraphrase, circumlocution, see Coomaraswamy, 
op. cit., p. 172, n. I. Perhaps " epitome". Cf. A. iv. 63, where dhamma- 
pariyaya also appears to refer to verses. 



54 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Those things which proceed from a cause, of these the 
Truth-finder has told the cause, 
And that which is their stopping — the great recluse has 
such a doctrine. "1 

When the wanderer Sariputta had heard this terse expression 
of dhamma, there arose dhamma-vision, dustless, stainless, that 
" Whatever is of the nature to uprise all that is of the nature 
to stop." He said : " If this is indeed dhamma, you have 
penetrated as far as the sorrowless path, unseen, neglected for 
many m5rriads of aeons. "^ [| 5 || 

Then the wanderer Sariputta approached the wanderer 
Moggallana. Then the wanderer Moggallana saw the wanderer 
Sariputta coming in the distance, and seeing [40] the wanderer 
Sariputta, he spoke thus : " Friend, your faculties are quite 
pure, your complexion very bright, very clear. Can it be that 
you, friend, have attained the deathless ? " 
" Yes, friend, I have attained the deathless." 
" But how did you, friend, attain the deathless ? " || 6 || 
" Now, I, friend, saw the venerable Assaji walking for 
almsfood in Rajagaha — ^pleasing whether he was approaching 
or departing . . . [as at I. 23. 2) . . . |I 7 || 

" Then, friend, it occurred to me : ' But it is not the right 
time to question this monk ... (as at I. 23. 3, 4) ... |1 8, 9 || 

" Then, friend, the venerable Assaji uttered this terse 
expression of dhamma : 

' Those things which proceed from a cause, of these the 

Truthfinder has told the cause. 
And that which is their stopping — ^the great recluse has 

such a doctrine.' " 

When the wanderer Moggallana had heard this terse 
expression of dhamma [41] . . . {as at I. 23. 5) • . . 
II 10 II 23 II 

* Referred to at J a. i. 85. 

" = Ap. i. ver. 149. See Mrs. Rhys Davids, Sakya, p. 135. VA. 976 
takes the phrase to mean " this sorrowless path, unseen by us for many 
myriads of aeons is neglected " (or passed by, abbhatUam). Or, taking 
abbhatUam to mean " in the past, what is passed and over ", this passage 
could be translated : " unseen by us for many myriads of aeons in the past." 



24.1-3] MAHAVAGGA I 55 

Then the wanderer Moggallana spoke thus to the wanderer 
Sariputta : " Let us go, friend, to the Lord, (for) this Lord 
is the teacher for us." 

" Friend, these two hundred and fifty wanderers are staying 
here because of us, looking to us ; do let us consult them so 
that they may do what they think (right)." Then Sariputta 
and Moggallana approached these wanderers ; having 
approached, they spoke thus to these wanderers : 

" We are going, friends, to the Lord, (for) this Lord is the 
teacher for us." 

" We, venerable ones, are staying here because of you, 
looking to you. If the venerable ones will fare the Brahma- 
faring under the great recluse all of us wiU fare the Brahma-faring 
under the great recluse." jj i || 

Then Sariputta and Moggallana approached the wanderer 
Sanjaya ; having approached they spoke thus to the wanderer 
Saiijaya : " Sir, we are going to the Lord, (for) this Lord is 
the teacher for us." 

" No, friends, do not go ; we three will one and all look 
after this group." And a second time . . . And a third time . . . 
"... will look after this group." ]| 2 || 

Then Sariputta and Moggallana, taking those two hundred 
and fifty wanderers, approached the Bamboo Grove ; but on 
that self-same spot hot blood issued from the mouth of Sanjaya 
the wanderer.^ The Lord saw Sariputta and Moggallana coming 
in the distance ; seeing them, he addressed the monks saying : 

" Monks, these two friends, Kolita and Upatissa,^ are 
coming. This pair of disciples will be my chief, my eminent 
pair.' " When, in the deep sphere of knowledge, they had 
attained the matchless freedom in which there is destruction 
of attachments,* then the teacher explained about them in 
the Bamboo Grove : " These two friends, Kolita and Upatissa, 
are coming. This pair of disciples will be my chief, my 
eminent pair." || 3 || 

* See Vin. Texts i. 149, n. i. 

• Moggall3.na was named Kolita, probably after his village, where he 
was bom ; Upatissa was Sariputta's name, as he is recorded to say at M. i. 
150, " but my fellow Brahma-farers know me as Sariputta " — a name derived 
from his motiier's, Rupasarl. 

• Quoted at DhA. i. 95. 

* See Vin. Texts i. 149, n. 3, for note on " earixaordinary grammatical 
construction " of this passage. 



56 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Then Sariputta and Moggallana approached the Lord ; 
[42] having approached, having inclined their heads to the 
Lord's feet, they spoke thus to the Lord : " Lord, may we 
receive the going forth in the Lord's presence, may we receive 
ordination ? " 

" Come, monks," the Lord said, " well taught is dhamma, 
fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill." So 
this was these venerable ones' ordination. || 4 |i 

Now at that time very distinguished young men belonging 
to respectable families of Magadha were faring the Brahma- 
faring under the Lord. People looked down upon, criticised, 
spread it about, saying : " The recluse Gotama gets along by 
making (us) childless, the recluse Gotama gets along by making 
(us) widows, the recluse Gotama gets along by breaking up 
families. A thousand matted hair ascetics have now been 
allowed to go forth by him, and these two hundred and fifty 
wanderers of Safijaya have been allowed to go forth, and these 
very distinguished young men belonging to respectable families 
of Magadha are faring the Brahma-faring under the recluse 
Gotama." Moreover, having seen the monks, they reproved 
them in this verse : 

" The great recluse has come to Giribbaja^ of the Magadhese 
Leading all Saiijaya's (followers). Who will now be led 
by him?" II 5 II 
Monks heard these who . . . spread it about. Then these 
monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: "Monks, this 
noise will not last for long, it will last only for seven days, 
after seven days it will cease. Therefore, monks, if they re- 
prove you in this verse : 

' The great recluse has come to Giribbaja of the Magadhese 
Leading all Saiijaya's (followers). Who wiU now be led 
by him ? ' 

you should reprove them in reply in this verse : 

' Verily great heroes, Truthfinders, lead by what is true 
dhamma. 
Who would be jealous of the wise, leading by dhamma ? ' " 

\\^}_ 

* A name for Rajagaha, cf. Sn. 408. Literally "cow-pen". VA. 976 
says Giribbaja >vas a town in the country of the Magadhese. 



24.7—25.2] MAHAVAGGA I 57 

Now at that time the people, having seen the monks, 
reproved them in this verse : 

" The great recluse has come to Giribbaja of the Magadhese 
Leading all Sanjaya's (followers). Who will now be led 
by him ? " 

The monks reproved these people in reply in this verse : 

" Verily great heroes, Truthfinders, lead by what is true 
dhamma. 
Who would be jealous of the wise, leading by dhamma ? " [43] 

With the people saying : " It is said that the recluses, sons 
of the Sakyans, lead by dhamma, not by what is not-dhamma," 
that noise lasted exactly seven days, after seven days it 
ceased. 1| 7 || 

Told is the Going Forth of Sariputta and Moggallana. || 24 1| 
Told is the Fourth Portion for Repeating. 

Now at that time monks, being without preceptors, not 
being exhorted, not being instructed, walked for almsfood 
wrongly dressed, wrongly clothed, not befittingly attired.^ 
While people were eating, they held their ahnsbowls close 
above the soft food for the remains,^ and they held their 
almsbowls close above the solid food for the remains, 
and they held their almsbowls close above the savoury food 
for the remains, and they held their almsbowls close above the 
beverages^ for the remains, and having themselves asked for 
curry and boiled rice,* they ate it, and they remained in the 
refectory making a loud noise, a great noise. ^ || 1 1| 

People . . . spread it about, saying : " How can these 
recluses, sons of the Sakyans, walk for almsfood, wrongly 
dressed, wrongly clothed, not befittingly attired ? While 
people are eating, they hold their almsbowls close above the 

^ See Sekhiyas 1-4, 23, 24, and B.D. ii. 369 for references. I think it is 
meant that they were not wearing their robes in the regulation ways. 

* uttittha-patta. VA. 977, as noted in Vin. Texts i. 152, gives two explana- 
tions of this phrase, the one connecting it with ucchittha, left over, rejected ; 
the other with utthahati, to rise. 

' Cf. Vin. iii. 72 {B.D. i. 124) for these four items. 

* odana, one of the five soft foods {Vin. iv. 83). 

* Cf. Sekhiyas 11 -14. 



58 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

soft food ... and they remain in the refectory making a loud 
noise, a great noise, like brahmans at the meal-time of 
brahmans." || 2 |1 

Monks heard these people who . . . spread it about. Those 
who were modest monks, contented, conscientious, scrupulous, 
desirous of training . . . spread it about, saying : " How can 
these monks walk for almsfood wrongly dressed . . . and remain 
in the refectory making a loud noise, a great noise ? " j| 3 1| 

Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the 
Lord, on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order 
of monks convened, questioned the monks, saying : " Is it 
true, as is said, monks, that monks walk for almsfood wrongly 
dressed . . . [44] . . . and remain in the refectory making a great 
noise, a loud noise ? " 

" It is true. Lord." |1 4 || 

The awakened one, the Lord rebuked them, saying : 

" It is not fitting, monks, in these foolish men, it is not 
becoming, it is not proper, it is unworthy of a recluse, it is not 
allowable, it is not to be done. How, monks, can these foolish 
men walk for almsfood . . . and remain in the refectory making 
a loud noise, a great noise ? It is not, monks, for pleasing 
those who are not (yet) pleased, nor for increasing (the nimiber 
of) those who are pleased, but it is, monks, for displeasing 
those who are not (yet) pleased as well as those who are pleased, 
and for causing wavering in some." |1 5 H 

Then the Lord,^ having rebuked these monks, having in 
many a figure spoken in dispraise of difficulty in supporting 
and maintaining oneself, of great desires, of lack of contentment, 
of clinging (to the obstructions), of indolence ; having in many 
a figure spoken in praise of ease in supporting and maintaining 
oneself, of desiring little, of contentment, of expunging (evil), 
of punctiliousness, of graciousness, of decreasing (the obstruc- 
tions), of putting forth energy, having given reasoned talk 
on what is fitting, on what is becoming, addressed the monks, 
saying : 

" Monks, I allow a preceptor. ^ The preceptor, monks, 
should arouse in the one who shares his cell^ the attitude of a 

1 Cf. this passage with Vin. iii. 21 {B.D. i. 37). 

• upajjhdya ; Skrt. upadhyaya, a tutor. 

• saddhiviharika, lit. one who stays, resides, lives with (another), a 
co-resident, and so a pupil in the same vihdra. 



25.6-8] MAHAVAGGAI 59 

son* ; the one who shares his cell should arouse in the pre- 
ceptor the attitude of a father.^ Thus these, living with 
reverence, with deference, with courtesy towards one another, 
will come to growth, to increase, to maturity in this dhamma 
and discipline. || 6 i| 

" And thus, monks, should a preceptor be chosen' : having 
arranged the upper robe over one shoulder, having honoured 
his feet, having sat down on the haunches, having saluted 
with joined palms, he should speak to him thus : * Honoured 
sir, be my preceptor ; honoured sir, be my preceptor ; honoured 
sir, be my preceptor.' If he* says : * Very well ' or ' Certainly ' 
or * All right ' or ' It is proper ' or ' Manage it amiably ', and 
makes this understood by gesture, makes this understood by 
speech, makes this understood by gesture and by speech, the 
preceptor has been chosen ; if he does not make this understood 
by gesture, if he does not make this understood by speech, [45] 
if he does not make this understood by gesture and by speech, 
the preceptor has not been chosen. || 7 || 

" The one who shares a cell,* monks, should conduct himself 
properly towards the preceptor. This is the proper conduct 
in this respect : having got up early, having taken off his 
sandals,* having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, 
he should give tooth-wood,' he should give water for rinsing 
the mouth, he should make ready a seat. If there is conjey, 
having washed a bowl, the conjey should be placed near (the 
preceptor). When he has drunk the conjey, having given him 
water, having received the bowl, having lowered it,^ having 
washed it properly without rubbing it, it should be put away. 

• puttacitta, a son's mind. Cf. S. iv. no f., matucitta bhaginlcitta dhitucitta, 
the mind of a mother, sister, daughter. 

» pitucitta, a father's mind. 

• gahetabbo, lit. should be taken. But words for " choosing " were almost 
lacking, and ganhdti was often made to do duty for them. 

• I.e. the preceptor, see VA. 977. 

• From here to p. 67 below, = Vin. ii. 223-227. 

• VA. 977 says he might have worn these for pacing up and dowa or for 
keeping his feet clean if he had got up early. 

' dantakattha, as used by Indians to-day, a piece of wood. Allowed at 
Vin. ii. 138. VA. 977 says that the saddhivihdrika, the one who shares a cell, 
having brought a large, a middle-sized and a small one — whatever he (the 
preceptor) takes of these is for three days, and then on the fourth day he 
should be given the same again. 

• meant katvd. So as not to let drops of water from inside the bowl spoil 
his robes when one is washing it ; in the case of an earthen bowl it might 
break if dropped from a height. 



6o BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

When the preceptor has got up, the seat should be removed. 
If that place is soiled, that place should be swept. || 8 || 

" If the preceptor wishes to enter a village, his inner clothing^ 
should be given (to him), the inner clothing (that he is wearing) 
should be received (from him) in return, ^ the girdle should be 
given (to him) ; having folded them^ (into two or four folds), the 
outer robes are to be given* (co him) ; having washed it, a 
bowl with water ^ is to be given (to him). If the preceptor 
desires an attendant, (the latter) having put on his inner robe 
all round so as to cover the three circles,^ having bound on the 
girdle, having folded them and having dressed in the outer 
robes, having fastened the ties, having washed, having taken 
a bowl, should be the preceptor's attendant. He should not 
walk too far away (from him), he should not walk too close. 
He should receive the bowl and its contents. ' || 9 || 

" He should not interrupt the preceptor when he is speaking. 
(But) if the preceptor is bordering on an offence, then speaking 
himself, he should warn him. When he^ is returning,* he^** 
should make a seat ready, having come back first ; he should 
set out water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, a foot-stand^^ ; 

^ nivasana ; possibly another word for antaravdsaka, the putting on of 
which is denoted by nivdseti, cf. B.D. ii. i, «. 2, 32, n. 2, 3. 

* patinivdsanam patiggahetabbam. VA. 978 is silent. Vin. Texts i. 155 
suggests " house-dress ? ". This would mean some kind of robe in addition 
to the three regulation ones. Bohtlingk and Roth, and Monier-Williams 
also both give " a kind of garment, for Buddhists ". It would look as if 
a monk might, and indeed must, enter a village in a nivasana, but not in 
a patinivdsana. I doubt the separate existence of such a garment. I suggest 
it is a nivdsana that is simply changed for another when a monk sets out 
on the begging round. If he has a change of nivdsana he could not be a 
teclvarika. Monks in Ceylon often change their robes before they go out. 

' sagui^atn katvd. As at CV. VIII. 4. 3. VA. 789 says " having made two 
robes of one " (i.e. havingputtwo robes together), "two outer cloaks (sanghdtiyo) 
are to be given. Every robe is called a sanghdti if it is put together, 
sangkdtitaitd ". It thus seems that sanghdti here stands both for the outer 
cloak and for the upper robe, uttardsanga ; not for the inner robe, however, 
since this, under the name nivdsana, had probably been given to the preceptor 
already. Usually there is only one robe called sanghdti. 

* sanghdtiyo, lit, outer cloaks. See above note. 

' saudako means with the drops of water remaining in the bowl after 
rinsing it, not drying it. 

* Cf. Sekhiyas i, 2 {B.D. iii. 121). 

' pattapariydpanna. VA. 978 says that if the bowl is warm or heavy 
with the conjey or rice received, the one who ^ares a ceU should take the 
preceptor's bowl and give him his own. 

' Presumably the preceptor. 

* To the monastery from the alms-round. 

* " Presumably the one who shares a cell. 

** Cf. Vin. i. 9 ; iv. 231, 310 {B.D. iii. 191). 



25.10-12] MAHAVAGGAI 6i 

having gone to meet him, he should receive his bowl and robe, 
he should give back the inner clothing (given) in return, he 
should receive his inner clothing. If a robe is damp with 
perspiration, he should dry it for a short time in the sun's 
warmth, but a robe should not be laid aside in the warmth. 
He should fold up the robe. When folding up the robe, having 
made the comers turn back four finger-breadths, he should 
fold up the robe thinking : ' Mind there is no crease^ in the 
middle.' The girdle should be placed in a fold (of the robe).^ 
If there comes to be almsfood and the preceptor wishes to eat,^ 
having given him water, almsfood should be placed near (him). 

II 10 II 

"He should offer the preceptor drinking-water. When he 
has eaten, having given him water, having received the bowl, 
having lowered it,* having washed it properly without rubbing 
it, having emptied out the water, he should dry it for a short 
time in the sun's warmth, but a bowl should not be laid aside 
in the warmth. He should lay aside the bowl and robes. 
When laying aside the bowl, having taken the bowl in one hand, 
having felt with the other hand under the couch or [46] under 
the chair, the bowl should be laid aside, but the bowl should 
not be laid aside on the bare ground.* When laying aside a 
robe, having taken the robe in one hand, having stroked the 
other hand along the bamboo for robes or the cord for robes , 
having got the edges away from him and the fold towards him, 
the robe should be laid aside. ^ When the preceptor has got 
up, the seat should be removed, the water for washing the feet, 
the foot-stool, the foot-stand should be put away. If that 
place comes to be soiled, that place should be swept. || ii 1| 

" If the preceptor wishes to bathe, he should prepare a bath. 
If he wants a cold (bath), he should prepare a cold one ; if he 

^ bhanga, breaking, splitting, dissolution, destruction. VA 979 indicates 
that if the robe were folded up in the same crease every time, it would wear 
thin along that crease. 

* ohhoqa. VA. 979 says " having folded up the girdle, it should be laid 
aside having arranged it in a fold {bhoga) of the robe ". 

* VA. 979 says that this would only be if he had failed to obtain almsfood 
in the village ; in this case the one who shares his cell should bring him 
the almsfood which he himself had obtained. 

* So as not to get dusty, VA . 979. 

* VA . 980, he is not to lay it aside by taking hold of the edges and throwing 
the robe over bamboo or cord, or the fold might be damaged by coming 
into contact with a wall. 



62 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

wants a hot (bath), he should prepare a hot one. If the 
preceptor wishes to enter a bathroom^, he should knead chunam, 
should moisten clay^ ; taking a chair for the bathroom,* 
having gone close behind the preceptor, having given him the 
chair for the bathroom, having received his robe, he should 
lay it to one side. He should give him the chunam, he should 
give him the clay. If he is able to do so,* he should enter the 
bathroom. When he is entering the bathroom, having smeared 
his face with clay, having covered himself front and back, he 
should enter the bathroom. |1 12 I| 

" He should not sit down so as to encroach upon (the space 
intended for) monks who are elders.^ He should not keep 
newly ordained monks from a seat. He should make pre- 
paration for the preceptor in the bathroom. When he is 
leaving the bathroom, taking the chair for the bathroom, 
having covered himself front and back, he should leave the bath- 
room. He should also make preparation for the preceptor 
in the water. When he is bathing, having come out (of the 
water) first, having dried his own body, having put on his 
inner robe, he should wipe off the water from the preceptor's 
limbs, he should give him his inner clothing, he should give 
him his outer cloak* ; taking the chair for the bathroom, 
having come back first, he should make ready a seat, he should 
put out water for washing the feet, a footstool, a footstand. 
He should offer the preceptor drinking-water. || 13 i| 

" If he wishes to make him recite,' he should make him recite. 
If he wishes to interrogate,^ he should be interrogated. In 

1 jantdghara, see Vin. Texts i. 157, n. 2; iii. 103. Dutt, Early Bud. 
Monackism, p. 183, calls jantdghara " a common bath ", and jantdgharasdld, 
" bath-rooms ". 

• Clay for use on the face in the bath-room allowed at Vin. ii. 120. 
' Allowed at Vin. ii. 120. 

• VA . 980, if he is not ill. The bathroom must have been fuU of hot steam, 
and juniors as much as seniors had to be careful to protect their faces with 
a smearing of clay. 

' Cf. Vin. iv.' 42, where monks must not lie down in the space meant 
for elders, and see B.D. ii. 247, n. 3. This expression and the next also occur 
at CV. viii. 4. 2. 

• sarhghdti, perhaps here meaning the upper robe as well as the outer cloak, 
although then the plural might have been expected. See above, p. 60, 
n. 3. 

' No doubt meaning, if the preceptor wishes to make the one who shares 
the cell recite the Patimokkha or give an exposition of the eight chief rules ; 
cf. B.D. ii. 271, n. i. 

• Cf. B.D. ii. 271, n. 2. 



25.14-15] MAHAVAGGA I 63 

whatever dwelling-place the preceptor is staying, if that 
dwelling-place is soiled, it should be cleaned if he^ is able 
(to do so). When he is cleaning the dwelling-place, having 
first taken out the bowl and robes, he should lay them to one 
side. Having taken out the piece of cloth to sit upon and the 
sheet, 2 he should lay them to one side. Having taken out the 
mattress' and the squatting-mat,* he should lay them to one 
side. II 14 II 

" Having lowered the couch, having taken it out 
properly without rubbing it,* without knocking it agafnst the 
door or the posts,* he should lay it to one side. Having 
lowered the chair, [47] having taken it out properly without 
rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, 
he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the supports for 
the couch,' he should lay them to one side. Having taken 
out the spittoon,^ he should lay it to one side. Having taken 
out the reclining-board,^ he should lay it to one side. Having 
taken out the ground-covering,^" having observed how it was 
laid down,^i he should lay it to one side. If there come to be 
cobwebs in the dwelling-place, he should first remove them 
from the (floor-) covering^^ • j^g should wipe the comers^' of 

^ I.e. the one who shares a cell. 

* nisldanapaccattharana. Cf. B.D. ii. 34, n. i, 46, n. 3, 244, n. 6. 
» Cf. B.D. ii. 47, n. I." * Cf. B.D. ii. 73, n. 6. 

* VA . 980, without rubbing it on the ground. 

* kavdtapittha. VA. 980 explains as " not touching the door {kavdta) 
and the door-posts " {pitthasamghdta). On kavdta and pitthasamghdta see 
B.D. ii. 258. n. 3, 8, and A. K. Coomaraswamy, Indian Architectural Terms, 
J.A.O.S. Vol. 48, No. 3, p. 256 (under dvdra). Kavdta allowed at Vin. ii. 142, 
and kavdtapitthasamghdta at Vin. ii. 153, 154. 

' A couch and a chair might have removable legs ; cf. B.D. ii. 240, 
See p. 64, n. 4. 

* Allowed at Vin. ii. 175. 

* apassenaphalaka, a board for resting the head, arms or elbows upon. 
-Allowed at Vin. ii. 175. Some made of stone, can be found at the entrance 
to dwelling-places among the ancient remains at Anuradhapura. 

^ " bhummattharana ; cf. B.D, ii. 46, n. 4. 

^^ pannatta ; same word as is used for " laying down " a rule of training, 
see B.D. ii. 4, n. i. 

1* ullokd pathamam ohdretabbam. Not, I think, " he should remove them 
as soon as he sees them ", as at Vin. Texts i. 159 and as favoured by P.E.D. 
For ulloka occurs at Vin. ii. 151 as meaning a cloth or covering for a couch 
or chair, and was something that could be spread, santharati. Thus it 
probably has a technical meaning, and is one of the numerous kinds of 
" cloths ". Bu. on Vin. ii. 151 explains it as cilimika ; and this he explains 
at VA. 775 as something made for preserving the texture of earth which is 
prepared with plaster. 

^* VA. 980, of the room. But it seems more probable that the corners 
of the window-holes are intended. 



64 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

the window-holes.^ If a wall that was coloured red^ becomes 
stained, he should wipe it, having moistened a rag, having 
wrung it out. If ground that was blacked^ becomes stained, 
he should wipe it, having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. 
If the ground did not come to be treated, he should sweep it, 
having sprinkled it all over with water, thinking : ' Take 
care lest the dwelling-place is sullied with dust.' Having 
looked for (any) rubbish, he should remove it to one side. 

II 15 II 

" Ha"^ing dried the ground-covering in the sun, having 
cleaned it, having shaken it, having brought it back, he should 
lay it down as it was laid down before. Having dried the 
supports for the couch* in the sun, having wiped them, having 
brought them back, he should place them where they were 
before. Having dried the couch in the sim . . . the chair in 
the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having lowered 
it, having brought it back properly without rubbing it, 
without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should 
lay it down as it was laid down before. Having dried the 
mattress and the squatting-mat in the sun, having cleaned 
them, having shaken them, having brought them back, he 
should lay them down as they were laid down before. Having 
dried the piece of cloth to sit upon and the sheet in the sun, 
having cleaned them, having shaken them, having brought 
them back, he should lay them down as they were laid down 
before. Having dried the spittoon in the sun, having wiped 
it, having brought it back, he should place it where it was 
before. Having dried the reclining-board in the sun, having 
wiped it, having brought it back, he should place it where it 
was before. || i6 || 

1 alokasandhi. Cf. B.D. ii. 258 and n. 2 ; 259 and n. i. 

* gertikaparikammakata. Geruka is yellow ochre or red chalk, Cf. B.D. ii. 
259 and D. 3. 

» Cf. B.D. ii. 259. Setavanna, whitewash or plaster, the third colouring 
(with red and black) allowed for use in vihdras {Vin. ii. 150) is not included 
above. 

* Allowed at Vin. ii. 150. It seems that these supports were detachable 
from the couches, for first they were to be taken out and put in the sun, 
and then the couch was to be taken out. Vin. Texts iii. 278, n. 3, says that 
the couch " was supported on movable tressels — the patipadakd ", but 
A. K. Coomaraswamy, Ind. Architectural Terms, J.A.O.S., Vol. 48, No. 3, 
p. 265, sees " no reason why the patipadaka of a maiica should not be fixed 
legs ". On the other hand, ahaccapddaka (of couches and chairs) seems to 
mean " removable legs ", Pac. xiv, and Vin. ii. 149. 



25.17-21] MAHAVAGGA I 65 

" He should lay aside the bowl and robes. When laying 
aside the bowl ... (as in || 11 1|) . . . the fold towards him, 
the robe should be laid aside. || 17 || 

" If dusty winds blow from the east, he should close the 
eastern windows.^ If dusty winds blow from the west, he 
should close the western windows. If dusty winds blow from 
the north, he should close the northern windows. If dusty 
winds blow from the south, [48] he should close the southern 
windows. If the weather is cool, he should open the windows 
by day, he should close them at night. If the weather is warm, 
he should close the windows by day, he should open them at 
night. II 18 II 

" If a cell is soiled, the cell should be swept. If a porch^ 
... If an attendance-hall^ ... If a fire-hall* ... If a privy comes 
to be soiled, the privy should be swept. If there does not 
come to be drinking-water, drinking-water should be provided. 
If there does not come to be water for washing, water for 
washing should be provided. If there does not come to be 
water in the pitcher of water for rinsing,^ water should be 
tipped into the pitcher of water for rinsing. || 19 || 

" If dissatisfaction^ has arisen in the preceptor, the one who 
shares his cell should allay' it or should get (another) to allay^ 
it, or he should give him a talk on dhamma. If remorse has 
arisen in the preceptor, the one who shares the cell should 
dispel it or should get (another) to dispel it, or he should give 
him a talk on dhamma.^ If wrong views have arisen in the 
preceptor, the one who shares his cell should dissuade him 
(from them) or should get another to dissuade him (from them),^ 
or he should give him a talk on dhamma. '^^ II 20 1| 

" If the preceptor has committed an offence against an 



1 vdtapana, see B.D. ii. 259, n. i. Three kinds allowed at Vin. ii. 148. 

• kotthaka, or gate-house, or store-room, allowed at Vin. ii. 142, 153. 
" upatthanasald, allowed at Vin. ii. 153. See B.D. ii. 194, n. 4. 

• aggisala, allowed at Vin. ii. 154. 

• acamanakumbhl , allowed at Vin. ii. 142. 

• anabhirati, see B.D. i. 114, n. i ; and Vin. i. 144. 

' vApakdsetabbd. VA. 981 says that he should take him elsewhere. 
' vHpakdsdpetabbd. Another monk should be told : ' having taken the 
elder, go elsewhere ', VA. 981. Cf. Vin. i. 142 ( = below, p. 190). 

• Cf. Vin. i, 142 (= below, p. 190). 

" For above passage cf. A .v. 72, where competence in these matters is one 
of the (qualifications a monk must possess in order to confer the upasampada 
ordination. 



66 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

important rule^ and deserves probation,^ the one who shares 
his cell should make an effort, thinking : ' How then could 
the Order grant the preceptor probation ? ' If the preceptor 
deserves to be sent back to the beginning,' the one who shares 
his cell should make an effort, thinking : ' How then could 
the Order send the preceptor back to the beginning ? ' If 
the preceptor deserves mdnatta (discipline), the one who shares 
his cell should make an effort, thinking : ' How then could 
the Order inflict mdnatta (discipline) on the preceptor ? ' If 
the preceptor deserves rehabilitation,* the one who shares his 
ceU should make an effort, thinking : ' How then could the 
Order rehabilitate the preceptor ? ' I| 21 1| 

" If the Order desires to carry out a (formal) act against the 
preceptor — one of censure^ or one of guidance* or one of banish- 
ment^ or one of reconciliation^ or one of suspension" — the one 
who shares his cell should make an effort, thinking : ' How 
then could the Order not carry out a (formal) act against the 
preceptor or change it to a lighter one P^ ® ' Yet if a (formal) 
act — one of censure . . . one of suspension — ^is carried out by 
the Order against him, the one who shares his cell should make 
an effort, thinking : ' How then could the preceptor conduct 
himself properly,^^ be subdued, mend his ways, (so that) the 
Order could revoke that (formal) act ? ' || 22 || 

" If the preceptor's robe should be washed, the one who 
shares his cell should wash it or he should make an effort, [49] 

* At Vin. iv. 51, one of the qucilities a monk must possess in order to exhort 
the nuns is that of not having offended against an " important rule ", 
garudhamma. There were eight " important rules " to be kept by nuns ; 
see B.D. ii. 266, n. 11 and p. 267. But, above, the important rules seem 
to refer to SanghAdisesa, for what follows ; probation, etc., are among the 
penalties for breaking Sangh. rules. 

* parivdsa, cf. B.D. i. 196, n. 3, and Vin. i. 143, ii. 31 ff. Mot the same 
parivdsa as that granted to members of other sects on their wishing to enter 
the Order, see below, p. 85. 

» Cf. B.D. i. 196, n. 4, and for manatta B.D. i. 196, n. 5, and Vin. L 143. 

* abhhdna, cf. B.D. i. 196 n. 6 ; B.D. iii. 28, n. 4. 

» tajjaniya. Cf. Vin. i. 143, ii. 2 ff. See Vin. i. 325, ^4. i. 99 and Dutt, 
Early Buddhist Monachism, p. 170, for this and the foxir following formal acts. 

• nissava, tutelage. Cf. CV. I. 9. i ff. 
» pabbdjaniya. Cf. CV. I. 18. i ff. 

• patisdraniya. Cf. CV. I. 18. I ff. 

• ukkhepaniya. Cf. CV. I. 25. i ff. 

" VA . 981 indicates that the one who shares the cell should do his best 
to plead with the monks to cancel the formal act. But if they insist, he should 
beg the preceptor to conduct himself properly. 

^^ Cf. B.D. i. 323 and its n. i, 2, 3 for these expressions. 



25.23—26.1] MAHAVAGGAI 67 

thinking : ' How then could the preceptor's robe be washed ? ' 
If the preceptor's robe-material should be made up, the one 
who shares his cell should make it up or he should make ^n 
effort, thinking : ' How then could the preceptor's robe- 
material be made up ? ' If dye should be boiled for the pre- 
ceptor ... If the preceptor's robe should be dyed ...'... could 
the preceptor's robe be dyed ? ' When he is dyeing the robe, 
he should dye it properly, turning it again and again, nor should 
he go away if the drips have not ceased.^ |l 23 || 

" Without asking the preceptor (for permission), he should 
not give an ahnsbowl to anyone nor should he receive an 
almsbowl from anyone ; he should not give a robe to anyone 
nor should he receive a robe from anyone ; he should not give 
a requisite to anyone nor should he receive a requisite from 
anyone ; he should not cut off anyone's hair nor should he 
have his hair cut off by anyone ; he should not render a 
service to anyone nor should he cause a service to be rendered 
by anyone ; he should not execute a commission for anyone 
nor should he cause a commission to be executed by anyone ; 
he should not become an attendant on anyone nor should he 
take anyone as an attendant ; he should not bring back alms- 
food for anyone nor should he have almsfood brought back 
by anyone. Without asking the preceptor (for permission), 
he should not enter a viUage, he should not go to a cemetery, 
he should not leave the district. ^ If the preceptor becomes ill, 
he should tend him for as long as life lasts ; he should wait 
(with him) until he recovers. ^ " || 24 || 

Told is what is due to a Preceptor. || 25 I| 

" The preceptor,* monks, should conduct himself properly 
towards the one who shares his cell. This is the proper conduct 
in this respect : the one who shares the cell should be furthered, ^ 
he should be helped by the preceptor in regard to recitation, 

^ acchinne theve. VA. 981 says " he should not depart if even a little dye 
is falling down." Proper methods for dyeing robe-material given at Vin. i. 
286. 

' disa pakkamitabbd. Cf. MV. II. 21. i where ignorant monks travelling 
to distant parts, disamgamikd, do not ask teachers and preceptors for 
permission. 

3 vutthdnassa, until he gets up from his illness, VA. 982. Cf. Vism. 94. 

* From here to p. 69, below = Vin. ii. 227-230. 

* samgaheiabbo, used with the next word, anuggahetabbo, below, p. 157. 



68 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

interrogation, exhortation, instruction.^ If there is a bowl for 
the preceptor but no bowl for the one who shares his cell, a 
bowl should be given by the preceptor to the one who shares 
his cell, or he should make an effort, thinking " How then 
could a bowl be procured for the one who shares my cell ? ' 
If there is a robe for the preceptor ... If there is (another) 
requisite for the preceptor . . . [50] ' How then could (another) 
requisite be procured for the one who shares my cell ? ' j] i || 

" If the one who shares the cell becomes ill, having got up 
early he should give tooth-wood, he should give water for 
rinsing the mouth, he should make ready a seat. If there is 
conjey^ . . . that place should be swept. || 2 || 

" If the one who shares a cell wishes to enter a village' . . . 
having washed, a bowl with water is to be given to him. 
Thinking, ' He will be returning about now ', he should* make 
ready a seat, he should set out water for washing the feet, a 
foot-stool, a foot-stand . . . [51] ... He should offer drinking 
water to the one who shares his cell. || 3-6 || 

" In whatever dweUing-place one who shares a cell is staying, 
if that dwelling-place is soiled, it should be cleaned if he is able 
to do so . . . [52] ^ ... so that the Order could revoke 
that (formal) act.' || 7-10 || 

" If the robe of one who shares a cell should be washed, the 
preceptor should explain, saying : ' Thus should you wash it ', 
or he should make an effort, thinking : ' How then could the 
robe of the one who shares my cell be washed ? ' If the robe- 
material of one who shares a cell should be made up, the 
preceptor should explain, saying : ' Thus should you make 
it up ', or ... ' How then could the robe-material of the one 
who shares a cell . . . ' Thus should you boil it ', or . . . ' How 
then could dye be boiled for the one who shares my ceU ? ' 
If the robe of the one who shares a cell should be dyed . . . 
' Thus should you dye it ', or . . . ' How then could the robe 
of the one who shares my cell be dyed ? ' When he is dyeing 

* These four words are used in definition of " should (neither) help " 
at Vin. iv. 325 {B.D. iii. 376) ; and cf. B.D. ii, 271, n. 2. 

* As at MV. I. 25. 2, reading "preceptor " for "one who shares a cell" 
and vice versa. 

» As at MV. I. 26. 9 (first half). 

* From here to the end of || 6 ||, as at MV. I. 25. 10-13, omitting the first 
two sentences of I. 25. 10. 

» As at MV. I. 25. 14-22. 



26.11— 27.3] MAHAVAGGAI 69 

the robe, he should dye it properly, turning it again and again, 
nor should he go away if the drips have not ceased. If the one 
who shares a cell becomes ill, he should tend him as long as 
life lasts ; he should wait until he recovers." ||ii || 

Told is what is due to one who shares a cell. || 26 |1 

Now at that time those who shared cells did not conduct 
themselves properly towards their preceptors. Those who 
were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it 
about, saj^ng : " How can those who share cells not conduct 
themselves properly towards their preceptors ? " Then these 
monks told this matter to the Lord. He said : " Is it true, 
as is said, monks, that those who share cells do not conduct 
themselves properly towards their preceptors ? " 

" It is true, Lord." 

The enlightened one, the Lord rebuked them, saying : 

" How, monks, can those who share cells not conduct them- 
selves properly towards their preceptors ? " 

Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, the Lord 
addressed the monks, saying : " Monks, [53] those who share 
cells should not not conduct themselves properly towards 
their preceptors. Whoever should not conduct himself 
properly, there is an offence of wrong-doing," !| i |1 

Even so, they did not conduct themselves properly. They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, 
to dismiss^ one who does not conduct himself properly. And 
thus, monks, should he be dismissed : If he, saying : ' I 
dismiss you ' or ' Do not come back here ' or ' Bring back 
your bowl and robe ' or ' I am not to be waited upon by you ', 
makes this understood by gesture, if he makes this understood 
by voice, if he makes this understood by gesture and by voice, 
the one who shares the cell comes to be dismissed. If he does 
not make this understood by gesture, if he does not make this 
understood by voice, if he does not make this understood by 
gesture and by voice, the one who shares the cell does not come 
to be dismissed. H 2 || 

Now at that time those who shared a cell and who were 
dismissed did not apologise. They told this matter to the 

1 Pattdmetutn. 



70 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Lord. He said : "I aUow (them), monks, to apologise." 
Even so, they did not apologise. They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : " Monks, one who is dismissed is not not 
to apologise. Whoever should not apologise, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing." ||3 |1 

Now at that time preceptors, on being apologised to, did 
not forgive. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" 1 allow you, monks, to forgive." Even so, they did not 
forgive. And those who shared a ceU departed and they left 
the Order and they went over to (other) sects. They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, when you are 
being apologised to you should not not forgive. Whoever 
should not forgive, there is an offence of wrong-doing." 

11 4 I! 
Now at that time preceptors dism.issed those who were 

conducting themselves^ properly, they did not dismiss those 

who were not conducting themselves properly. They told 

this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, one who is 

conducting himself properly is not to be dismissed. Whoever 

should dismiss him, there is an offence of wrong-doing. And, 

monks, one who is not conducting himself properly is not not 

to be dismissed. Whoever should not dismiss him, there is 

an offence of wrong-doing. || 5 || 

" Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of five qualities 
he may be dismissed : if there does not come to be much 
affection for his preceptor, if there does not come to be much 
faith (in him), if there does not come to be much sense of shame 
(towards him), if there does not come to be much respect 
(for him), if there does not come to be much development^ 
(under him). Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of 
these five qualities he may be dismissed. Monks, if one who 
shares a cell is possessed of five quahties he should not be dis- 
missed : if there comes to be much affection for his preceptor 
.... if there comes to be much development. Monks, if one 
who shares a cell is possessed of these five qualities he should 
not be dismissed. i| 6 || 

" Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of five qualities 

1 For use of singular, where we should use the plural, cf. B.D. iii. 364, 367* 
369. Here the meaning is that each of several preceptors dismissed the 
particular monk who shared his cell. 

» bhdvand. VA . 982 explains by mettabhavana, development of amity. 



27.7—28.1] MAHAVAGGAI 71 

it is suitable^ to dismiss him : [54] if there does not come to be 
much affection for his preceptor ... if there does not come to be 
much development. IVIonks, if one who shares a cell is 
possessed of these five qualities, it is suitable to dismiss him. 
Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of five qualities 
it is not suitable to dismiss him : if there comes to be much 
affection for his preceptor ... if there comes to be much 
development. IVTonks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of 
these five qualities it is not suitable to dismiss him. || 7 || 

" IVIonks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of five qualities, 
a preceptor, in not dismissing him, becomes one who has gone 
too far ; in dismissing him, he does not become one who has 
gone too far : if there does not come to be much affection for 
his preceptor. . . if there does not come to be much develop- 
ment. IVlonks, if one who shares a cell is possessed of these five 
qualities, a preceptor, in not dismissing him, becomes one who 
has gone too far ; in dismissing him he does not become one 
who has gone too far. Monks, if one who shares a cell is 
possessed of five qualities, the preceptor, in dismissing him, 
becomes one who has gone too far ; in not dismissing him, 
he does not become one who has gone too far : if there comes 
to be much affection for the preceptor ... if there comes to be 
much development. Monks, if one who shares a cell is possessed 
of these five qualities, a preceptor, in dismissing him, becomes 
one who has gone too far ; in not dismissing him, he does not 
become one who has gone too far." || 8 j| 27 || 

Now at that time a certain brahman, having approached 
(some) monks, asked for the going forth. The monks did not 
want to let him go forth, and because he could not obtain the 
going forth among the monks, he became lean, wretched, of 
a bad colour, very yellow, his veins standing out all over his 
body.2 The Lord saw this brahman, lean ... all over his body, 
and seeing him, he addressed the monks, saying : " How is it, 
monks, that this brahman is lean ... all over his body ? " 

" Lord, this brahman asked the monks for the going forth. 
The monks did not want to let him go forth, and because he 
could not obtain the going forth among the monks, he is lean 
... all over his body." || i || 

1 alaijt, enough. » Stock, cf. Vin. iii. 88 (B.D. i. 153-4). 



72 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying : " Now, monks, 
who remembers a service* done by this brahman ? " When 
he had spoken thus the venerable Sariputta spoke thus to the 
Lord : "I, Lord, remember a service done by this brahman. ' 

" Now, what help (given) by this brahman, Sariputta, do 
you remember ? " 

" Lord, as I was walking for almsfood here in Rajagaha this 
brahman had spoon-alms ^ bestowed upon me. This, Lord, 
is the service done by this brahman [55] which I remember." 

II 2 II 

" Good, Sariputta, it is good. Indeed those who are truly 
men,' Sariputta, are thankful and grateful.* Because of this 
do you, Sariputta, let this brahman go forth (and) ordain him." 

" How, lord, do I let this brahman go forth, how do I ordain 
him ? " 

Then the Lord, on this occasion, having given reasoned 
talk, addressed the monks, saying : 

" From this day forth, monks, I abolish that ordination by 
going to the three refuges which I allowed. I allow you, 
monks, to ordain by a (formal) act consisting of a motion and 
a resolution put three times. ^ ||3 || 

" And thus, monks, should one ordain : The Order should be 
informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying : 
' Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This (person) so and so 
wishes for ordination from the venerable so and so. If it 
seems right to the Order, the Order may ordain so and so, 
through the preceptor so and so. This is the motion. || 4 || 

" ' Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This person so 
and so . . . may ordain so and so. The Order is ordaining 
so and so through the preceptor so and so. If the ordination 
of so and so through the preceptor so and so is pleasing to the 
venerable ones let them be silent ; he to whom it is not pleasing 
should speak. And a second time I speak forth this matter 
. . . should speak. 1| 5 || 

^ adhikdra. 

• katacchubhikkhd, alms given with a ladle to a monk (c/. Thag. 934, Miln. 
9) ; contrasted with ticket-food and the gifts of robes, etc., at DhA. i. 379, 
and wth a " great gift ", mahddana, given to a body of monks at Pv. II. 
9. 56-58. 

» sappurisa. Cf. Vin. iii. 7. * Cf. S. ii. 272, 

» Haiticatuttha. See MY. IX. 3. 4-9, and Dutt, Early Bud. Monachism, 
p. 150. 



28.6—29.4] MAHAVAGGAI 73 

" ' And a third time I speak forth this matter . . . should speak. 
So and so is ordained by the Order through the preceptor so 
and so. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore they are silent. 
Thus do r understand this.' " 1|6 || 28 || 

Now at that time a certain monk immediately after he was 
ordained indulged in bad habits. Monks spoke thus : " Do 
not, your reverence, do that, it is not allowed. "^ He spoke 
thus : " But indeed, I did not ask the venerable ones saying, 
' Ordain me '. Why did you ordain me without being asked 
(to do so) ? " They told this matter to the Lord. [56] He 
said : " Monks, you should not ordain without being asked 
(to do so). Whoever should (so) ordain, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to ordain when you 
have been asked (to do so). || i || 

" And thus, monks, should one ask (for it) : That one who 
wishes for ordination, having approached the Order, having 
arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having honoured 
the monks' feet, having sat down on his haunches, having 
saluted with joined palms, should speak thus to it : ' Honoured 
sirs, I ask the Order for ordination ; honoured sirs, may the 
Order raise me up,^ out of compassion.' And a second time 
should he ask . . . And a third time should he ask . . . 
II2II 

" The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent 
monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This 
(person) so and so wishes for ordination from the venerable 
so and so. So and so asks the Order for ordination through the 
preceptor so and so. If it seems right to the Order the Order 
may ordain so and so through the preceptor so and so. This 
is the motion. |1 3 |I 

" ' Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This (person) so 
and so wishes for ordination from the venerable so and so. So 
and so asks the Order for ordination through the preceptor so 
and so. If the ordination cf so and so through the preceptor so 

1 Cf. B.D. i. 309, ii. 230, 393. 

* ullumpatu, meaning according to VA. 984 " having made me arise from 
what is bad may they establish me in what is good ; or, having raised me 
from the status of a novice may they establish me in the status of a monk ". 
Cf. below, p. 122, and VA. 1033. See also A. K, Coomaraswamy, Some 
Pali Words, H.J.A.S., Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 145-6, where he takes ullumpatu 
as meaning " extract " (me from all evil). 



74 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

aiid so is pleasing to the venerable ones, let them be silent ; 
he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. And a second time 
I speak forth this matter. . . . And a third time I speak forth 
this matter ... So and so is ordained by the Order through the 
preceptor so and so. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore they 
are silent. Thus do I understand this.' " H 4 |1 29 || 

Now at that time in Rajagaha a succession of meals of 
sumptuous foods came to be arranged.^ Then it occurred 
to a certain brahman : " Now, these recluses, sons of the 
Sakyans, are pleasant in character, pleasant in conduct ; having 
eaten good meals they He down on beds sheltered from the 
wind.^ What now if I should go forth among these recluses, 
sons of the Sakyans ? " Then that brahman, having approached 
(some) monks, asked for the going forth. The monks allowed 
him to go forth (and) they ordained him. || i || 

The succession of meals dwindled away^ after he had gone 
forth. Monks spoke thus : " Come along now, your reverence, 
we will walk for almsf ood. ' ' He spoke thus : ' ' Your reverences, 
I did not go forth for this — ^that I should walk for almsfood. 
If you will give to me, I will eat, but if you will not give to me, 
I will leave the Order." 

"But, did you, your reverence, go forth for your belly's 
sake ? " [57] 

" Yes, your reverences." |1 2 || 

Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, 
spread it about, saying : " How can this monk go forth in this 
dhamma and discipline which are well taught for his belly's 
sake ? " These monks told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : 

" Is it true, as is said, that you, monk, went forth for your 
belly's sake ? " 

" It is true. Lord." 

The enlightened one, the Lord rebuked him, saying : 

" How can you, foolish man, go forth in this dhamma and 
discipline which are well taught for your belly's sake ? It is 
not foolish man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased, 

1 Cf. Vin. i. 248, iv. 75 (B.D. ii. 315). 

• Cf. Vin. i. 72, iv. 129 \B.D. iii. lo-ii). 

• khlyiitha ; cf. khlyanti at B.D. ii. 236, n. i, 2. 



30.4—31.1] MAHAVAGGAI 75 

nor for increasing (the number of) those who are pleased." 
Having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed 
the monks, saying : || 3 1| 

" I allow you, monks, when you are ordaining, to explain 
four resources^ : that going forth is on account of meals of 
scraps ; in this respect effort is to be made by you for life. 
(These are) extra acquisitions : a meal for an Order, a meal 
for a special person, an invitation, ticket-food, (food given) 
on a day of the waxing or waning of the moon, on an Observance 
day, on the day after an Observance day.^ That going forth 
is on account of rag-robes ; in this respect effort is to be made 
by you for life. (These are) extra acquisitions : (robes made 
of) linen, cotton, silk, wool, coarse hemp, canvas.^ That going 
forth is on account of a lodging at the root of a tree ; in this 
respect effort is to be made by you for life. (These are) extra 
acqusitions : a dwelling-place, a curved house,* a long house," 
a mansion, ^ a cave. ' That going forth is on account of ammonia 
as a medicine ; in this respect effort is to be made by you for 
life. (These are) extra acquisitions : ghee, fresh butter, oil, 
honey, molasses. « " || 4 1| 30 || 

Told is the Fifth Portion for Repeating : on what 
is due to a Preceptor. 

Now at that time a certain brahman youth, having approached 

^ nissaya, cf. Vin. i. 96. Nissaya is something which you depend upon, 
which supplies you, a source of supply. Not to be confused with the formal 
act called nissaya, referred to at Vin. i. 49 (p. 66, above), which is an act 
placing someone under guidance, giving him help. 

' For last four, cf. B.D. ii. 313-314 and notes. 

' See B.D. ii. 7, 143, and notes. 

• ad^hayoga. Corny s. speak of it as supatinavankageha (see P.E.D.), as 
garulasanthdnapdsdda (see C.P.D.), and as suvannavangageha (see Vin. Texts 
i. 173, n. i). It is possible that the curve refers only to the roof, curved 
upwards perhaps at the ends, like some forms of domestic architecture in 
present-day India, and this is the reason for the adldha, half : that in some 
respect the building is half and not entirely curved. At Vin. ii. 172 it is said 
that repairs may be made to an a44hayoga during a period of seven or eight 
years. 

' pdsdda, see B.D. ii. 16, n. 5. 

• hammiya. see B.D. n. 16. n. 6. 

' guha. These five are the five lendni, abodes, allowed at Vin. ii. 146 ; 
allowed at Vin. i. 107, as the site for an uposatha hall ; at Vin. i. 239 as the 
site for kappiyabhumi, a place for what is allowable, an outhouse ; at Vin. i. 
284 as the site for a store-room — in the last three cases the sites are to be 
agreed upon by the Order. 

• Cf. B.D. i. 133, iL 342. At B.D. ii. 131 these five medicines may be used 
by ill monks. 



76 BO:OK OF DISCIPLINE 

(some) monks, asked for the going forth. The monks explained 
the resources to him beforehand. He spoke thus : "If, 
honoured sirs, you had explained the resources to me after I 
had gone forth, I should have been satisfied, but now, honoured 
sirs, I will not go forth ; the resources are disgusting and 
loathsome to me." The monks told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : 

" Monks, the resources should not be explained beforehand. 
Whoever should (thus) explain them, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to explain the resources 
soon after ordaining (a person)." || 1 1| 

Now at that time monks ordained through a group of two 
and a group of three (monks). They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : 

" Monks, you should not ordain through a group of less than 
ten (monks). ^ Whoever should (so) ordain, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to ordain through a 
group of ten or more than ten (monks)." \\2 || [58] 

Now at that time monks of one year's standing and of two 
years' standing (severally) ordained the one who shared his 
cell. And when he was of one year's standing, ^ the venerable 
Upasena, Vanganta's son,' ordained the one who shared his 
cell. When he was of two years' standing, having kept the 
rains-residence, taking the one who shared his cell and who 
was of one year's standing, he approached the Lord. Having 
approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respect- 
ful distance. Now, it is the custom for awakened ones, for 
Lords to exchange friendly greetings with in-coming monks. 

II 3 II 

Then the Lord spoke thus to the venerable Upasena, 
Vanganta's son : " I hope, monk, that things go well with you, 
I hope you are keeping going, I hope you came here with but 
little fatigue on the journey." 

" Things do go well with me, Lord, I am keeping going, 

^ See Vin. i. 319. A group ga^a, is usually in the Vinaya regarded as 
consisting of from two to four monks (or nuns), but here it is equivalent 
to an Order, a satngha. 

• See Jd. ii. 449, VA. 194, UdA. 266, AA. i. 271 for this same episode. 
UdA. states that Upasena was of two years' standing as a preceptor. But 
it is more likely that A A. is right in saying that two years' standing as a monk 
is meant, i.e. since his ovm ordination. 

• See BJ). ii 83. 



31.4-5] MAHAVAGGAI 'J^ 

Lord, I came, Lord, with but little fatigue on the 
journey." 

Now, Truthfinders (sometimes) ask knowing,^ and knowing 
(sometimes) do not ask; they ask, knowing the right time 
(to ask), and they do not ask, knowing the right time (when 
not to ask). Truthfinders ask about what belongs to the goal, 
not about what does not belong to the goal. There is bridge- 
breaking- for Truthfinders in whatever does not belong to the 
goal. Awakened ones, Lords, question monks concerning two 
matters : " Shall we teach dhamma ? " or " Shall we lay 
down a rule of training for disciples ? " || 4 || 

Then the Lord spoke thus to the venerable Upasena, 
Vanganta's son : "Of how many years' standing cire you, 
monk ? " 

" 1, Lord, am of two years' standing." 

" And of how many years' standing is this monk ? " 

"He is of one year's standing. Lord." 

" Who is this monk as regards you ? " 

"He is the one who shares my ceU, Lord." 

The awakened one, the Lord rebuked (him), saying : 

"It is not fitting, foolish man, it is not becoming, it is not 
proper, it is unworthy of a recluse, it is not allowable, it should 
not be done. How can you, foolish man, when you should be 
exhorted and instructed by others, think to exhort and instruct 
another (monk) ? Too quickly have you, foolish man, turned 
to abimdcLnce,^ that is to say to acquiring a group. It is not, 
foolish man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased, nor 
for increasing (the number of) those who are pleased." Having 
rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the 
monks, saying : 

" Monks, one who is of less than ten years' standing should 
not ordain.* Whoever (such) should (so) ordain, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to ordain 
through one who is of ten years' standing or through one who 
is of more than ten years' standing." |1 5 || 

^ See also Vin. i. 158, 250, iii. 6, 88-89 for this passage; and B.D. i. 13, 
notes I and 2. 

' See D. L. Coomaraswamy, The Perilous Bridge of Welfare, HJAS, Vol. 8, 
No. 2, August, 1944, for a discussion of the Bridge mainly from Indian sources. 

» Cf. Vin. i. 287. 

* Cf. Nuns' Pac. Ixxiv, where a nun of less than twelve years' standing 
should not ordain. 



78 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Now at that time ignorant, inexperienced monks ordained, 
thinking : " We are of ten years' standing, we are of ten years' 
standing." (Consequently) there were to be found ignorant 
preceptors, wise (monks) who shared their cells ; inexperienced 
preceptors, experienced (monks) who shared their cells ; 
preceptors who had heard httle, (monks) who shared their 
cells who had heard much ; preceptors of poor intelligence, 
[59] intelUgent (monks) who shared their cells ; and a certain 
former member of another sect, when he was being spoken 
to by his preceptor regarding a rule, having refuted the 
preceptor, went over to the fold of that same sect^ (as before). 
11611 

Those who were modest monks . . . spread it about, saying : 
" How can these ignorant, inexperienced monks ordain, think- 
ing : ' We are of ten years' standing, we are of ten years' 
standing ' ? (So that) there are to be foimd . . . intelligent 
(monks) who share their cells." Then these monks told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Is it true, as is said, monks, that ignorant, inexperienced 
monks ordained, thinking : . . . there are to be found . . . 
intelligent (monks) who share their cells ? " 

" It is true. Lord." 1| 7 || 

Then awakened one, the Lord rebuked them, saying : 

" How, monks, can these foolish men, ignorant, inexperi- 
enced, ordain, thinking : ' We are of ten years' standing, we 
are of ten years' standing ' ? . . . intelligent (monks) who share 
their cells. It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not 
(yet) pleased . . ." And having rebuked them, having given 
reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, one who is ignorant, inexperienced should not 
ordain. Whoever (such) should ordain, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to ordain through an 
experienced, competent monk who is of ten years' standing 
or more than ten years' standing." |1 8 || 31 1| 

Now at that time monks, when their preceptors had 
gone away and had left the Order and had died and had 
gone over to another side (of the Order), ^ being without 

1 titthdyatanatfi samkami. Cf. Vin. iv. 217 {B.D. iii. 167). 
• Cf. B.D. iii, 190. 



32.1— 33.1] MAHAVAGGAI 79 

teachers/ not being exhorted, not being instructed, walked for 
almsfood wrongly dressed, wrongly clothed, not befittingly 
attired. While people were eating . . . (= I. 25. 1-4) . . . 

" It is true. Lord." 

Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he 
addressed the monks, saying : " Monks, I allow a teacher. 
The teacher, monks, should arouse in his pupil^ the attitude 
of a son ; the pupil should arouse in his teacher the attitude of 
a father. Thus these, living with reverence, with deference, 
with courtesy towards one another, will come to growth, 
increase, maturity in this dhamma and discipline. I allow 
you, monks, to live ten years in dependence,* and when one 
is of ten years' standing to give guidance.* H 1 1| 

" And thus, monks, should a teacher be chosen : having 
arranged the upper robe over one shoulder, having honoured 
his feet, having sat down on the haunches, having saluted with 
joined palms, he should speak to him thus : ' Honoured sir, 
be my teacher, I will live in dependence on the venerable 
one ; honoured sir, be my teacher, I will live in dependence 
on the venerable one ; honoured sir, be my teacher, [60] I will 
Uve in dependence on the venerable one.' If he says : ' Very 
well ' or ' Certainly ' or ' All right ' or ' It is proper ' or ' Manage 
it amiably', and makes this understood by gesture . . . 
( = I. 25. 7-24, reading teacher and pupil for preceptor and 
one who shares a ceU) ... If the teacher becomes ill, he 
should tend him as long as life lasts ; he should wait imtil 
he recovers." || 3 I| 

Told is what is due to a Teacher. || 32 || 

" The teacher, monks, should conduct himself properly 
towards his pupil. This is the proper conduct in this respect : 
the pupil should be furthered, he should be helped by the 

1 acariya. See Vin. Texts i. 178, n. 2 for note comparing this with preceptor. 
Vism. 94 says that in a dwelling-place are teachers, preceptors, those who 
share a cell, pupils, those having the same preceptors, those having the same 
teachers. It mentions teachers for the going forth, teachers for ordination, 
pupils ordamed and allowed to go forth having the same preceptor ; teachers 
in guidance, in the exposition (or recitation, of the Patimokkha), pupils in 
the same having the same teacher. 

• antevasika. ' nissayam vatthum. 

* nissayam datum. There is also the formal act of nissaya, of placing 
under guidance, as in I. 25. 22. The word translated above, I. 80. 4, as 
" resource " is also nissaya, but it is there combined with the verb dcikkhitutfi. 



8o BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

teacher . . . (= I. 26. i-ii, reading teacher and pupil for 
preceptor and one who shares a cell) ... If the pupil becomes 
ill, he should tend him as long as life lasts ; he should wait 
until he recovers." || i || 

What is due to a Pupil. |1 33 || 

The Sixth Portion for Repeating. 

Now at that time pupils did not conduct themselves properly 
towards their teachers . . , ( = I. 27. i -8, reading teacher and 
pupil as above) ... in not dismissing him he does not become 
one who has gone too far." || i j] 34 || 

Now at that time ignorant, inexperienced monks, gave 
guidance, thinking : " We are of ten years' standing, we are 
of ten years' standing." (So that) there were to be found 
ignorant teachers, wise pupils ; inexperienced teachers, ex- 
perienced pupils ; teachers who had heard little, pupils who 
had heard much ; teachers of poor intelligence, intelligent 
pupils. Those who were modest monks [61] . . . spread it 
about, saying : " How can these ignorant inexperienced monks 
give guidance, thinking : ' We are of ten years' standing, we 
are of ten years' standing ' ? (So that) there are to be found 
ignorant teachers . . . intelligent pupils." |1 1 |! 

Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Is it true, as is said, monks, that ignorant, inexperienced 
(monks) ^ are giving guidance, thinking : ' We are of ten years' 
standing, we are of ten years' standing ' ? " 

" Is it true. Lord." The enlightened one, the Lord rebuked 
them ; having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he 
addressed the monks, saying : " Monks, one who is ignorant, 
inexperienced, should not give guidance. Whoever (such) 
should give it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, 
monks, to give guidance through an experienced, competent 
monk who is of ten years' standing or of more than ten years' 
standing."^ || 2 || 35 || 

Now at that time monks, when their teachers and preceptors 
had gone away and had left the Order and had died and had 

* Omitted in Oldenberg's text of Vin. * Cf. above, I. 81. 6-8. 



36.1-4] MAHAVAGGAI 8i 

gone over to another side (of the Order) .^ did not know about 
nullifications of guidance. They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : 

" Monks, there are these five nullifications of guidance from 
a preceptor : when a preceptor has gone away or left the Order 
or died or gone over to another side (of the Order), and com- 
mand is the fifth.'' The<=e, monks, are the five nullifications 
of guidance from a preceptor. Monks, there are these six 
nullifications of guidance from a teacher : when a teacher has 
gone away or left the Order or died or gone over to another 
side (of the Order), and command is the fifth, or if he^ has come 
to be connected with a preceptor.* These, monks, are the 
six nullifications of guidance from a teacher. || i || 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five qualities ^ he should 
not ordain, he should not give guidance, a novice should not 
attend him : if he is not possessed of an adept's body of moral 
habit . . . body of concentration . . . body of wisdom . . . body 
of freedom . . . body of vision and knowledge of freedom. 
Monks, if a monk is not possessed of these five qualities he 
should not ordain, he should not give guidance, a novice should 
not attend him. || 2 || 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five qualities he may ordain, 
he may give guidance, a novice may attend him : if he is 
possessed of an adept's body of moral habit . . . body of vision 
and knowledge of freedom. Monks, if a monk is possessed 
of these five qualities [62] he may ordain, he may give guidance, 
a novice may attend him. || 3 || 

" And, monks, if a monk is possessed of five further qualities 
he should not ordain, he should not give guidance, a novice 
should not attend him : if he is neither himself possessed of an 
adept's body of moral habit nor encourages another as to an 
adept's body of moral habit ... if he is neither himself possessed 

1 As in I. 32. i. 

' VA. 986 says that the teacher dismisses the pupU from guidance in 
the words of I. 27. 2. 

' Meaning the pupil, if we follow VA. 988; but Dutt, Early Buddhist 
Monachism, p. 181, takes it to mean the teacher. 

* VA. 988 says that if one who shares a cell, living in dependence on 
a teacher, sees a preceptor walking for alms in the same village or worshipping 
at the same shrine, or if he hears him teaching dhamma in a dwelling-place 
or among houses (the teacher's) guidance lapses. This would suggest that 
the preceptor occupies a higher position than the teacher. 

• Cf. D. iii. 279 ; S. i. 99 ; A. i. 162, iii, 271, v. 16. 



82 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

of an adept's body of vision and knowledge of freedom nor 
encourages another as to an adept's body of vision and know- 
ledge of freedom. Monks, if a monk is possessed of these 
five qualities he should not ordain, he should not give guidance, 
a novice should not attend him. || 4 || 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five quaUties ... a novice 
may attend him : if he is himself possessed of an adept's body 
of moral habit and encourages another as to an adept's body 
of moral habit ... if he is himself possessed of an adept's body 
of vision and knowledge of freedom and encourages another 
as to an adept's body of vision and knowledge of freedom. 
Monks, if a novice is possessed of these five qualities he may 
ordain ... a novice may attend him. || 5 || 

" And, monks, if a monk is possessed of five further qualities 
he should not ordain ... a novice should not attend him : if 
he comes to be lacking in faith,^ if he comes to be without shame, 
if he comes to be reckless, if he comes to be lazy, if he comes to 
be of muddled mindfulness.^ Monks, if a monk is possessed 
of these five qualities he should not ordain ... a novice should 
not attend him. H 6 |1 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five qualities he may 
ordain ... a novice may attend him : if he comes to have faith, 
if he comes to feel shame, if he comes to be cautious, if he comes 
to be of stirred up energy, if he comes to be of ready mindfulness'. 
Monks, if a monk is possessed of these five qualities he may 
ordain ... a novice may attend him. j| 7 || 

" And, monks, if a monk is possessed of five further qualities 
he should not ordain ... a novice should not attend him : 
if, in regard to moral habit,* he comes to have fallen away 
from moral habit ; if, in regard to good habits,^ he comes to 

1 On the following quintet, cf. D. iii. 252, 282; Af. i. 43 ; A. ii. 218 ; 
5. ii. 159, also A. iii. 421, iv. 145 and see MA. i. 190. 

« mutthassati. See definition at SA. i. 115. On this and upatthitasaii, 
" ready mindfulness " (or recollection), see Morris, JPTS. 1884, p. 92. Cf. 
sati tnuttha at Thag. 98, 99. 

* upatthitasati ; cf. also M. i. 356. 

* adhi'slle. Vin. i. 172 says that the four Parajikas and the thirteen 
Sanghadisesas are " falling away from moral habit ", as does VA. 989. Thus 
adhisila is also the " higher morality ". 

* ajjhdcdra. Vin. i. 172 names the falling away from this as grave offences, 
offences of expiation, those which ought to be confessed, those of wrong-doing, 
those of wrong speech. VA . 989 calls them " the five other classes of offence " 
(i.e. excluding the Parajika and Sangh&disesa). Ajjhdcdra can also mean 
" transgression ". 



36.8-12] MAHAVAGGAI 83 

have fallen away from good habits ; if, in regard to (right) 
view,i he comes to have fallen away from (right) view ; if he 
comes to have heard little, if he comes to be of poor intelligence. 
Monks, if a monk is possessed of these live qualities he should 
not ordain ... |1 8|| 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five qualities he may 
ordain [63] ... a novice may attend him : if, in regard to moral 
habit, he does not come to have fallen away from moral habit ; 
if, in regard to good habits, he does not come to have fallen 
away from good habits ; if, in regard to (right) view, he does 
not come to have fallen away from (right) view ; if he comes 
to have heard much ; if he comes to be intelligent. Monks, 
if a monk is possessed of these five qualities he may ordain 
... a novice may attend him. || 9 || 

" And, monks, if a monk is possessed of five further qualities 
he should not ordain ... a novice should not attend him : if 
he is not competent to tend or to get (another) to tend a pupil 
or one who shares a cell and who is ill, to allay or get (another) 
to allay dissatisfaction that has arisen, to dispel or get (another) 
to dispel, by means of dhamma,^ remorse that has arisen, if he 
does not know what is an offence, if he does not know the 
removal^ of an offence. Monks, if a monk is possessed 
of these five qualities ... a novice should not attend him. 
II 10 II 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five qualities ... a novice 
may attend him. || 11 |1 

" And monks, if a monk is possessed of five further qualities 
he should not ordain ... a novice should not attend him : if 
he is not competent to make a pupil or one who shares a cell 
train in the training regarding the fundamentals of conduct,* 
to lead him in the training regarding the fundamentals 
of the Brahmafaring, ^ to lead him in what pertains to 

^ atiditthi. Vin. i. 172 says that " falling away from right view means 
wrong view ", views of an extreme nature ; while VA. 989 says that getting 
rid of right view, he is possessed of wrong view of an extreme nature. 

* Cf. above I. 25. 20. 

' vutthdna, the arising from. Cf. below, p. 134, dpatti vutthitd, an offence 
that is removed, and p. 197, gdmo vutthdsi, the village (was) removed. 

* abhisamdcdrikd. VA. 989-990 equates these with the duties (laid down) 
in the Khandhakas. 

* ddibrahmacdriyikd ; see Vin. Texts i. 185, n. i. VA. 990 speaks of this 
as sekhapannatti, which might mean ideas, concepts, notions suitable to 
a sekha, a learner. 



84 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

dhamma} to lead him in what pertains to discipline,^ to discuss 
or get (another) to discuss, by means of dhamma, a false view 
that has arisen. Monks, if a monk is possessed of these five 
qualities ... a novice should not attend him. || 12 || 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five qualities . . . [64] . . . 
a novice may attend him. |1 13 || 

" And monks, if a monk is possessed of five further quaUties 
... a novice should not attend him : if he does not know what 
is an offence,^ if he does not know what is not an offence, if he 
does not know what is a sUght offence, if he does not know 
what is a serious offence, if the two Patimokkhas* in full are 
not properly handed down to him, not properly classified, not 
properly intoned, not properly divided by rule and in respect 
of the explanation.^ Monks, if a monk is possessed of these 
five qualities ... a novice should not attend him. || 14 || 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five quaUties ... a novice 
may attend him. |1 15 || 

" And, monks, if a monk is possessed of five further qualities 
he should not ordain, he should not give guidance, a novice 
should not attend him : if he does not know what is an offence, 
if be does not know what is not an offence, if he does not know 
what is a slight offence, if he does not know what is a serious 
offence, if he is of less than ten years' standing. Monks, if a 
monk is possessed of these five qualities he should not ordain, 
he should not give guidance, a novice should not attend him. 

II 16 II 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five quahties he may 
ordain, he may give guidance, a novice may attend him : if 
he knows what is an offence, if he knows what is not an offence, 
if he knows what is a slight offence, if he knows what is a serious 

1 abhidhamma. VA. 990 takes this as a division by name and form ; 
and clearly has the Abhidhammapitaka in mind. But, for this passage 
pre-dating the existence of the Abhidhammapitaka. see Oldenberg, Vin. i. 
Intr. p. xii, also B.D. iii. Intr. p. x ff., and my art. : Abhidhamma Abhivinaya 
IHQ. Vol. XII, No. 3, Sept., 1941. 

* abhivinaya, taken by VA . 990 to mean the whole of the Vinayapitaka. 
' Cf. Vin. ii. 249 ; .,4. iv. 140, v. 71, 80, 201. 

* That for the monks and that for the nuns. On Patimokkha see below, 
p. 131, n. 2. For this part of the passage see also Vin. iv. 51 (B.D. ii. 266). 
In general Bu., at VA. 790 and 990, gives different explanations of the terms. 
This accounts for the different translations here and at B.D. ii. 266. 

* Or, meaning, anuvyanjanaso. VA. 990 appears to explain this by 
vibhangato, as to the Vibhanga, the explanatory material surrounding each 
rule ; and suttato, " by rule ", by mdtikato, by the " summaries ", the headings 
of, or key to, each set of rules (in Vin. iii and iv). 



36.17— 38.1] MAHAVAGGAI 85 

offence, if he is of ten years' standing or of more than ten years' 
standing," 1| 17 || 

Told is the Portion of sixteen times five (cases) when 
one may ordain. || 36 || 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of six qualities . . . [66, 67] 
he should not ordain, he should not give guidance, a novice 
should not attend him.^ " || 1-14 || 

Told is the Portion of sixteen times^ six (cases) 
when one may ordain. || 37 || [68] 

Now at that time the one who had formerly been a member 
of another sect^ when he was being spoken to by his preceptor 
regarding a rule, having refuted the preceptor, went over to the 
fold of that same sect (as before), but having come back again, 
he asked the monks for ordination.* The monks told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" IVIonks, he who was formerly a member of another sect 
. . . having refuted the preceptor and going over to the fold of 
that same sect (as before), on coming back should not be 
ordained. But, monks, whoever else was formerly a member 
of another sect and desires the going forth in this dhamma 
and discipline and desires ordination, to him you should grant 
probation^ for four months.^ || 1 1| 

^ Vin. Texts i. 186, n. i points out that 37 is " identical with 36. 2-15, 
but for the- sixth case which, throughout chap. 37, is added each time at 
the end of the five cases given in chap. 36 " : " if he is of less than ten years' 
standing " and " if he is of ten years' standing or more than ten years' 
standing " respectively. 

* Vin. Texts i. i86, n. 2, points out that this should be " Fourteen times ", 
for where the first four items in 36. 15 and 17 are the same as one another 
and only the last in each is different, thus together making a total of six items, 
in 37. 13, 14 there is no repetition and these six items form one group and 
no more. 

' See above I. 31. 6. 

* Cf. Vin. ii. 279, in regard to nuns. 

' This is probation before ordination into the Order took place. It is not 
the probation which forms part of the penalty for breaking a sanghddisesa 
rule. VA. 990 says that it is called probation, parivdsa, for members of 
other sects and also probation for the unconcealed, appaticchannaparivdsa , 
and can be given to naked wanderers, naked ascetics, djlvakas, and to 
unclothed ascetics, acela, but not to anyone who has a cloak or a blanket 
made of the skin of wild animals. Cf. appaticchannaparivdsa at Vin. v. 126. 
If Bu's explanation is right, the " unconcealed probation " of C.P.D. is 
erroneous. 

* Cf. tiib sentence with Sn. p. 102, D. i. 176. 



86 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" And thus, monks, should it be granted : first, having 
made him have his hair and beard cut off, having got (someone) 
to present^ him with yellow robes, having made him arrange 
his upper robes over one shoulder, having made him honour 
the monks' feet, having made him sit down on his haunches, 
having made him salute with joined palms, he should be told : 
' Speak 'thus : " I go to the enlightened one for refuge, I go 
to dhamma for refuge, I go to the Order for refuge. And a 
second time I go . . . And a third time I go ... to the 
Order for refuge." '2 i| 2 1| 

" Monks, if he who was formerly a member of another sect 
has approached the Order . . . has saluted with joined palms, 
he should speak thus to it : ' I, honoured sirs, so and so, 
formerly a member of another sect, desire ordination in this 
dhamma and discipline. Therefore do I, honoured sirs, ask 
the Order for probation for four months. '^ And a second time 
he should ask. And a third time he should ask. The Order 
should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, 
saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This one, 
so and so, formerly a member of another sect, desires ordination 
in this dhamma and discipline. He asks the Order for probation 
for four months. If it seems right to the Order, the Order 
may grant probation to so and so, formerly a member of another 
sect, for four months. This is the motion. H 3 || 

" ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This one, so 
and so, formerly a member of another sect, desires ordination 
in this dhamma and discipline. He asks the Order for probation 
for four months. The Order is granting probation for four 
months to so and so, formerly a member of another sect. 
If the granting of probation for four months to so and so, 
formerly a member of another sect, is pleasing to the venerable 
ones, they should be silent ; he to whom it is not pleasing 
should speak. Probation for four months is granted by the 
Order to so and so, formerly a member of another sect. [69] 
It is pleasing to the Order ; therefore it is silent. Thus do I 
understand this.' |1 4 || 

" Monks, a former member of another sect becomes one who 

1 See B.D. ii. 53, 55, etc. 

* Same method used at MV, I, 54- 3 ^ox letting novices go forth. 

» Quoted at DA . ij. 362. 



38.5-6] MAHAVAGGA I 87 

succeeds thus, one who fails thus. And how, monks, does a 
former member of another sect become one who fails ? Herein, 
monks, a former member of another sect enters a village at too 
early a time,^ he returns too late in the day.^ Thus, monks, 
does a former member of another sect become one who fails. 
And again, monks, a former member of another sect comes 
to be one whose resort' (for alms) is among prostitutes,* or he 
comes to be one whose resort (for alms) is among widows,^ or 
he comes to be one whose resort (for alms) is among grown 
girls,* or he comes to be one whose resort (for alms) is among 
eunuchs, or he comes to be one whose resort (for alms) is among 
nuns.' Thus, too, monks, does a former member of another 
sect become one who fails. \\ 5 || 

" And again, monks, a former member of another sect in 
regard to those various things which have to be done by his 
fellows in the Brahma-faring,- comes to be not dexterous 
therein, not vigorous, not possessed of consideration for those 
kinds of things, ^ not able to act himself, not able to direct 
(others). Thus too, monks, does a former member of another 
sect become one who fails. And again, monks, a former member 
of another sect comes to be one who is not of keen 

^ VA. 991 says that he enters a village when he ought to be doing services 
for the monks. 

• VA. 991 says that he comes back when the monks are meditating or 
having the exposition and interrogation, and does not do what is due to 
a preceptor or teacher. 

' gocara, animals' feeding ground, pasture, then applied to places where 
monks accept alms-food. 

• vesiyd, also meaning a low-class woman. VA. 991 calls them women 
who fall easily into transgression on account of their beauty. On vesiyagocara 
see also VbhA. 339, AA. iii. 278. The gocaras are referred to below, p. 417. 
Also at A. iii. 128, where it is said that if a monk goes to them he is thought 
of as a depraved monk and is mistrusted even if he is kuppadhamnia (v.l. 
akuppa-), bound for the immovable (see G.S. iii. 98, n. i). At Vbh. 246 (quoted 
Vistn. 17) a sixth gocara is added : liquor-shop^ and the six are called 
agocara. These are referred to at DhA. iii. 275. 

' VA. 990, VbhA. 339 define widows as women whose husbands are dead 
or absent. 

• thullakumariyo. Cf. below, p. 198. VA. 991 says these are girls who 
have attained their youth or who are past it ; VbhA. 339, A A. iii. 278 say 
that they are mahallika, i.e. grown-up girls, VbhA. adding that they are 
" not placed ", i.e. unmarried {cf. same expression in regard to kulakumariyo 
at AA. iv. 12). See Jd. iv. 219 where thullakumdrika does not mean " coarse " 
but " grown-up ", of full age, vayappatta ; unmarried is implied by the 
context. On kumdribhutd as maiden, unmarried girl, see B.D. iii. Intr. p. xlix. 

' Not necessarily visiting the nuns' quarters, for see story of Udayin 
asking Uppalavanna for one of her- robes when she visited the monks' 
dwelling-place, Vin. iii. 208. 

• Same expression occurs at Vin. iv. 211. 



88 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

desire^ as to the recitation, as to the interrogation, as to the 
higher morality, the higher thought, the higher wisdom. Thus 
too, monks, does a former member of another sect become one 
who fails. II 6 || 

" And again, monks, a former member of another sect 
becomes angry, displeased, dissatisfied if dispraise is being 
spoken of the teacher, the views, the approval, the persuasion, 
the creed^ of that fold of a sect from which he has come over ; 
he becomes pleased, elated, satisfied if dispraise is being spoken 
of the awakened one or of dhamma or of the Order ; or else 
he becomes pleased, elated, satisfied if praise is being spoken of 
the teacher, the views, the approval, the persuasion, the creed 
of that fold of a sect from which he has come over ; he becomes 
angry, displeased, dissatisfied if praise is being spoken of the 
awakened one or of dhamma or of the Order. This, monks, 
is the knitting together' in regard to what may be the failure* 
of a former member of another sect. It is thus, monks, that 
a former member of another sect becomes one who fails. 
Therefore, monks, if there come a former member of another 
sect who has failed, he should not be ordained. |1 7 || 

" And how, monks, does a former member of another sect 
become one who succeeds ? Herein, monks, a former member 
of another sect does not enter a village at too early a time, 
he does not return too late in the day. Thus, monks, does a 
former member of another sect become one who succeeds. And 
again, monks . . . {point by point the contrary of I. 38. 
5> 6, 7) [70] . . . This, monks, is the knitting together in 
regard to what may be the success of a former member of 
another sect. It is thus, monks, that a former member of 
another sect becomes one who succeeds. Therefore, monks, 
if there come a former member of another sect who has 
succeeded, he may be ordained. || 8-10 || 

" If, monks, a former member of another sect comes naked, 

1 tibbacchanda ; cf. D. iii. 252, 283 for seven other matters for which a monk 
should have tibbacchanda. 

' addya, here used as a noun. 

» sanghdtanikam, the unifying. The word also occurs at M. i. 322, ^ . iii. 10 
;n the simile of tiie house with the peaked roof. There is no justification 
for the " decisive moment " of Vin. Texts i. 190. The sentence comes as 
a conclusion to the ways, already mentioned, in which failure (and below, 
success) may be manifested. 

* andradhanlyasmitn. 



38.11— 39.2] MAHAVAGGA I 89 

a robe belonging to a preceptor^ should be looked about for. 
If he comes without the hair of his head cut off, the Order 
should be asked for permission for shaving it close.^ Monks, 
if those come who are fire-worshipping matted hair ascetics 
they may be ordained, probation should not be given to these. 
What is the reason for this ? These, monks, affirm deeds, they 
affirm what ought to be done.' If, monks, there come a former 
member of another sect who is a Sakyan by birth, be may be 
ordained, probation should not be given to him. I, monks, 
wiU give this special privilege to (my) relations." || 11 1| 

The Talk on Former Members of Another Sect. || 38 || 

The Seventh Portion for Repeating. 

Now at that time five diseases were prevalent among the 
people of Magadha : leprosy, boils, eczema, consumption, 
epilepsy.* People, afflicted with the five diseases, having 
approached Jivaka Komarabhacca, ^ spoke thus : " It were 
good, teacher, if you would attend us.'" 

" But I, masters, am very busy, there is much to be done, 
and King [71] Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha is to be looked 
after by me, also the women's quarters and the Order of monks 
with the awakened one at its head. I am not able to attend 
you." 

" All this property shaU become yours, teacher, and we will 
be your slaves.' It were good, teacher, if you would attend us." 

" But I, masters, am very busy ... I am not able to attend 
you." II I II 

Then it occurred to these people : " These recluses, sons of 
the Sakyans, are of pleasant character, of pleasant conduct; 
ha\'ing eaten good meals, they lie down on beds sheltered 

^ upajjhayamulaka clvara. According to VA . 994, having made a preceptor 
his master, issara, he has some claim on him as to bowl and robes. At Vin. 
iii. 204, there is the expression millaclvara. See MV. I. 26. i where if one 
who shares a cell has no robe his preceptor should try to get one for him. 

' bhaniukamma. Cf. below, end of I. 48. 2. 

' kammavadino kiriyavddino. Cf. D. i. 53, 115, A. i. 62, Vin. i. 233, iii. 2. 
See also A. K. Coomaraswamy, Some Pali Words, H.J.A.S., Vol. 4, No. 2, 
p. 119 ff. 

• As at I. 76. I below. Cf. Vin. iv. 8 {B.D. ii. 180, where see n. 4 for 
further references). Mentioned also with many other diseases, a.t A. w. no. 

• SeeMV. Vlir. 1. 

• tikicchaii, to treat medically, to cure. 
' Cf. Vin. i. 274. 



90 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

from the wind. Suppose we were to go forth among the 
recluses, sons of the Sakyans ? In that case monks would 
look after us and moreover Jivaka Komarabhacca would 
attend us." Then these people, having approached (some) 
monks, asked for the going forth. The monks let them go 
forth, they ordained them. These monks looked after them 
and moreover Jivaka Komarabhacca attended them. 

l|2|l 

Now at that time monks, looking after many ill monks, 
lived intent on asking, intent on hinting, saying : " Give food 
for the sick, give food tor those who look after the sick, give 
medicines for the sick."^ And Jivaka Komarabhacca, attend- 
ing many ill monks, . omitted some of his duties towards the 
king. II 3 II 

A certain man, afflicted with the five diseases, having 
approached Jivaka Komarabhacca, spoke thus : "It were 
good, teacher, if you would attend me." 

'.' But I, master, am very busy ... I am not able to attend 
you." 

" All this property shall be yours, teacher, and I will be 
your slave. It were good, teacher, if you would attend me." 

" But I, master, am very busy ... I am not able to attend 
you." II 4 II 

Then it occurred to that man : " Now these recluses, sons 
of the Sakyans are of pleasant character . . . Suppose I were 
to go forth among the recluses, sons of the Sakyans ? In that 
case monks would look after me and moreover Jivaka 
Komarabhacca would attend me ; and when I am well I 
will leave the Order." 

Then that man, having approached (some) monks, asked 
for the going forth. These monks let him go forth, they 
ordained him. These monks looked after him and moreover 
Jivaka Komarabhacca attended him. When he was well he 
left the Order. Jivaka Komarabhacca saw [72] that man 
who had left the Order ; seeing him, he spoke thus to that 
man : " Had not you, master, gone forth among the monks ? " 

" Yes, teacher." 

" Then why have you, master, acjted in this way ? " Then 
this man told this matter to Jivaka Komarabhacca. || 5 || 

* Three of the benefits that Visakha was allowed to confer on the Order. 



39.6—40.2] MAHAVAGGAI 91 

Jivaka Komarabhacca looked down upon, criticised, spread 
it about, saying : " How can these honoured sirs let one 
afflicted with the five diseases go forth ? " Then Jivaka 
Komarabhacca approached the Lord ; having approached, 
having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. 
As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, Jivaka 
Komarabhacca spoke thus to the Lord : "It were well. Lord, 
if the masters did not let one afflicted with (any one of)^ the 
five diseases go forth." 1| 6 || 

The Lord then gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted Jivaka 
Komarabhacca with talk on dhamma. Then Jivaka 
Komarabhacca, gladdened . . . delighted by the Lord with 
talk on dhamma, rising from his seat, having greeted the Lord, 
departed keeping his right side towards him. Then the Lord, 
on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned 
talk, addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, one afflicted with (any one of) the five diseases 
should not be let go forth. Whoever should let (one such) go 
forth, there is an offence of wrong-doing." |1 7 || 39 || 

Now at that time there came to be a disturbance on the 
borderlands of King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha. Then 
King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha commanded the generals, 
the chief ministers, saying : " Go, good sirs, search^ the border- 
lands." 

" Very well, sire," the generals, the chief ministers answ:ered 
King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha in assent. !| i |1 

Then it occurred to (some) very distinguished warriors : 
"Because we delight in battle,' we do evil and we engender 
much demerit. Now by what means could we refrain from 
evil and do what is good ? " Then it occurred to these 
warriors : " These recluses, sons of the Sakyans are dhamma- 
farers, even-farers, Brahma-farers, they are truth-speakers, of 
moral habit, of good character.* Now, if we were to go forth 
among these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, thus might we refrain 
from evil and do what is good." Then these warriors, having 

^ Taken separately at VA . gg^i in relation to going forth. 

* VA. 996 says that thieves were giving trouble, but because Bimbisara 
was a stream-winner he did not command : " Strike them, kill them." 

» Cf. Vin. iv. 104. 

* Cf. B.D. i. 70, 125, 200, 223. 



92 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

approached (some) monks, asked for the going forth. The 
monks let them go forth, they ordained them. || 2 || 

The generals, the chief ministers, asked those in the King's 
service^ : " How [73] is it, good sirs, that the warriors, so and 
so and so and so, are not to be seen ? " 

" Sirs,2 the warriors, so and so and so and so, have gone forth 
among the monks." The generals, the chief ministers . . . 
spread it about, sajdng : " How can these recluses, sons of the 
Sakyans, let one who is in the king's service go forth ? " The 
generals, the chief ministers told this matter to King Seniya 
Bimbisara of Magadha. Then King Seniya Bimbisara of 
Magadha asked the chief ministers of justice : 

" Good sirs, what does he who lets one go forth who is in a 
king's service engender^ (for himself) ? " 

" Sire, a preceptor's head should be cut off, the tongue should 
be torn from the announcer of a proclamation,* half the ribs of 
a (member of a) group should be broken." || 3 || 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha approached the 
Lord; having approached, having greeted the lord, he sat 
down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a 
respectful distance, King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha spoke 
thus to the Lord : " There are, Lord, kings who are of no 
faith, not believing ; these might harm monks even for a trifling 
matter. It were well, Lord, if the masters did not let one in 
a kmg's service go forth." Then the Lord gladdened . . . 
delighted King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha with talk on 
dhamma. Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, gladdened 
. . . delighted by the Lord with talk on dhamma, rising from 
his seat, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping his right 
side towards him. Then the Lord on this occasion, in this 
connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, 
saying: 

" Monks, one in a king's service should not be let go forth. 
Whoever should let (one such) go forth, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing." || 4 || 40 || 

* rdjabhata. 

• sdmi, lords, masters. 

• pasavati, same word as used above ill " engender much demerit ". 

* anussdvaka. VA. 996 takes this as dcariya, teacher, which would be 
more in line with " preceptor " and " group ", both of which might let a person 
go forth. The announcer of a proclamation had not, as such, this power. 



41.1—42.2] MAHAVAGGAI 93 

Now at that time a thief (wearing) a garland of fingers^ 
came to have gone forth among the monks. People, having 
seen (him), were perturbed, then alarmed, then they ran away, 
then they went by a different route, then they turned in another 
direction, then they closed the door.^ People . . . spread it 
about, saying : " How can the recluses, sons of the Sakyans 
let a thief wearing an emblem' go forth ? " Monks heard 
these people who . . . spread it about. Then these monks 
told this matter to the Lord. The Lord addressed the monks 
saying : 

" Monks, a thief who wears an emblem should not be let 
go forth. "Whoever should let (one such) go forth, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing." 1| i || 41 1| 

Now at that time it [74] was decreed by King Seniya 
Bimbisara of Magadha : " There is nothing to do against those 
who go forth among the recluses, sons of the Sakyans. Well 
preached is dhanima, let them fare the Brahma-faring for mak- 
ing an utter end of ill."* Now at that time a certain man, 
having committed a theft, was imprisoned in a jail ; he, having 
broken out of jail, having run away, went forth among the 
monks. || i 1| 

People having seen (him) spoke thus : " This is the very^ 
thief who has broken out of jail. Come along, let us bring 
him (back).^ " Some spoke thus : " Do not, masters, speak 
thus, for it is decreed by King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha : 
' There is nothing to do against those . . . utter end of ill.' " 
People . . . spread it about, saying : 

" These recluses, sons of the Sakyans are safe and secure^ ; 

1 aiigulimala. Not the well-known bandit-thief of this name (as Vin. Texts 
i. 196 and D. P.P.N, take it), for in the absence of ndma or ti no proper name 
is denoted. The robber who came to be called Angulimala has verses ascribed 
to him at Thag. 866-891. At Thag. 869-870 he is shown as asking the Lord 
for the going forth, the Lord as saying, " Come, monk ", and this as 
constituting his monk-status, bhikkhubhava. His story, and the verses, 
are also given at M. Sutta 86. It is diihcult to reconcile the above Vinaya 
ruling with the story of Ahgulimala's going forth, for the Lord recognised 
his unusual potentialities, hardly to be expected in the common run of thieves. 

* Cf. Vin. iii. 144 {B.D. i. 246). ' dhajabaddha. 

* Cf. Vin. iv. 226 {B.D. iii. 182-3) where similar words are attributed 
to King Pasenadi. 

* ayam so, emphatic. 

* nema, as in MV. I. 46. i, 47. i. 

' abhaydvard. This is the word which gives the title to this portion for 
" repeating ", 



94 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

there is nothing to do against them. But how can they let a 
thief go forth who has broken out of jail ? " They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, a thief who has broken out of jail should not be 
let go forth. Whoever should let (one such) go forth, there 
is an offence of wrong-doing." || 2 || 42 || 

Now at that time a certain man, having committed a theft, 
having run away, went forth among the monks. And in the 
royal palace, this was written :^ " Wherever he may be seen, 
there he should be killed." People, having seen (him), spoke 
thus : " This is the very thief who was written about. Come 
along, let us kill him." Some spoke thus : " Do not, masters, 
speak thus . . . utter end of ill.' " People . . . spread it about, 
saying: 

" These recluses, sons of the Sakyans are safe and secure ; 
there is nothing to do against them. But how can they let a 
thief go forth who has been written about ? " They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, a thief who has been written about should not be 
let go forth. Whoever should let (one such) go forth, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing." |I i || 43 |1 

1 likhita. Edd. Vin. Texts i. Intr. xxxii take this as a passage showing 
" in an indisputable manner the existence of the art of writing at the time 
when the Vinaya texts were put into their present shape ". VA. 998 appears 
to confirm this view by saying raja ca nam panrie va potihake vd . . . likhdpeti, 
the king causes it to be written on a leaf or in a book. As potthaka can also 
mean " modelled in clay ", we must not assume that writing was then 
necessarily what it is now. Then, what " writing " was done was probably 
on palm-leaves and metal or clay tablets, and on wood. Likh in Pali can mean 
draw, write, carve, turn. 



44.I--47.I] MAHAVAGGAI 95 

Now at that time a certain man who had been scourged as 
punishment^ came to have gone forth among the monks. 
People . . . spread it about, saying : " How can these recluses, 
sons of the Sakyans, list one who has been scourged as punish- 
ment go forth ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : 

" Monks, one who has been scourged as punishment should 
not be let go forth. Whoever should let (one such) go forth, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing." || i 1| 44 || [75] 

Now at that time a certain man who had been branded as 
punishment^ ... (as in \\ 44 || io the end). |{ i 1| 45 || 

Now at that time a certain man, a debtor, having run away, 
came to have gone forth among the monks. The creditors, 
having seen (him), spoke thus: "This is our very debtor. 
Come along, let us bring him (back).' " Some spoke thus : 
" Do not, masters, speak thus, for it is decreed by King Seniya 
Bimbisara of Magadha : * There is nothing to do against those 
who go forth among the recluses, sons of the Sakyans. Well 
preached is dhamma, let them fare the Brahma-faring for mak- 
ing an utter end of ill ' " People . . . spread it about, saying : 

" These recluses, sons of the Sakyans are safe and secure ; 
there is nothing to do against them. But how can they let 
a debtor go forth ? " They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : 

" Monks, a debtor should not be let go forth. Whoever 
should let (one such) go forth, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II I II 46 II 

Now at that time a certain slave, having run away, came 
to have gone forth among the monks. The mistresses,* having 
seen (him), spoke thus : " This is our very slave. Come along, 
let us bring him (back).^ "... {as in I. ^ . . . 

" Monks, a slave should not be let go forth. Whoever 

^ kasdhata katadan^akamma. 

* lakkhafidhata katadan4akamina. 
' nema, as in I. 42. 2, 47. i. 

* ayyika. At Vin. i. 371, v. 1. samika is given. A small piece of evidence 
that women ruled the household, rather than their husbands. 

' rwma, as in 1 . 42. 2 and 46. i. 



96 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

should let (one such) go forth, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II I II 47 II 

Now at that time a certain bald-headed metal-smith, ^ having 
quarrelled with his parents, having gone to a monastery, went 
forth among the monks. Then the parents of that bald- 
headed metal-smith, searching for that bald-headed metal- 
smith, having gone to the monastery, asked the monks, 
saying : " Honoured sirs, have you seen a youth like that ? " 
The monks, not knowing (him), merely said : " We do not 
know (him) " ; not seeing (him), merely ssdd : " We do not 
see (him)." || i || 

Then the parents of that bald-headed metal-smith, searching 
for that bald-headed metal-smith [76], having seen him gone 
forth among the monks . . . spread it about, saying : " These 
recluses, sons of the Sakyans are shameless, of bad conduct, 
liars ; knowing, they merely say, ' We do not know ' ; seeing, 
they merely say, * We do not see ', and this youth is gone forth 
among the monks." Monks heard the parents of this bald- 
headed metal-smith who . . . spread it about. Then these 
monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: 

" I allow you, monks, to ask the Order for permission for 
shaving (the hair of the head) close. ^ " || 2 j] 48 || 

Now at that time in Rajagaha a group of seventeen boys 
were friends ^ ; of these the youth Upali was the chief. Then 
it occurred to Upali's parents : "By what means could Upali, 
after our demise, live at ease and not be in want ? " Then it 
occurred to Upali's parents : "If Upali should learn writing, 
so would Upali, after our demise, live at ease and not be in 
want." Then it occurred to Upali's parents : " But if Upali 

^ kammdrabhan4u. Highly esteemed by king and people, Jd iii. 281. 
No distinction was apparently made between workers in gold, silver and 
other metals, but VA. 1002 says he was a goldsmith's son. The exact point 
of his being a smith is obscure. 

• bhan4ukamma, cf. above I. 88. 11. VA. 1003 says that if there is a 
newly shaven one («at;am«tt^a) or one leaving the Order or if there is anyone 
among the Jains and so on whose hair is two finger-breadths long or less, 
there is no need to cut his hair, therefore such a one can be allowed to go forth 
without asking for the close shaving. But whoever has hair more than 
two finger-breadths long, even if it be only a top-knot, may only be allowed, 
to go forth when the close shaving has been asked for. 

» As at Vin. iv. 128 ff. {B.D. iii. 10 ff.). 



49.1—5] MAHAVAGGA I 97 

learns writing his fingers will become painful. If Upali were 
to leam calculation, so would Upali, after our demise, live at 
ease and not be in want." |I i || 

Then it occurred to Upali's parents : " But if Upali learns 
calculation, his breast will become painful. If Upali were to 
leam money-changing, so would Upali, after our demise, live 
at ease and not be in want." Then it occurred to Upali's 
parents : " But if Upali learns money-changing his eyes will 
become painful. Now there are these recluses, sons of the 
Sakyans, pleasant in habit, pleasant in conduct ; having 
eaten good meals, they lie down on beds sheltered from the 
wind. Now if Upali were to go forth among the recluses, sons 
of the Sakyans, so would Upali, after our demise, live at ease 
and not be in want." || 2 || 

The boy Upali heard this conversation of his parents. Then 
the boy Upali approached those boys ; having approached, 
he spoke thus to these boys : " Come, masters, we wiU go 
forth among the recluses, sons of the Sakyans." 

" If you, master, will go forth, we likewise will also go forth.'* 
Then these boys, having (each) approached his parents, spoke 
thus: 

" Consent that I may go forth from home into homeless- 
ness." Then [77] the parents of those boys consented, 
thinking : " All these boys want the same thing, they are 
bent on what is good." These, having approached monks, 
asked for the going forth. These monks let them go forth, 
they ordained them. || 3 j] 

Getting up in the night towards dawn, these cried out : 
" Give conjey, give rice, give solid food." 

The monks spoke thus : " Wait, your reverences, until it 
turns light. Should there be conjey you shall drink it ; should 
there be rice you shall partake of it ; should there be solid food 
you shall eat it. But should there not be conjey or rice or 
solid food, then, having walked for alms, you shall eat." 

But these monks, being spoken to thus by the monks, cried 
out just the same : " Give conjey, give rice, give solid food," 
and they soiled and wetted the bedding. || 4 || 

Then the Lord, getting up in the night towards dawn, hearing 
this noise of boys, addressed the venerable Ananda, saying : 
" Why ever, Ananda, is there this noise of boys ? " Then the 



98 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

venerable Ananda told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Is it true as is said, monks, that monks knowingly ordain 
an individual^ who is under twenty years of age ? " 

" It is true, Lord." The awakened one, the Lord rebuked 
them, saying : 

" How, monks, can these foolish men knowingly ordain an 
individual who is under twenty years of age ? I| 5 || 

Monks, an individual under twenty years of age is not 
able 2 to endure cold, heat, hunger, thirst, the sting of gadflies 
or mosquitoes, wind and sim, creeping things, abusive, hurtful 
language ; he is not the kind (of person) who endures bodily 
feelings which, arising, are painful, acute, sharp, shooting, 
disagreeable, miserable, deadly. But, monks, an individual 
of twenty years of age is able to endure cold, heat . . . miserable, 
deadly. Monks, this is not for pleasing those who are not (yet) 
pleased, nor for increasing the number of those who are 
pleased." Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, 
he addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, an individual who is under twenty years of age 
should not knowingly be ordained. Whoever should (so) 
ordain (one such) should be dealt with according to the 
rule. 3" II 6 II 49 II 

Now at that time a certain family came to pass away as a 
result of malaria.* (Only) the father and little son belonging 
to it survived.^ These, having gone forth among the monks, 
walked even for almsfood together. Then that boy, when 
almsfood was given to his father, having run up to him, spoke 
thus : " Give to me too, father, give to me too, father." 
People [78] . . . spread it about, saying : " These recluses, 
sons of the Sakyans, are not chaste. This boy was born of 

^ On the monkish intention of pue;gala, see B.D. iii. Intr. p. xxii S. 
« As at Vin. iv. 130, Pac. LXV {B.D. iii. 12). 
» Pac. LXV. 

* ahivdtakaroga, should be " snake-wind-disease ". Word occurs at Ja. 
ii. 79, iv. 200. See note at Jd. Cambridge translation, ii. 55. Cf Mahdvastu, 
i. 253, a disease called adhivdsa (produced by non-human agency) which 
is said to attack a whole district. 

* sesd honti, came to remain. Bu. at VA. 1003 explains the means by 
which a person may escape from the disease — by making a hole in the wall 
or roof and running away. This is also mentioned at Jd. ii. 79, iv. 200. See 
note at Jd. translation, ii. 55. The rogdmddigato, the reading which Vin. 
Texts i. 204, n. i ascribes to the Corny., should be tirogdmddigcUo, reached 
a distant village (where he is free, muccati, of the disease). 



50.1— 52.1] MAHAVAGGAI 99 

a nun." Monks heard these people who . . . spread it about. 
Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, a boy of less than fifteen years of age should not 
be let go forth. Whoever should let (one such) go forth, there 
is an offence of wrong-doing. "^ || i || 50 1| 

Now at that time the family, faithful, believing, who sup- 
ported the venerable Ananda, passed away as a result of 
malaria, but two boys survived. These, having seen monks, 
ran up to them according to their former allowable custom, 
(but) the monks sent them away. These cried on being sent 
away by the monks. Then it occurred to the venerable 
Ananda : " It is laid down by the Lord that a boy of less than 
fifteen years of age should not be allowed to go forth, and these 
boys are less than fifteen years of age. Now by what means 
might these boys not be lost ? " Then the venerable Ananda 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" But, Ananda, are these boys able to scare^ crows ? " 

" They are able (to do so). Lord." Then the Lord, on this 
occasion, in this connection having given reasoned talk, 
addressed the monks, saying : 

" I allow you, monks, to let a youth of less than fifteen years 
of age and who is a scarer of crows' go forth." || i || 51 1| 

Now at that time the venerable Upananda, the son of the 
Sakyans, had two novices, Kandaka* and Mahaka.^ These 
committed sodomy with one another. Monks looked down 

^ Five years, therefore, were to elapse before the upasampada ordination 
wasallowed (seePac. Ixv and below, p. ). This intervening period is referred 
to at J a. i. 106 : kulaputto . . . pabbajitvd upasampaddya pa-ncavassiko hutvd, 
a boy of good family, having gone forth, being j5ve years off ordination. . . . 

* uttepetum, meaning " to make fly up " or " to catch in snares ". See 
PED. VA. 1003 is not helpful. 

' kdkuttepaka. The word should probably read uddepaka. VA. 1003 
explains as " having taken a clod of earth in his left hand, he is able, sitting 
down and having made the crows fly up {kdke udd&petvd), to eat a meal 
put down in front of (him) ". This shows a certain amount of physical strength 
and endurance, not to be found in an infant. In a country where crows 
are as persistent as they are in India, it must have been useful to have had boys 
who could scare them away. Nevertheless this allowance forms a most 
singular exception to the general rule forbidding the going forth of a youth 
under fifteen years of age. 

* Also below, p. 107, where it was probably this Kandaka who was 
expelled. There is also a Kandaka, a novice, at Vin. iv. 138, but he was 
expelled for holding a wrong view, and is therefore perhaps not the same 
as Upananda's novice. 

' Heard of nowhere but here, I think. 



loo BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

upon, criticised, spread it about, saying : " How can these 
novices indulge in a bad habit such as this ? " They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, two novices should not attend one (monk). Who- 
ever should make two novices attend* him, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing." || i !| 52 || 

Now at that time^ the Lord spent the rains just there, in 
Rajagaha, the cold weather there, the hot weather there. 
People . . . spread it about, saying : " The district is crowded 
up, confused with recluses, sons of the Sakyans ; because 
of them the district is not to be seen." Monks, heard these 
people who . . . spread it about. Then these monks told this 
matter to the Lord. Hi \\ 

Then the Lord addressed the venerable Ananda, saying : 
" Go, Ananda, and taking a key, [79] announce to the monks 
in every cell : ' Your reverences, the Lord wishes to set out 
on tour for Dakkhinagiri. Whatever venerable one needs 
(to do so), let him come.' " 

" Yes, Lord," and the venerable Ananda, having answered 
the Lord in assent, taking the key, announced to the monks 
in every cell : " Your reverences, the Lord wishes to set out 
on tour for Dakkhinagiri. Whatever venerable one needs 
(to do so), let him come." || 2 || 

Monks spoke thus : " Reverend Ananda, it is laid down 
by the Lord (that one is) to live ten years in dependence, and* 
when one is of ten years' standing (he is) to give guidance.' 
If we go there then guidance must be chosen* (there), but the 



1 upatthdpeti. Cf. above, MV. I. 36. 2. This word can also mean to look 
after, to cause to attend, e.g. one who is ill or another monk, whether a senior 
or a junior. See Vin. Texts i. 49, n. 5 ; also Pac. LXX where the same word 
is used in connection with the expelled Kandaka, and is there defined by 
the Old Corny, in terms of giving material help and comfort. It does not mean 
" to ordain " as at Vin. Texts i. 205 and DPPN, art : Kantaka. Below, 
MV. I. 55. I, the ruling is amended. 

» Cf. II I II with Nuns' Pac. XL, where a similar description of Rajagaha 
is given when it was crowded out by nuns. 

» See MV. I. 32. i above. 

* nissayo ca gahetabbo bhavissati. Cf. upajjhdyo gahetabbo at MV. I. 25. 7, 
and dcariyo gahetabbo at MV. I. 32. 2 : " thus should a preceptor ... a 
teacher be chosen." The reference in the above passage would appear to be 
back to this kind of choosing : choosing a preceptor or teacher, or both, 
to give guidance. If a pupU or preceptor leave one another then nissaya 
(guidance) is broken. 



53.3—6] MAHAVAGGAI ioi 

stop (there) may be short ; then we must come back again 
and guidance must be chosen again. If our teachers and 
preceptors are going, we too will go ; but if our teachers and 
preceptors are" not going, then we will not go. Reverend 
Ananda, we shall (otherwise) look feather-brained. "* || 3 || 

Then the Lord set out on tour for Dakkhinagiri with an 
Order of monks numbering less than a group. ^ Then the Lord, 
having stayed in Dakkhinagiri for as long as he found suiting, 
came back again to Rajagaha. Then the Lord addressed the 
venerable Ananda, saying : " How is it, Ananda, that the 
Truthfinder set out on tour for Dakkhinagiri with an Order 
of monks numbering less than a group ? " Then the venerable 
Ananda told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this 
occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, 
addressed the monks, saying : 

" I allow, monks, an experienced competent monk to live 
five years in dependence (but) an inexperienced one all his 
life. II 4 II 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five qualities he should 
not live independently^ (of a preceptor or teacher) : if he is 
not possessed of an adept's body of moral habit . . . (= L 36. 3) 
. . . Monks, if a monk is not possessed of these five qualities 
he should not live independently. Monks, if a monk is 
possessed of five qualities he may live independently : if be 
is possessed of an adept's body of moral habit . . . (= I. 36. 3) 
. . . Monks, if a monk is possessed of these five qualities he may 
live independently.* || 5 |1 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of five further qualities he 
should not live independently : if he comes to be of no faith 
. . . (= L 36. 6) . . . Monks, he should not live independently. 
Monks, if a monk is possessed of five qualities he may live 
independently : if he comes to have faith [80] . . . (= L 36. 7) 
. . . Monks, ... he may live independently. || 6 || 

1 lahucittakatd no pannayissati, a feather-brained (light minded) state will 
be apparent in us. 

* oganena bhikkhusanghena. VA. 1003 explains oganena as parihinaganena, 
lacking a group, and as appamattaka bhikkhusangha, only a small Order 
of monks. Usually a " group " consisted of from two to four monks or nuns, 
but above, I. 31. 2, a group of ten monks is referred to. 

' anissitena, in independence, without a teacher to give guidance. 

* Cf. below. I. 73. 1-4 where other cases are given where a monk may live 
independently, anissita. 



102 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

"... five further qualities he should not Uve independently : 
if, in regard to moral habit, he comes to have fallen away from 
moral habit . . . (= I. 36. 8) . . . Monks, if a monk is possessed 
of five qualities he may live independently : if, in regard to 
moral habit, he does not come to have fallen away . . . 
(= I. 36. 9) . . . he may live independently. || 7 |1 

"... five further qualities he should not live independently : 
if he does not know what is an offence . . . (= I. 36. 14) . . . 
Monks, if a monk is possessed of five quaUties he may live 
independently : if he knows what is an offence . . . (= I. 36. 15) 
... he may live independently. || 8 || 

"... five further qualities he should not live independently : 
if he does not know what is an offence . . . ( = I. 36. 16) . . . if 
he is of less than five years' standing. . . . Monks, if a monk is 
possessed" of five qualities he may live independently: if he 
knows what is an offence ... (= I. 36. 17) ... if he is of five 
years' standing or of more than five years' standing. . . . || 9 || 

" Monks, if a monk is possessed of six qualities he should 
not live independently : if he is not possessed pf an adept's 
body of moral habit . . . (= I. 37. i) . . . if he is of less than 
five years' standing. Monks, if a monk is not possessed of 
these six qualities he should not live independently. Monks, 
if a monk is possessed of six qualities he may live independently : 
if he is possessed of an adept's body of moral habit . . . (= I. 
37. 2) ... if he is of five years' standing or more than five years' 
standing . . . || 10 || 

"... six further qualities he should not live independently : 
if he comes to have no faith . . . (= I. 37. 5) . . . if he is of less 
than five years' standing . . . possessed of six quaUties he may 
live independently : if he comes to have faith . . . (= I. 37. 6) 
... if he is of five years' standing or more than five years' 
standing ... |1 11 1| 

"... six further qualities he should not Uve independently : 
if, in regard to moral habit, he comes to have fallen away from 
moral habit ...(= I, 37. 7) ... if he is of less than five years' 
standing . . . possessed of six qualities he may live independently : 
if, in regard to moral habit, he does not come to have fallen 
away . . . (= I. 37. b) . . . if he is of five years' standing or more 
than five years' standing. || 12 || 

"... six further quaUties he should not live independently : 



58.13—54.3] MAHAVAGGA I 103 

if he does not know what is an offence . . . ( = I. 37. 13) . . . if he 
is of less than five years' standing . . . possessed of six qualities 
he may live independently : if he knows what is an offence . . . 
(= I 37. 14) ... if he is of five years' standing or more than 
five years' standing. Monks, if a monk is possessed of these 
six qualities he may live independently." || 13 || 53 || 

Told is the Portion for Repeating on Safe and Secure. [81] 

Then the Lord, having stayed in Rajagaha for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Kapilavatthu. Walking on 
tour in due course he arrived at Kapilavatthu.^ The Lord 
stayed there among the Sakyans in Kapilavatthu in the Banyan 
monastery.^ Then the Lord, having dressed in the morning, 
taking his bowl and robe, approached the dwelling of Suddhodana 
the Sakyan ; having approached he sat down on the appointed 
seat. Then the lady, Rahula's mother, spoke thus to the boy 
Rahula : " This, Rahula, is your father, go and ask him for 
your inheritance." || i || 

Then the boy Rahula approached the Lord ; having 
approached, he stood in front of the Lord and said : " Pleasant 
is your shadow, recluse." Then the Lord, rising up from his 
seat, departed. Then the boy Rahula, following close behind 
the Lord, said : " Give me my inheritance, recluse, give me my 
inheritance, recluse." Then the Lord addressed the venerable 
Sariputta, saying : " Well then, do you, Sariputta, let the boy 
Rahula go forth. "^ 

" How do I, Lord, let the boy Rahula go forth ? " || 2 || 

Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having 
given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying : "I allow, 
monks, the going forth for novices by the three goings for 
refuge. And thus, monks, should you let one go forth : first, 
having made him have his hair and beard cut off, having got 
(someone) to present him with yellow robes, having made him 
arrange his upper robe over one shoulder, having made him 
honour the monks' feet, having made him sit down on his 
haunches, having made him salute with joined palms, he should 

^ VA. 1005 says it was a distance of sixty yojanas from Rajagaha ; and 
going a yojana a day, the Lord's journey took two months. 
» See B.D. ii. 94, n. i. 
» Story of " Rahula's conversion " also given at DhA. i. 116 f, 



104 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

be told : ' Speak thus : " I go to the awakened one for refuge, 
I go to dhamma for refuge, I go to the Order for refuge. And a 
second time I go . . . And a third time I go ... to the Order for 
refuge " '.^ I allow, monks, the going forth for novices by these 
three goings for refuge." || 3 || 

Then the venerable Sariputta let the boy Rahula go forth. 
Then Suddhodana the Sakyan approached the Lord ; having 
approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful 
distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, 
Suddhodana the Sakyan spoke thus to the Lord : 

"I, Lord, ask the Lord for one boon." 

" But, Gotama,^ Truth-finders are beyond (granting) boons."^ 

" Lord, it is what is allowable, it is what is blameless." 

" Speak on, Gotama." I| 4 || 

" Lord, when the Lord went forth there came to be not a little 
sorrow, likewise when Nanda* did ; it was extreme when Rahula 
did.^ [82] Affection for a son. Lord, cuts into the skin, having 
cut into the skin it cuts into the hide, having cut into the hide 
it cuts into the flesh . . . the ligaments, . . . the bones, having 
cut into the bones and reaching the marrow, it abides. It were 
well, Lord, if the masters did not let a child to go forth without 
the parents' consent." j| 5 || 

Then the Lord gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted 
Suddhodana the Sakyan with talk on dhamma. Then 
Suddhodana the Sakyan gladdened . . . delighted by the Lord 
with talk on dhamma, rising from his seat, having greeted 
the Lord, departed keeping his right side towards him. Then 
the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having given 
reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, a child who has not his parents' consent should 
not be let go forth. Whoever should let (one such) go forth, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 6 || 54 || 

1 Same method employed at I. 38. 2 for granting probation to former 
members of other sects. 

^ Gotama was the clan or family name. 

3 atikkantavard. Vin. Texts, in translating above and parallel passages 
at Vin. i. 280, 292, adds " (before they know what they are) ". Rouse, Jd. 
transln., iv. 198 (= Jd. iv. 315, quoting Vin. i. 292) has "the Tathagatas 
have boons beyond measure " ; C.P.D. " above (granting) boons ". 

* The Lord's half-brother, son of Mahapajapati. On Nanda's going forth 
see VA. 1008 {., DhA. i. 116. Verses at Thag. 157. See Ud. 2 iff. 

* F^. loio says that Suddhodana thinking the family line broken because 
these three went forth, asked where a king could come from, 



55.1— 56.1] MAHAVAGGAI 105 

Then the Lord, having stayed in Kapilavatthu for as long 
as he found suiting, set out on tour for Savatthi. Walking on 
tour in due course he arrived at Savatthi. The Lord stayed 
there in Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's 
monastery. Now at that time the family who supported the 
venerable Sariputta sent a youth to the venerable Sariputta, 
saying : " May the elder let this youth go forth." Then it 
occurred to the venerable Sariputta : "A rule of training laid 
down by the Lord says that two novices should not attend 
one (monk),i and this Rahula is my novice. Now what line 
of conduct should be followed byme ? " He told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow, monks, two novices to attend one experienced, 
competent monk, or else as many to attend (him) as he is able 
to exhort, to instruct." |1 1 1| 55 || 

Then it occurred to the novices : " Now, how many rules 
for training are there for us and in which we are to train ? " 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

"Monks, I allow ten rules for training for novices ^ and 
novices to train in these : restraint from onslaught on 
creatures, 3 restraint from taking what is not given, ^ restraint 
from unchastity,^ restraint from lying, ^ restraint from the 
occasion of sloth (induced by) fermented liquor, spirits and 
strong drink,' restraint from eating at the wrong time,^ 
restraint from seeing shows' of dancing, singing and music,^° 
restraint from the occasion of using garlands, scents, unguents 

1 Above, I. 52. i. 

* Novice is defined at Vin. iv. 122 {B.D. ii. 412) as one conforming to ten 
rules for training ; also female novice is so defined at Vin. iv. 343 {B.D. iii. 
411). 

^ Par. Ill, Pac. LXI. These restraints or abstinences occur at e.g. D. i. 
4 ff., ^. i. 211, ii. 209, iv. 247 ff., 5. v. 469, Pug. 58. Cf. DA. 69 ff. 

* Par. II. 

• Par. I. 

« Par. IV. 
' Cf. Pac. LI. 
» Pac. XXXVII. 

• visuka appears to mean twisting, wriggling, restless motion. On the 
miming nature of singing, dancing and music see B.D. iii. Intr. xl, n. and 
p. 298, n. 2. These shows where movement was a feature were of quite 
a different character from shows of inanimate objects. Nuns were forbidden 
to visit these latter by their Pac. XLI. 

^" A dukkata for monks to see these, Vin. ii. 108 ; a pacittiya for nuns 
to see them. Nuns' Pac. X. 



io6 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

and wearing finery, [83] restraint from using high beds, large 
beds,^ restraint from accepting gold and silver. ^ I allow, 
monks, these ten rules for training for novices and novices to 
train in these." H i || 56 || 

Now at that time novices were not respectful, not deferential, 
not courteous towards the monks. Monks . . . spread it about, 
saying : " How can these novices not be respectful . . . towards 
the monks ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, I allow you to impose a punishment^ on a novice 
who is possessed of five qualities : if he tries for non-receiving 
(of gains)* by monks, if he tries for non-profiting by monks, 
if he tries for non-residence for monks, if he reviles and abuses^ 
monks, if he causes monk to break with monk. I allow you, 
monks, to impose a pimishment on a novice who is possessed 
of these five qualities." |1 1 || 

Then it occurred to these monks : " Now, how should the 
punishment be imposed ? " They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, to make a prohibi- 
tion."^ Now at that time monks made a prohibition for 
novices in respect of an Order's entire monastery. The 
novices, on being unable to enter the monastery, went away, 
and left the Order, and went over to (other) sects. They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, an Order's entire 
monastery should not be made (the subject of) a prohibition. 
Whoever should make (it such), there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. I allow you, monks, to make a prohibition in respect 
of wherever he is staying or wherever he is entering.'" || 2 || 

Now at that time monks made a prohibition for novices in 
respect of nutriment taken by the mouth. People, making 
a drink of conjey and also rice for an Order, spoke thus to the 
novices : " Come, honoured sirs, drink the conjey, come, 
honoured sirs, partake of the rice." The novices spoke thus : 

1 C/. Pac. LXXXVII. 

« Nissag. XVIII. 

» dan^akamma ; cf. above I. 44. i, 45. i, and Vin. ii. 262 f. 

* So' VA. 1013 ; "of requisites," AA. iv. i6o. Cf these with "five 
qualities " at Vin. ii. 18, " eight qualities " a.tA. iv. 345, Vin. ii. 125. 

' Cf. Vin. iv. 52, 309 where nuns may not revile or abuse a monk. 

« dvarana, an obstacle, hindrance, barring off. Cf. Vin. ii. 262 /. 

^ patikkamati, to return, VA. 1013 explains by payisati, to enter. The 
meaning is entering a monastery in the sense of returning to it. 



57.3—80.1] MAHAVAGGAI 107 

" It is not possible, sirs, the monks have made (this the subject 
of) a prohibition." The people . . . spread it about, saying : 
" How can these revered sirs make a prohibition for novices 
in respect of nutriment taken by the mouth ? " They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, nutriment taken 
by the mouth is not to be made (the subject of) a prohibition. 
Whoever should make (it such), there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II3II 

Told is the Item on Punishment. || 57 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks, [84] without having 
asked preceptors (for permission), made a prohibition for 
novices. Preceptors hunted about, saying : " Now, where 
are our novices ? They are not to be seen." IVIonks spoke 
thus : " A prohibition was made, your reverences, by the group 
of six monks." The preceptors . . . spread it about, saying : 
" How can this group of six monks, without asking us (for 
permission), make a prohibition for our novices ? " They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : " IMonks, a prohibition is 
not to be made without asking preceptors (for permission). 
Wlioever should make one, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II I II 58 II 

Now at that time the group of six monks lured away^ the 
novices of monks who were elders. The elders, getting their 
own tooth-wood and water for rinsing the mouth, were in- 
commoded.^. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: 
" Monks, another's assembly should not be lured away. 
Whoever should lure it away, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II I II 59 II 

Now at that time Kandaka,^ a novice of the venerable 
Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, seduced the nun Kandaka. 



* apalalenti, to draw over (to themselves). Bu. at VA. 1014 hints at 
bribery, the group of six saying they would give bowls and robes to the 
novices. 

* kilamati, more usually to go short of ; to be tired, fatigued. Those who 
shared cells and pupils should get tooth-wood and water for rinsing the mouth 
for their preceptors and teachers respectively, I. 25. 8, I. 32. 3. 

' See above, I. 52. i, and B.D. iii. 31. 



io8 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Monks . . . spread it about, saying : " How can this novice 
indulge in a bad habit like this ? " They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow you, monks, to expel a novice who is possessed of 
ten qualities : if he is one who makes onslaught on creatures, 
if he is one who takes what is not given, if he is one who is 
unchaste, if he is a liar, if he is a drinker of strong drink, if he 
speaks dispraise of the awakened one, if he speaks dispraise of 
dhamma, if he speaks dispraise of the Order, if he is a holder 
of a false view,^ if he is a seducer of nuns.^ I allow you, monks, 
to expel a novice who is possessed of these ten quaUties." 
II III 60 II 

Now at that time a certain eunuch came to have gone forth 
among the monks. Having approached a number of young 
monks, he spoke thus : " Come, venerable ones, commit an 
offence with me." The monks refused, saying : " Be off^, 
eunuch, depart*, eunuch. What need have you ? " Refused 
by the monks, having approached a number of large, fat* 
novices, he spoke thus : " Come, your reverences, commit 
an offence with me." The novices refused, saying : "Be off, 
eunuch, depart, eunuch. What need have you ? " Refused 
by the novices, having approached mahouts and grooms', he 
spoke thus : " Come, [85] sirs, commit an offence with me." 
The mahouts and grooms committed an offence with him. || i || 

These . . . spread it about, saying : " These recluses, sons 
of the Sakyans, are eunuchs, and those of them who are not 
eunuchs, they too commit offences with eunuchs. Thus they 
are one and all unchaste." Monks heard these mahouts and 
grooms who . . . spread it about. Then these monks told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

^ At Vin. iv. 138 {B.D. iii. 31) a novice, Kandaka, was expelled on this ground. 

* VA. 1015 explains that " one who is unchaste " may be ordained if he 
is willing to restrain himself in the future, but a seducer of nuns cannot even 
go forth. Cf. Vin. Texts i. 215, n. i. At ^. v. 70, 71 among ten specified 
occasions where the Patimokkha may be suspended are included the presence 
of a seducer of nuns, and the presence of a eunuch (see next paragraph below) . 

» nassa, disappear. 

* vinassa = nassa, VA. 871, which adds " go where we do not see you ". 
For cara pi re vinassa see Vin. iv. 139. 

' moligalla ; v. 11. given at Vin. i. 372 : moligalla, mukalla. 

* haithibhap4^ assabhan^a. VA . 1015 explains bha^(f<^ by gopaka, guardian, 
watchman. 



61.2—62.2] MAHAVAGGAI 109 

" Monks, if a eunuch is not ordained, he should not be 
ordained ; if he is ordained, he should be expelled.^ " || 2 || 61 || 

Now at that time a certain descendant of an ancient family 
which had come down in the world was delicately nurtured. 
Then it occurred to this descendant of the ancient family 
which had come down in the world : " Now, I am delicately 
nurtured, I am not able to acquire wealth not (already) 
acquired, nor to increase the wealth (already) acquired.^ Now 
by what means could I live at ease and not be in want ? " 
Then it occiured to this descendant ... in the world : " Now 
these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, are of pleasant conduct, 
of pleasant character ; having eaten good meals, they lie down 
to sleep on beds sheltered from the wind. Suppose that I, 
ha\'ing prepared a bowl and robe for myself, having cu^ off 
my hair and beard, having clothed myself in yellow robes, 
having gone to a monastery, should be in communion together 
with monks ? " || i || 

Then that descendant ... in the world, having prepared 
a bowl and robe for himself, having cut off his hair and beard, 
having clothed himself in yellow robes, having gone to a 
monastery, greeted the monks. The monks spoke thus : 
" Of how many years' standing are you, your reverence ? " 
" What does this mean, your reverences : ' how many 
years' standing ' ? " 

" But who, your reverence, is your preceptor ? " 
" What does this mean, your reverences : ' preceptor ' ? " 
The monks spoke thus to the venerable Upali^ : 
" Please, reverend Upali, examine this one who has gone 
forth." II 2 II 



^ VA. 1 016 says he is to be expelled by the expulsion due to characteristic, 
lingatidsana. Three kinds of expulsion are given at VA. 870 f. : (i) expulsion 
from communion, meaning expulsion for not seeing an offence, not making 
amends for it, not giving up a false view ; (2) expulsion due to characteristic, 
as an example of which the nun Mettiya is cited ( Vin. iii. 162-3) ', (3) expulsion 
as a punishment, with the words, ' From to-day forth, reverend novice, 
the Lord cannot be referred to as your teacher ' (Vin. iv. 139 = B.D. iii. 31). 

* This inability is a.t A. i. 129 given as a characteristic of a blind person 
iP^ggala), while the opposite, ability in this respect, is given as a characteristic 
of a one-eyed and of a two-eyed person. 

• No doubt the Vinaya expert. 



110 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Then as that descendant ... in the world was being examined * 
by the venerable Upali, he told him this matter. The venerable 
Upali told this matter to the monks. The monks told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, if one who is in communion by theft' is not 
ordained, he should not be ordained ; if he is ordained, he 
should be expelled. Monks, if one who has gone over to 
(another) sect' is not ordained, he should not be ordained ; 
if he is ordained, he should be expelled." || 3 || 62 || 

Now at that time a certain serpent was troubled about his 
birth as a serpent, [86] he was ashamed of it, loathed it*. Then 
it occurred to that serpent : " Now, by what means could I 
be freed quickly from birth as a serpent and get back^ human 
status ? " Then it occurred to that serpent : " These recluses, 
sons of the Sakyans, are dhamma-iaxers, even-farers, Brahma- 
farers, they are truth-speakers, they are of moral habit, of 
good conduct. Now if I were to go forth among the recluses, 
sons of the Sakyans, so would I be freed quickly from birth 
as a serpent and could get back human status." || i || 

Then that serpent, in the form of a brahman youth, having 
approached the monks, asked for the going forth. The monks 
let him go forth, they ordained him. Now at that time that 
serpent, together with a certain monk, was living in a dweUing- 
place on the boundary.* Then that monk, getting up in the 
night towards dawn, paced up and down in the open air. 

1 VA. 1016 : as he was being asked about cutting oft the hair and beard, 
accepting yellow robes, going for refuge, choosing a preceptor, and about 
proclamations and guidance. At Vin. iii. 212 UpSli -was asked to examine 
monks who, having come naked, were taken to be Naked Ascetics. VA . 665 
gives the nature of these questions (see B.D. ii. 45, n. 6, 7). He examines 
below MY. I. 64. 2. 

• theyyasamvasaka. Word occurs also at Vin. i. 307. Samvasa is being 
in communion, see definition at end of each Paxajika rule (B.D. i). Theyya 
is " by theft ", here of the signs or marks of a monk. 

» titthiyapakkantaka. This word also occurs with theyyasamvasaka and 
others at Vin. i. 307. All the words tell what monks, disappointed 
of robe-material, pretend to be. 

« Stock, as at /I. i. 145 ; M. i. 423, iii. 300. 

» patilabhaii. He hail been unchaste (in a former birth), VA. 1022. If 
pafilabhati does mean " to get back " here rather than to " acquire ", it 
indicates a belief in the possibility of losing human status for animal status. 

• paccantima. Vin. Texts i. 218 say " (near the boundary wall of the 
Jetavana) ", and although this may be meant, there is no evidence for it 
at VA. 1022. Paccantima cannot well mean "neighbouring, adjoining" 
here, for the evidence is that monk and snake shared the same dwelling- plaice. 



63.2—5] MAHAVAGGAI hi 

Then that serpent, confident that that monk had gone out, 
fell asleep. The whole dwelling-place was full of the snake, 
his coils were protruding through the windows. || 2 || 

Then that monk, thinking : "I will enter the dwelling- 
place," opening the door,^ saw the whole dwelling-place 
full of the snake, his coils protruding through the windows. 
Terrified at seeing this, he uttered a cry of distress. Monks, 
having run up, spoke thus to that monk : " Why did you, 
your reverence, utter a cry of distress ? " 

" Your reverences, this whole dwelling-place is full of a snake, 
his coils are protruding through the windows." Then that 
serpent having awakened because of this noise, sat down on 
his own seat. Monks spoke thus : " Who are you, friend ? " 

" I am a serpent, honoured sirs." 

" But why did you, friend, act in this way ? " Then that 
serpent told this matter to the monks. The monks told this 
matter to the Lord. || 3 || 

Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having 
had the Order of monks convened, spoke thus to this serpent : 

" Indeed, you serpents are not liable to growth in this 
dhamma and discipline. You, serpent, go away, observe the 
Observance day precisely^ on the fourteenth, fifteenth and 
eighth day of the half-month. Thus will you be freed quickly 
from birth as a serpent and get back human status." 

Then that serpent, thinking : " It is said that I am not 
liable to growth in this dhamma and discipline," pained, 
afflicted, shedding tears, departed having uttered a cry of 
distress. || 4 || 

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying : " Monks, 
there are these two cases of manifestation of a serpent's true 
nature 3 : when he indulges in sexual intercourse with a female 
of his own species, and when he falls asleep in confidence. 
Monks, these are two <Jfe,ses [87] of manifestation of a serpent's 
true nature. Monks, if an animal is not ordained, it should 
not be ordained ; if it is ordained, it should be expelled." 
II 5 II 63 II 

* kavdtam pandmento. On this phrase see B.D. i. 199, n. 3. 

' tattk' eva. 

' VA. 1022 gives five cases: the time of its reinstatement, patisandhi, 
of its sloughing its skin, the two cases mentioned in the text, and the time 
of its passing away. 



112 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Now at that time a certain brahman youth deprived his 
mother of life. He was troubled about his evil deed, he was 
ashamed of it, loathed it.^ Then it occurred to that brahman 
youth : " Now, by what means could I get rid of this evil 
deed ? " Then it occurred to this brahman youth : " These 
recluses, sons of the Sakyans, are dhamma-iaiers, even-farers, 
Brahma-farers, they are truth-speakers, of moral habit, of good 
conduct. Now, if I were to go forth among these recluses, 
sons of the Sakyans, so would I get rid of this evil deed." || 1 1| 

Then that brahman youth, having approached (some) monks, 
asked for the going forth. The monks spoke thus to the vener- 
able Upali : " Formerly, indeed, reverend Upali, a serpent in 
the form of a brahman youth went forth among the monks. 
Please, reverend Upali, examine this brahman youth. "^ Then 
as that brahman youth was being examined by the venerable 
Upali he told him this matter. The venerable Upali told this 
matter to the monks. The monks told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : 

" Monks, if a matricide is not ordained, he should not be 
ordained ; if he is ordained, he should be expelled." || 2 || 64 || 

At that time a certain brahman youth deprived his father 
of life. He was troubled about his evil deed . . . ( = I. 64. i, 2) 
. . . The monks told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, if a parricide is not ordained, he should not be 
ordained ; if he is ordained, he should be expelled." || i || 65 || 

Now at that time several monks were going along the high- 
road from Saketa to Savatthl. Thieves, having issued forth 
on the road, robbed some monks and killed other monks. 
Those in the royal service, having set out from Savatthi, 
caught some thieves (but) other thieves ran away. Those who 
ran away went forth among the monks ; those who were 
caught were led ofi to execution. || i || 

Those who had gone forth saw those thieves being led off 
to execution ; seeing them, they spoke thus : " It is well that 
we ran away, for had we been caught then should we have 



* As at Vin. ii. 292. 
» Cf. above I. 62. 2. 



66.2—69.2] MAHAVAGGA I 113 

been killed likewise." [88] IVTonks spoke thus : " But what 
have you done, your reverences? " Then those who had gone 
forth told this matter to the monks. The monks told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, those monks were perfected ones. Monks, if a 
murderer of a perfected one is not ordained, he should not be 
ordained ; if he is ordained, he should be expelled." H 2 || 66 || 

Now at that time several nuns were going along the high-road 
from Saketa to Savatthi. Thieves, having issued forth on the 
road, robbed some nuns and seduced other nuns. Those in 
the royal service, having set out from Savatthi . , . (= L 66. 
1,2)... The monks told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, if a seducer of a nun is not ordained, he should not 
be ordained ; if he is ordained, he should be expelled.^ 

Monks, if a schismatic is not ordained, he should not be 
ordained ; if he is ordained, he should be expelled. 

Monks, if a shedder of (a Truth-finder's^) blood is not 
ordained, he should not be ordained ; if he is ordained, he 
should be expelled.^ " || i || 67 || 

Now at that time a certain hermaphrodite had gone forth 
among the monks. He acted and also made (another) act. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, if a hermaphrodite is not ordained, he should not 
be ordained ; if he is ordained, he should be expelled." |I i || 68 || 

Now at that time monks ordained one who had no preceptor. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, one who has no preceptor should not be ordained. 
Whoever should ordain (one such), there is an offence of 
wrong-doing." I| i || 

Now at that time monks ordained one who had an Order 
as preceptoi* ... He said : 



^ Cf. above p. io8, where a novice who seduces a nun is to be expelled. 

* So the Corny., VA. 1024. 

' Other prohibitions in regard to these classes of persons given at Vin. i. 
136, 320. 

* It is to be gathered from VA. 1025 that an Order might (inadvettently) 
contain any of the types of malefactors mentioned above from a matricide 
down to a hermaphrodite. 



114 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Monks, one who has an Order as preceptor should not be 
ordained. Whoever should ordain (one such), there is an 
offence of wrong-doing." || 2 || 

Now at that time monks ordained one who had a group 
as preceptor. ... He said : 

" Monks, one who has a group as preceptor should not be 
ordained . . . offence of wrong-doing." || 3 || 

Now at that time monks ordained one who had a eunuch* 
as preceptor . . . one who had one living in communion as it 
were by theft as preceptor . . . one who had one who had gone 
over to (another) sect as preceptor . . . one who had an animal 
as preceptor [89] . . . one who had a matricide as preceptor 
. . . one who had a parricide as preceptor . . . one who had a 
murderer of a perfected one as preceptor . . . one who had 
a seducer of a nun as preceptor . . . one who had a schismatic 
as preceptor . . . one who had the shedder of (a Truth-finder's) 
blood as preceptor . . . one who had a hermaphrodite as 
preceptor. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, one who has a eunuch as preceptor . . . one who 
has a hermaphrodite as preceptor should not be ordained. 
Whoever should ordain (one such), there is an offence of 
wrong-doing." || 4 |1 69 || 

Now at that time monks (each) ordained one who had no 
bowl. 2 They walked for almsfood (to be put) into their hands.' 
People . . . spread it about, saying : " Like followers of (other) 
sects.* " They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, one who has no bowl should not be ordained. 
Whoever should ordain (one such), there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." ||ii! ^ 

Now at that time monks (each) ordained one who had no 
robe. They walked naked for almsfood. People . . . spread 



^ The following classes of persons mentioned also above, p. io8 ff. 

* apattaka, see B.D. ii. 123, n. 6. 

* hatthesu pin^dya caranti. Same expression at Vin. iii. 245 ; see B.D. ii. 
119, n. 3, 4. For same expression in next paragraph, Vin. i. 372 gives five 
v.ll. all reading carati. But at Nuns' Pac. LXIII ff. we get a singular noun 
followed by a plural verb, as above, with the meaning that each nun ordained 
a woman, and that then these were considered all together as a plurality : 
in referring to their actions a plural verb was needed and was used. 

* C/. Vin, iii. 245 (B.D. ii. 119). 



70.2—71.1] MAHAVAGGAI 115 

it about, saying : " Like followers of other sects." They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, one who has no robe should not be ordained. 
Whoever should ordain (one such), there is an offence of 
wrong-doing." || 2 || 

Now at that time monks (each) ordained one who had no 
bowl or robe. They walked naked for almsfood (to be put) 
into their hands. . . . 

" Monfes, one who has no bowl or robe should not be ordained. 
Whoever should ordain (one such), there is an offence of 
wrong-doing." || 3 || 

Now at that time monks (each) ordained by means of 
lending a bowl.^ "WTien they were ordained, they returned 
(each one) his bowl and walked for almsfood (to be put) into 
their hands. ... 

" Monks, one should not ordain by means of lending a bowl. 
Whoever should (so) ordain, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II 4 II 

Now at that time monks (each) ordained bj^ means of lend- 
ing a robe. When they were ordained, they returned (each 
one) his robe and walked naked for almsfood. . . . 

" Monks, one should not ordain by means of lending a robe. 
Whoever should (so) ordain, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II 5 II 

Now at that time monks (each) ordained by means of lending 
a bowl and robe. When they were ordained, [90] they re- 
turned the bowl and robe and walked naked for almsfood 
(to be put) into their hands. . , . 

" Monks, one should not ordain by means of lending a bowl 
and robe. Whoever should (so) ordain, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing." |1 6 || 70 || 

Told is the Portion on Twenty (Cases) where one should 
not ordain. 

Now at that time monks (each) let go forth one who had 
his hands cut off . . . his feet cut off . . . his hands and feet cut 
off ... his ears cut off . . . his nose ... his ears and nose . . . 

1 ydcitakena pattena, by (using) a bowl that had been asked for, i.e. borrowed 
by the candidates for ordination, 



ii6 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

his fingers ... his nails^ cut off . . . who had the tendons (of 
his feet) cut . . . one who had webbed fingers^ ... a hunchback 
... a dwarf . . . one who had a goitre . . . one who had been 
branded' . . . one who had been scourged* . . . one who had been 
written about* . . . one who had elephantiasis . . . one who was 
badly ill . . . one who disgraced an assembly^ (by some de- 
formity^) . . . one who was purblind' . . . one with a crooked 
limb . . . one who was lame . . . one paralysed down one side 
... a cripple . . . one weak from old age . . . one who was blind' 
. . . one who was dumb^ . . . one who was deaf . . . one who was 
blind and dumb . . . one who was deaf and dumb . . . one 
who was blind and deaf and dumb. They told this matter to 
the Lord. || i || 

He said : " Monks, one who has had his hands cut off should 
not be let go forth ; one who has had his feet cut off . . . 
one who is blind and deaf and dumb should not be let go 
forth. Whoever should let (one such) go forth, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing." || 2 || 

Told is the Portion on Thirty-two (Cases) where one should 
not let go forth || 71 1| 

Told is the Ninth Portion for Repeating : that on Inheritance 

1 ala : see J.P.T.S. 1884, p. 71, 1S86. p. 105. 

* phariahatthaka, with a hand like a snake's hood. Cf. hatthaphafiaka at 
Vin. ii. 107, " hands used as an instrument shaped like a snake's hood " 
for smoothing the hair. VA. 1027, " one whose fingers were grown together 
like a bat's wings ". See note by A. K. Coomaraswamy on the jdlalakkhana, 
" The • Webbed Finger ' of Buddha ", I.H.Q. Vol. VII, 1931, p. 365, where 
he is of the opinion that ^a/a does not mean a webbing connecting the fingers, 
but refers to the thin lines of rosy light which may be seen between the fingers 
when they aie held together and the hand held up to the light. The fingers 
of the Buddha, as Mahapuru§a, would be straight and regularly formed, 
of one measure, ehappamdna, according to this lakkhana, or sign. " It is 
even possible ", as Coomaraswamy adds in a postscript, " that ' having webbed 
fingers ' represents the exact opposite of the meaning of the original lakkhapa." 

* Cf. Vin. i. 76 (above, p. 95). 

* Cf. Vin. i. 75 (above, p. 95). 
' parisadHsaka. 

* Given at length at VA. 1027 ff. 

' The two words for blind : kana and andha, are used. Bu. at VA. 1030 
says that kdna means blind of one or both eyes (and not merely blind of one) . 
He cites the Mahapaccari Corny, as asserting kdna to mean blind of one eye 
and andha of both, and he cites the Great Corny, as saying that andha means 
blind from birth; he keeps this explanation at VA. 1031. "Purblind" 
and the next thiee terms occur at Vin. ii. 90, A. i. 107, ii. 85, iiL 385, S, i. 94, 

P^g. 51- 

* VA. 1 03 1 explains that if he were unable to say the complete formula 
for going for refuge, he could not go forth. 

' VA, 1031, if he could hear a loud noise he might go forth. 



72.1—78.2] MAHAVAGGAI 117 

Now at that time the group of six monks gave guidance 
to those who were unconscientious. They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, guidance should not be given to those who are 
unconscientious. Whoever should give it to (any such), there 
is an offence of wrong-doing." 

Now at that time monks Uved under the guidance of those 
who were unconscientious ; these soon also became uncon- 
scientious, depraved monks. They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : 

" Monks, one should not live under the guidance of those 
who are unconscientious. Whoever should (so) live, there 
is an offence of wrong-doing." || i || 

Then it occurred to the monks : " It is laid down by the 
Lord that guidance should not be given to those who are 
imconscientious, and that one should not live under the 
guidance of those who are unconscientious. Now, how are 
we to know who is conscientious or who is unconscientious ? " 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow you, monks, to wait for four or five days until 
(you can say), 'I know what is the nature of the monks*'." 
II 2 II 72 II [91] 

Now at that time a certain monk was going along a high- 
road in the Kosala country. Then it occurred to that monk : 
" It is laid down by the Lord that one should not live independ- 
ently.'^ I am in need of guidance^ but I am going along a 
high-road. Now what line of conduct should be followed 
by me ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow a monk, monks, if he is going along a high-road 
and is not receiving guidance to live independently." || i || 

Now at that time two monks were going along a high-road 
in the Kosala country. These arrived at a certain residence, 
and there one monk became ill. Then it occurred to that ill 
monk : " It is laid down by the Lord that one should not live 
independently. I am in need of guidance, but I am ill. Now 

^ bhikkhusabhagata. VA. 1031, " Until I know from monks that their 
conscientiousness is shared by the monk giving guidance ". Or, is sabkdgata 
equal to sabhava, the nature (of a monk), as I take it to be ? 

* Above, p. loi. 

' ahaii c'amhi nissayakaraitiyo. 



ii8 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

what line of conduct should be followed by me ? " They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said: 

" I allow a monk, monks, if he is ill and is not receiving 
guidance to live independently." 1| 2 || 

Then it occurred to that monk who was tending the ill one : 
*' It is laid down by the Lord ... I am in need of guidance 
but this monk is ill. Now what line of conduct should be 
followed by me ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : 

" I allow a monk, monks, if he is tending an ill one and is 
not receiving guidance, to live independently although being 
requested.^ || 3 || 

Now at that time a certain monk was sta>dng in a forest 
and there came to be comfort^ for him in this lodging. Then 
it occurred to this monk : " It is laid down by the Lord 
that one should not live independently. I am in need of 
guidance, but I am staying in a forest and there comes to be 
comfort for me in this lodging. Now what line of conduct 
should be followed by me ? " They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : 

" I allow a monk, monks, if he is a forest-dweller and is 
thinking about abiding in comfort^ and is not receiving 
guidance, to live independently, thinking : ' If a suitable 
giver of guidance comes along, I will live under his guidance '." 
114 1173 II 

Now at that time (a person) wished for ordination from the 
venerable Kassapa the Great.* Then the venerable Kassapa 
the Great sent a message to the venerable Ananda, saying : 
"LetAnanda come, he will proclaim^ this (person)." The 

1 By the ill one, VA. 1032. That is, as VA. says, the ill monk may ask 
the other to request him to give guidance ; but if through pride he does 
not ask, he may go away. We must therefore assume that if he stays with 
the invalid but does not take guidance from him, he may live independently 
of guidance. 

* phdsu. VA. 1032, " there comes to be comfort in regard to obtaining 
tranquillity and vision ". 

* phdsuvihdra ; cf. hrahmavihara, and the monk who was phasuviharika, 
below p. 373, MV. vii. 12. i. 

* At ^. i. 23 called " chief of those who uphold the ascetic practices ". 
Verses at Thag. 1051-1090. He exchanged robes with Gotama, 5. ii. 221. 

' anussdveti, in technical meaning of proclaiming the resolution three times 
after the motion for ordaining a person had been put before an Order. Cf. 
MV. I. 28. 3-6. 



74.1— 76.1] MAHAVAGGA I 119 

venerable Ananda spoke thus : 

" I am not able to pronounce^ the elder's* name (for) the 
elder is my teacher'." [92] They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : 

" I allow you, monks, to proclaim merely by clan (-name)." 

II I II 
Now at that time two (persons) wished for ordination from 

the venerable Kassapa the Great. These quarrelled, saying : 

" I will be ordained first, I will be ordained first." They 

told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow you, monks, to make two proclzimations together." 

II2II 

Now at that time there were those wishing for ordination 
from several elders. These quarrelled, saying : "I will be 
ordained first, I will be ordained first." The elders spoke 
thus : " Come, your reverences, we are making all the pro- 
clamations together." They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : 

" r allow you, monks, to make two or three proclamations 
together if there is one preceptor, but not if there are different 
preceptors." || 3 |! 74 || 

Now at that time the venerable Kassapa the Boy* became 
ordained twenty years after his conception. Then it occurred 
to the venerable Kassapa the Boy : " It is laid down by the 



1 gahetum, a word with a variety of meanings ; here meaning " to 
pronounce " in sense of " to take ", cf. " to take his name in vain ". Since 
Ananda calls Kassapa his guru (garu me), and if we equate guru with dcariya, 
spiritual teacher or father (cf. pitucitta, Vin. i. 45, 60), it was not suitable 
for Ananda to " take " (pronounce) his " father's " name. The use of the 
gotta (clan) name is less intimate and therefore permissible. Cf. Kaus. Up. 
II. II. 7 where the father " takes his son's name ", ndma asya grnhati. I am 
indebted for this note to A. K. Coomaraswamy. Mahakassapa's reference 
to Ananda as kumdraka, young boy, at 5. ii. 218, should also be noted. 

* I.e. Mahakassapa's, as stated at Vin. Texts i. 228. For in making the 
proclamations, Ananda would have had to say that so-and-so wished to be 
ordained by Kassapa. 

' garu, probably equivalent to guru, spiritual teacher. Cf. garunissaya 
at Vin. ii. 303. 

* Kumaraicassapa. Kumdra has the meaning both of boy and of prince. 
Kumarakassapa " went forth " when he was only seven years old and he 
had been reared by a king since his birth by a nun ; see AA. i. 284, MA. ii. 
120, ThagA. (Pss. Breth. p. 147 f.), DhA. iii. 144, Jd. i. 148. Verses are ascribed 
to him at Thag. 201-202. Called " chief of those who are versatile speakers " 
at ^. i. 24. The Vammiki Sutta (M. i. 142) was spoken to Kumarakassapa ; 
the Nigrodhamigajdtaka (No. 12) and Dhp. 160 on account of his mother. 



120 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Lord that an individual who is under twenty years of age 
should not be ordained,^ and I am twenty years from my 
conception. Now am I ordained ^ or am I not ordained ? " 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" When in his mother's womb the first thought has arisen, 
the first consciousness appeared,' his birth is (to be reckoned 
as) from that time. I allow you, monks, to ordain one who is 
twenty years of age from his conception." || i || 75 || 

Now at that time ordained (monks) were to be seen who 
were (afflicted by) leprosy and boils and eczema and con- 
sumption and epilepsy.* They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : 

" I allow you, monks, when one is being ordained to ask 
him about things which are stumbling-blocks ^ for him.* 
And thus, monks, should he be asked : Have you diseases 
like this : leprosy, boils, eczema, consumption, epilepsy ? 
Are you a himian being ? Are you a man ? Are you a freeman? 
Are you without debts ? Are you not in the royal service ? 
Have you your parents' consent ? Are you full twenty years 
of age ? Are you complete as to bowl and robes ? What is 
your name ? What is the name of your preceptor ? " || i || 

Now at that time monks asked those wishing for ordination, 
but who were not instructed, about the things which are 
stumbling-blocks. Those wishing for ordination were at a 
loss, they were abashed, they were unable to reply. They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow you, monks, having instructed first, afterwards 
[98] to ask about the things which are stumbling-blocks." 

I|2|| 

They instructed just there in the midst of the Order. As 
before, those wishing for ordination were at a loss, they were 
abashed, they were unable to reply. They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : 

1 Pac. LXV, and above, p. 98. 

■ C/. Pac. LXV where it is stated that if a person is ordained while he 
is under twenty he is not (really) ordained. He himself incurs no offence, 
ut there is an offence for the monks who ordain him. 

• C/. definition of manussaviggaha, human being, at Vin. iii. 73. 

• Cf. above. I. 89. i. 

• antarayike dhamme , cf. Vin. iv. 134 (B.D. iii. 21, where see n. 5). 

• Cf. Vin. ii. 271 f. for the questions put to nuns on their ordination. 



76.3—7] MAHAVAGGA I 121 

" I allow you, monks, having instructed aside, to ask about 
the things which are stumbling-blocks in the midst of the 
Order. And thus, monks, should one be instructed : First, 
he should be invited to choose^ a preceptor ; having invited 
him to choose a preceptor, a bowl and robes should be pointed 
out to him (with the words) : ' This is a bowl for you, this 
is an outer cloak, this is an upper robe, this is an inner robe ; 
go and stand in such and such a place '." || 3 || 

Ignorant, inexperienced (monks) instructed them. Those 
wishing for ordination, but who were not (properly) instructed, 
were at a loss, they were abashed, they were unable to reply. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, one should not be instructed by an ignorant, 
inexperienced (monk). Whoever (such) should instruct, there 
is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to instruct 
by means of an experienced, competent monk." || 4 || 

Those who were not agreed upon instructed. They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, one should not be instructed by one who is not 
agreed upon. Whoever (such) should instruct, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to instruct 
by means of one who is agreed upon. And thus, monks, should 
he be agreed upon : oneself may be agreed upon by oneself 
or another may be agreed upon by another*. And how is 
oneself to be agreed upon by oneself ? The Order should be 
informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying : 
* Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. So and so wishes for 
ordination from the venerable so and so. If it seems right 
to the Order, I would instruct so and so.' Thus may oneself 
be agreed upon by oneself. || 5 || 

" And how is another to be agreed upon by another ? 
The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent 
monk, sajdng : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. So 
and so wishes for ordination from the venerable so and so. 
If it seems right to the Order, so and so could instruct so and 
so.* Thus may another be agreed upon by another. 1| 6 || 

" The monk who is agreed upon, having approached the one 
who wishes for ordination, should speak thus to him : * Listen, 

^ gahdpetabbo ; cf. gahapaka at Vin. iii, 246 {B.D. iL 122, where see n. i). 
» Cf. below. II. 16. 6. 



122 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

so and so. This is for you a time for truth (-speaking), a 
time for fact (-speaking). When I am asking you in the midst 
of the Order about what is/ you should say, ' It is,' if it is 
so ; you should say, ' It is not,' if it is not so. Do not be 
at a loss, do not be abashed. Thus I will ask^ you : ' Have 
you diseases Uke this . . . What is your preceptor's name ? ' " 

II 7 II 

They' arrived together. They should not arrive together. 
The instructor having come first, the Order should be in- 
formed by him, saying : " Honoured sirs, let the Order listen 
to me. So and so wishes for ordination from the venerable 
so and so. [94] He has been instructed by me. If it 
seems right to the Order, let so and so come." He should 
be told: " Come." Having made him arrange his upper robe 
over one shoulder, having made him honour the monks' feet, 
having made him sit down on his haunches, having made 
him salute with joined palms, he should be made to ask for 
ordination, saying : " Honoured sirs, I ask the Order for 
ordination ; honoured sirs, may the Order raise me up out of 
compassion.* And a second time, honoured sirs, . . . And a 
third time, honoured sirs, I ask the Order for ordination ; 
honoured sirs, may the Order raise me up out of compasson." 

II 8 II 

The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent 
monk, saying : " Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. 
This one, so and so, wishes for ordination from the venerable 
so and so. If it seems right to the Order I could ask so and so 
about the things which are stumbUng-blocks. Listen, so and so. 
This is for you a time for truth (-speaking), a time for fact 

* yamjatam. VA . 1033 says about that which is produced, jata, has arisen, 
is existing in your body. This can only refer to the questions on the diseases. 
The Pali in such cases is idiomatic : "Is there for you a disease ? " So 
one could say, " I am asking you about what exists, yam jdtam (as a disease 
for you), and you should say there is, atthi (such a disease for me) it being 
so, santam ; there is not, n'atthi, it being not so, asantam ". But since in fact 
not all the questions are about diseases, I have translated as above, the better 
to emphasise the general necessity to answer all the questions truthfully 
in accordance with the preliminary reminder, " This is a time for truth 
and fact ". 

* pucchissam. 

* The instructor and his candidate. Nothing to show whether the Lord 
is supposed to continue to give these instructions, or whether they 
are incorporated without being attributed to him. 

« Cf. above, I. 29. 2. 



76.9—77.1] MAHAVAGGAI 123 

(-speaking). I ajn asking you about what is. You should 
say, ' It is ', if it is so ; you should say, ' It is not,' if it is 
not so. Have you diseases like this : . . . What is your pre- 
ceptor's name ? " j] 9 || 

The Order should be informed by an experienced, com- 
petent monk, saying : " Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. 
This one, so and so, wishes for ordination from the venerable 
so and so. He is quite pure in regard to the things which are 
stumbUng-blocks, he is complete as to bowl and robes. So 
and so is asking the Order for ordination by means of the 
preceptor so and so. If it seems right to the Order, let the 
Order ordain so and so by means of the preceptor so and so. 
This is the motion. || 10 || 

" Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. This one, so and so, 
wishes for ordination from the venerable so and so. He is 
quite pure in regard to the things which are stumbling-blocks, 
he is complete as to bowl and robes. So and so is asking the 
Order for ordinaton by means of the preceptor so and so. 
The Order is ordaining so and so by means of the preceptor 
so and so. If the ordination of so and so by means of the 
preceptor so and so is pleasing to the venerable ones, let 
them be silent ; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. |1 11 1| 

" And a second time I speak forth this matter . . . And 
a third time I speak forth this matter ... he to whom it is 
not pleasing should speak. So and so is being ordained by 
the Order by means of the preceptor so and so. It is pleasing 
to the Order, therefore it is silent. Thus do I tmderstand 
this." II 12 II 76 II 

Told is the (Formal) Act of Ordination. 

The shadow should be measured^ at once, the length of the 
season^ should be explained, the portion of the day^ should 



^ This must mean the shadow of the candidate, cast by the sun. VA. 1033 
says the shadow should be measured with the words. It is the length of 
one man or of two men, ekaporisd dveporisa. Cf. porisa meaning " height of 
a man " at M. i. 74, 187, 365. 

* VA. 1033 " the seasons are the rains, the cold weather, the hot weather. 
If whichever season it is is not ended, that season is incomplete by so many 
days ", thus the number of days remaining in that season, or " the exact 
season " {P.E.D.) should be explained. 

" VA. 1033, morning or afternoon. 



124 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

be explained, the formula^ should be explained, [95] the four 
resources should be explained (with the words) : ' Going 
forth is on account of meals of scraps ... (as at MV. I. 30. 4) 
. . . These are extra acquisitions : ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey, 
molasses.' || 1 1| 77 || 

Told are the Four Resources 

Now at that time monks, having ordained a certain monk, 
went away leaving him alone. Afterguards as he was going 
along alone, he met his former wife on the way. She spoke 
thus : " What, have you now gone forth ? " 

" Yes, I have gone forth." She said : 

" Sexual intercourse is difficult for those who have gone 
forth. Come and indulge in sexual intercourse." Having 
indulged in sexual intercourse with her, he arrived late. 
Monks spoke thus : " What were you, your reverence, doing 
for such a long time ? " || 1 1| 

Then this monk told this matter to the monks. The monks 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow you, monks, having ordained (a monk), to give 
him a companion and to explain four things which are not 
to be done. When a monk is ordained he should not indulge 
in sexual intercourse, even with an animal. ^ Whatever monk 
indulges in sexual intercourse, he becomes not a (true) recluse, 
not a son of the Sakyans. As a man with his head cut off 
could not become one to live by that bodily connection, even so 
a monk, having indulged in sexual intercourse, becomes not 
a (true) recluse, not a son of the Sakyans. ^ This is a thing 
not to be done by you as long as life lasts. || 2 || 

" When a monk is ordained he should not take by theft 
what has not been given, even if it is only a blade of grass.* 
Whatever monk takes by theft a pdda^ or the worth of a pdda 
or more than a pdda that has not been given, he becomes not 



^ sanglti, chanting together. According to VA. 1034, having done all this 
together he should be asked about his measure, the season and portion 
of the day in order that he might give the correct answers and so make it clear 
that he has properly understood his age as a member of the Order. 

* Par. I, Vin. iii. 22. 

* Vin. iii. 28. 

* par. II. 

* See note at B.D. i. 71. 



78.3—79.1] MAHAVAGGAI 125 

a (true) recluse, not a son of the Sakyans. As a withered 
leaf, freed from its stalk, could not become green again, even 
so a monk, having taken by theft a pdda or the worth of a 
pdda or more than a pdda that was not given, becomes not 
a (true) recluse, not a son of the Sakyans. ^ This [96] is a thing 
not to be done by you as long as life lasts. || 3 || 

" When a monk is ordained he should not intentionally 
deprive a living thing of life, even if it is only an ant.^ What- 
ever monk deprives a human being of life even down to causing 
abortion,^ he becomes not a (true) recluse, not a son of the 
Sakyans. As a flat stone, broken in half, becomes (something) 
not to be put together again, even so a monk, having inten- 
tionally deprived a human being of life, becomes not a (true) 
recluse, not a son of the Sakyans.* This is a thing not to be 
done by you as long as life lasts. || 4 |I 

" When a monk is ordained he should not lay claim to a 
state of further-men, even thinking : ' I delight in solitude '.^ 
Whatever monk, of evil desires, filled with covetousness, lays 
claim to a state of further-men which is non-existent, not a 
fact* — to meditation or to a deliverance or to contemplation 
or to an attainment or to a way or to a fruit' — he becomes 
not a (true) recluse, not a son of the Sakyans. As a palmyra 
palm, cut off at the crown, could not become one for further 
growth,^ even so a monk, of evil desires, filled with covetous- 
ness, having claimed a state of further-men which is non- 
existent, not a fact, becomes not a (true) recluse, not a son 
of the Sakyans. This is a thing not to be done by you as 
long as life lasts." I| 5 || 

Told are the Four Things which are not to be done. || 78 || 

Now at that time a certain monk, suspended^ for not seeing 
an offence, left the Order, (but) having come back again, he 

* Cf. Vin. iii. 47. 

* Par. Ill (for human beings) and P3.c. LXI (for animals). 
' Vin. iii. 83 f. 

* Vin. iii. 74. 

^ sunndgara. See Vin. iii. 91, where " delight in solitude for the mind 
devoid of the hindrances " occurs in definition of " state of further-men ". 

* Vin. iii. 90, where such a one is called the " chief great thief ". 

' Cf. the longer list of concepts enumerated in definition of " state of 
further-men " at Vin. iii. 91, 92. 
' Vin. iii. 92. 
» ukkhitta. Cf. Vin. iv. 113, 137, 218 and see B.D. iii. 28, n. 4. 



126 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

asked the monks for ordination. They told this matter to 
the Lord. He said : 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk, suspended for not 
seeing an offence, leaves the Order, (but) having come back 
again, asks the monks for ordination. They should speak 
thus to him : ' Will you see this offence ? ' If he says : ' 1 will 
see it ', he may be let go forth. If he sa}^ : ' I will not 
see it ', he should not be let go forth. I| 1 1| 

" Having let him go forth they should say (to him) : ' Will 
you see this offence ? ' If he says : ' I will see it ', he may be 
ordained. If he sa57s : ' I will not see it ', he should not be 
ordained. Having ordained him, they should say : ' Will 
you see this offence ? ' If he says : ' I will see it ', he may 
be restored.! If he says : ' I will not see it ', he should not 
be restored. Having restored him, they should say : ' Do 
you see this offence ? ' If he sees it, that is good ; if he does 
not see it, he may be suspended again if it possible to obtain 
unanimity^ ; if it is not possible to obtain imanimity there 
is no offence in eating with, in being in communion with 
(him).3_ II 2 II 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk, suspended for not 
making amends for an offence, leaves the Order (but) having 
come back again, asks the monks for ordination. They 
should speak thus to him : ' Will you make amends for this 
offence ? ' If he says : ' 1 will make amends ', [97] he may 
be let go forth . . . {as in || 2 |j reading make amends for 
instead of see) ... in being in communion with (him). || 3 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk, suspended for not 
giving up a wrong view, leaves the Order (but) having come 
back again, asks the monks for ordination. They should 
speak thus to him : ' Will you give up this wrong view ? ' 
If he says : ' I wiU give it up ', he may be let go forth . . . 
{as in II 2 II reading give up instead of see) ... in being in 
communion with (him). || 4 || 79 || 

The Great Section* : the First 

^ On osareti, to restore after seeing an offence, making amends for it and 
giving up a false view, see B.D. iii. 28, n. 4. 

* I.e. among the monks, for this further suspension. 

* So Bu. at VA. 1034, tena saddhim, and as may be deduced from Pac. 
LXIX and its Old Corny' s definition of " has not acted according to the rule ". 

* Mah^handhaka. Called Pabbajjakkhandhaka at DA, ii. 363. 



MAHAVAGGAI 127 

As to great matters in the Vinaya, to bringing ease to the 
well-behaved 

both in restraint of evil desires and in strivings for conscien- 
tiousness. 

And also bearing in mind the instruction which is within the 
range of the all-knowing conqueror, 

in a realm which has no other, in peace from bondage, in 
what is well laid down, in that which has no doubt. 

In Section in Vinaya, as well as in Parivara and in Heading(s), 

the good follows closely as though imitating. 

Who does not understand cattle does not guard the herd, 
so not. knowing moral habit, how can he guard re'straint ? 
Although the Suttantas and Abhidhamma be forgotten, for 

all time [98] 
the teaching persists while Vinaya is not destroyed. 
Therefore, because firmly supported, I will declare the key 
in regular sequence according to (my) knowledge. Listen 

while I speak. 
The matter, the provenance 1, the offence, the methods and the 

abbreviations — 
it is not easy not to leave something out ; discern that from 

the method. 

Awakening, and the Raj^yatana, the Goatherds', Sahampati 
Brahma, Alara, Uddaka, and monks, Upaka the seer, 
Kondanna, Vappa, Bhaddiya and Mahanama, Assaji, 
Yasa, four, fifty, all, he sent out (on tour), the quarters, 
The subject, 2 as to Mara, and the thirty, at Uruvela, three 

matted hair ascetics, 
fire-room, the Great Kings, Sakka, and Brahma, the entire 

(population). 
Rag-robe, a tank, and a stone, kakudha-{tTee) , a stone, 
a rose-apple, and a mango, emblic myrobalam, he brought a 
flower from the Coral Tree, 

1 niddna. This usually appears in the Vin. to mean the place where 
the Lord was staying when such conduct occurred as led to the framing 
of a rule oi allowance, thus the " provenance " of a rule or allowance. See 
also K.S. iii, Intr. x ff. ; K.S. iv, Intr. xiv f. 

2 vatthum. Appearing to refer to 12. 2-4, the going forth and ordination 
formula by the three refuges. Going forth and Ordination form the subject 
matter of Section I of the Mahavagga. 



128 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

' Kassapa, let them be chopped, let them be kindled, and let 

them be extinguished ', 
they plunged into, fire-vessels, rain, Gaya, and the Palm 

Grove, (King of) Magadha, 
Upatissa, Kolita, and distinguished (young men), the going 

forth, 
wrongly dressed, dismissal, and the lean wretched brahman. 
He indulged in bad habits, the stomach, the brahman youth, 

a group, 
year's standing, by the ignorant, going away, ten years' 

standing, guidance. 
They did not conduct themselves (properly), to dismiss, 

ignorant, nullification, five, six, 
and whoever else, and naked, not with (his hair) cut off, 

matted hair ascetic, a Sakyan. 
Five diseases among the Magadhese, service,* a thief (and) 

fingers, 
and (the King of) Magadha decreed, jail, written about, 

scourged. 
Branded, debtor, and a slave, close-shaving, Upali, snake 

(-wind disease), 2 
a family with faith, and Kandaka, and then crowded up. 
About how to live,^ the boy, trainings, and they were,* Now 

how ? 
entire, by mouth, preceptors, luring away, Kandaka, 
Eunuch, theft, ^ going over to," and a snake, on a mother, 

a father, 
perfected ones, a nun, schismatic, concerning blood,' herma- 
phrodite, ^ 
Without a preceptor, through an Order, a group, eunuch, 

without a bowl, 

^ Text reads eko. Oldenberg, Vin. i. 373 thinks we ought to read bhafo 
(for rajabhata in 40. 3). 

* See I. 50. i ; 51. i. 

» vatthumhi, i.e. in dependence for five years or for life, I. 58. 4. Cing. edn. 
vatthusmim. 

* viharanti, as in I. 57. i. 

* I.e. in communion by theft, I. 62. 3. 

* I.e. going over to (another) sect, I. 62. 3. 

' ruhirena, here replacing lohituppddako of I. 87. i, the shedder of a 
{tathdgata's) blood. 

' Here called only vyanjana (accompanying attribute, distinctive character- 
istic) instead of ubhcUovyanjanaka as at I. 68. i. 



MAHAVAGGA I 129 

without a robe, both these, then those three on what was lent. 

Hands, feet, hands and feet, ears, nose, both these, 

fingers, nails, tendons, webbed hands, and a hunch-back, 

dwarf. 
Having goitre, and then a branded one, scourged, written 

about, elephantiasis, 
badly (ill), and one who disgraces an assembly, blind, and 

just then one with a crooked limb, [99] 
And then a lame one, paralysed down one side, with a cripple, 
old age, blind from birth, dumb, deaf, blind and dumb, and 

what is thereto. 
Whatever is called blind and dmnb, and then dumb and deaf. 
And blind and dumb and deaf, and guidance to the uncon- 
scientious, 
And one should (not) live, what is done on a journey,* being 

asked, wishing for, 
' let him come ',* they quarrelled,' if there is one preceptor, 

Kassapa, 
And ordained (monks) were to be seen pressing about diseases, 
the uninstructed were at a loss, instruction just there. 
And then in the Order, then an ignorant one, and not agreed 

upon, 
together, the ' may-it-raise-(me-) — ^up ' ordination, resource, 

alone, the three.* 
In this Section are one himdred and seventy-two items. 

Told is the First Key, that to the Great Section [100] 



* kataddhana, referring to 78. i, 2. Cing. edn. Tea.ds tathdddhdnam. 

* Following dgacchaiu of Cing. edn. = 74. i, instead of Text's dgacchantam. 
' vivadenti (with v.l. vivddenti, Vin. i. 373). 

* Doubtless referring to (i) not seeing an offence, (2) not making amends 
for an offence, (3) not giving up a wiong view (each a ground for a monk's 
suspension ; and theii opposites, each being a g^'ound for his restoration) 
dealt with at I. 79. 1-4. 



130 



THE GREAT DIVISION (MAHAVAGGA) II 

At one time the awakened one, the Lord was staying near 
Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Now at that time 
wanderers belonging to other sects, having collected together 
on the fourteenth, fifteenth* and eighth days of the half-month,^ 
spoke dhamma.^ People came up to them to hear dhamma. 
They gained affection for the wanderers belonging to other 
sects, they gained faith (in them), the wanderers belonging 
to other sects gained adherents. ^ H i || 

Then reasoning arose thus in the mind of King Seniya 
Bimbisara of Magadha as he was meditating in seclusion : 
" At present wanderers belonging to other sects, having 
collected together on the fourteenth, fifteenth and eighth 
days of the half-month, speak dhamma. These people go up 
to them to hear dhamma. They gain affection for the wan- 
derers belonging to other sects, they gain faith (in them), 
the wanderers belonging to other sects gain adherents. 
Suppose the masters should also collect together on the 
fourteenth, fifteenth and eighth days of the half-month ? " || 2 || 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha approached the 
Lord ; having appronched, having greeted the Lord, he sat 
down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a 
respectful distance. King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha spoke 
thus to the Lord : " Now, Lord, as I was meditating in 
seclusion, a reasoning arose in my mind thus : ' At present 
wanderers belonging to other sects . . . should collect together 
on the fourteenth, fifteenth and eighth ddiys of the half- 
month ? '" II 3 II 

Then the Lord gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted King 
Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha with talk on dhamma. Then 
King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, gladdened, . . . dehghted 
by the Lord with talk on dhamma, rising from his seat, 
[101] having greeted the Lord, departed keeping his right 

1 On pakkha, cf. Vin. iv. 75 [B.D. ii. 313. and q.v. n. 3) where eating food 
given pakkhikam and uposathikam, " on a day of the waxing or waning of 
the moon " and " on an observance-day ", form exceptions to the rule 
prohibiting a group-meal. 

* VA. 1034, what is and what is not to be done by them. 

» pakkha is lit. a party, a side, a faction, not necessarily a schismatic one, 
as is shown by above context, and see B.D. iii. 190, n. 3. 



1.4—3.1] MAHAVAGGAII 131 

side towards him. Then the Lord, on this occasion, in this 
connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, 
saying : 

" I allow you, monks, to assemble together on the fourteenth, 
fifteenth and eighth days of the half-month." 1| 4 || 1 || 

Now at that time monks, thinking : " It is allowed by the 
Lord to assemble together on the fourteenth, fifteenth and 
eighth days of the half-month," having assembled together, 
sat down in silence. Those people came up to hear dhamma. 
They looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying : 
" How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, having assembled 
together on the fourteenth, fifteenth and eighth days of the 
half-month, sit in silence, like dumb pigs^ ? Ought not dhamma 
to be spoken when they are assembled together ? " Monks 
heard these people who . . , spread it about. Then these 
monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this 
occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, 
addressed the monks, saying : 

" I allow you, monks, having assembled together on the 
fourteenth, fifteenth and eighth days of the half-month, to 
speak dhamma." I| i || 2 |1 

Then as the Lord was meditating in seclusion a reasoning 
arose in his mind thus : " What now if .1 were to allow those 
rules of training, laid down by me for monks, (to form) a 
recital of Patimokkha^ for them ? It would be a (formal) act 
of observance^ for them." || i || 

^ mugasiikard ; VA. 1034 explains by thulasarlrasukara, pigs that are fat 
in body. 

* Rhys Davids (E.R.E., art. : Patimokkha) says that from " the manner 
in which the word is used " in this passage it is not surprising " to find that 
the early Buddhists ascribed the institution ... of the Patimokkha itself 
to a date long antecedent to that of the Buddha. If that be correct, the word 
patimokkha must have been current in Kosala when Buddhism arose, and 
. . . among members of the previous orders ". Rh. D. refers to D. ii. 46-49, 
where tiadition ascribes a Patimokkha to the time when Vipassin was Buddha, 
and to the verse {D. ii. 49), repeated at Dhp. 185, which contains the words : 
pdtimokkhe ca satnvaro . . . etam buddhanasdsanam, " and restraint according 
to the Patimokkha — this is the teaching of the Buddhas " (plural). 

On suggested meanings of patimokkha, see B.D. i., Intr., p. xi flf. ; Vin. 
Texts i., Intr., p. xxvii. On the numlaer of rules that the Patimokkha 
contained, see Winternitz, Hist. Ind. Lit., ii. 2, n. 5, which gives further 
references, and also B. C. Law, Hist. Pali Lit., i. 48 f. 

' uposathakamma. Uposatha stands for " observance " itself. The phrase 
tad-ah-uposaihe, " on this day's observance ", is usually used for an Observance 
day. 



132 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Then the Lord, having emerged from his seclusion in the 
evening, on this occasion, in this connection having given 
reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying : " Now, monks, 
as 1 was meditating in seclusion a reasoning arose in my 
mind thus : ' What now if I should allow those rules of 
training, laid down by me for monks, (to form) a recital of 
Patimokkha for them ? It would be a (formal) act of observ- 
ance for them '. I aJlow you, monks, to recite a Patimokkha. 

II 2 II 

" And thus, monks, should it be recited : The Order should 
be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying : 
' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. To-day, the 
fifteenth (day), is an Observance (day). If it seems right to 
the Order, the Order may carry out Observance, it may 
recite the Patimokkha. What is the Order's first duty ? Let 
the venerable ones [102] announce entire purity.^ I will recite 
the Patimokkha (while) one and all of us present ^ Usten pro- 
perly and pay attention to it.^ He for whom there may be 
an offence should reveal* it. If there is no offence, you 
should become silent. By your becoming silent I shall thus 
know that the venerable ones are quite pure. For as there 
is an answer for each question,^ so it is proclaimed' up to the 
third time in an assembly like this. Whatever monk remember- 
ing while it is being proclaimed up to the third time that 
there is an existent offence and should not reveal it, there 
comes to be conscious lying' for him.^ Now, conscious lying, 
venerable ones, is a thing called a stmnbUng-block' by the 
Lord. Therefore the existent offence should be revealed 

^ parisuddhi, i.e. that only those are present who have committed no 
offences, or who have acknowledged any committed, or who have fulfilled 
the penalty for them. Cf. below, p. 158. 

* sabbeva santd. Cf. ubho va santd at Vin. iii. 218. 

» Vin. Texts i. 242 take these words (all of us ... to it) to be the answer 
of the monks then present. As there is no ti marking the end of a speech, 
I think Gotama is still supposed to be telling the monks the way in which 
the recitation is to be carried out. 

* dvikareyya. Avikaroti is to make clear, to manifest, thus to disclose, 
to bring to light. This method of clearing oneself of an offence is peihaps 
a forerunner to the more formal confession, dpatti deseti, to an Order, a gronp 
or to one individual monk. 

' paccekaputthassa. 

* anussdvita. 

» Defined at Vin. iv. 2 {B.D. ii. 166). 

» Quoted A si. 92. 

» arUardyiko dhammo ; see B.D. iii. 21, n. 5. 



3.3—5] MAHAVAGGAII 133 

by a monk who remembers that he has fallen (into an offence) 
and who desires purity ; for when it is revealed there comes 
to be comfort for him." || 3 || 

Pdtimokkha}- means : this is the beginning, this is the head," 
this is the foremost of states that are good ; therefore it is 
called Pdtimokkha. 

The venerable ones mean : this — ' the venerable ones ' — 
is a term of esteem,^ this is a term of respect, this is a deferential 
and honorific designation.* 

/ will recite means : I will explain, I will teach, I will lay 
down, I will establish, I will make clear, I will analyse, I 
wiU make plain. ^ 

To it means : to (what) is called the Patimokkha. 

One and all of us present means : as many as there are in 
this assembly — elders and newly ordained and those of middle 
standing — these are called ' one and all of us present '. 

{We) listen properly means : having applied ourselves, 
having attended," we concentrate with all our mind.' 

{We) pay attention means: we Usten,^ minds one-pointed, 
minds not distracted, minds not perturbed.' || 4 || 

He for whom there may he an offence means : a certain 
offence of the five classes of offence or a certain offence of the 
seven classes of offence^" for an elder or for a newly ordained 
one or for one of middle standing. 

He should reveal means : he should tell, he should make 
clear, he should open up, he should make plain in the midst 
of an Order or in the midst of a group or to one 
individual. 



1 On the inclusion of this Commentary in the MV., see Vin. Texts i, Intr. 
p. XV and S. Dutt, Early Bud. Monachism, 91. 

» This derivative, pdtimokkha from mukha " is quite impossible ", 
Winternitz, Hist. Ind. Lit., ii. 22, n. 2. But punning is not to be taken as 
serious scientific etymology, for this was unknown so early. 

' Or, of endearment, of affection, plya. 

* Cf. Nd. ii. 130, SnA. 536. 

' Cf. S. ii. 25, 154. iii. 132, iv. 166 ; A. i. 286, ii. 160. 

• atthikatvd manasikatvd ; cf. Vin. iv. 144. 

^ sabbarn cetasd satnanndhardma ; cf. S. i. 112, 189, ii. 220; A. ii. 116, iii. 
163, 402, iv. 167 ; M. i. 325. 

' nisdmema. 

» Cf. A. iii. 174 ; Dhs. 11, 15, 24 : Nd. i. 501. 
1 " The five classes of offence comprise the Parajika, Safighidisesa, Aniyata, 
Nissaggiya, Pacittiya offences ; the seven classes these five with the addition 
of the Patidesaniyas and Sekhiyas. 



134 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

// there is no offence means: either one comes not to be 
committed or, if fallen into, it is removed.^ 

You should become silent means : you should consent, you 
should not speak. 

/ shall know^ that you are quite pure means : I will know*, 
I will imderstand. || 5 || 

For as there is an answer for each question means : as one 
(person) if questioned about one (thing) would answer, so it 
should be kncwn to that assembly : ' He questions me '. 

An assembly like this (means) : it is called an assembly of 
monks. 

It is proclaimed up to the third time means : it is proclaimed 
once and it is proclaimed a second time and it is proclaimed 
a third time. 

Remembering means : knowing, perceiving. 

There is an existent offence means : either one comes to be 
committed or if fallen into is not removed. 

Should not reveal means : should not tell, should not make 
clear, should not open up, should not make plain [103] in 
the midst of an Order or in the midst of a group or to one 
individual. |1 6 || 

There comes to be conscious lying for him means : \\Tiat is 
conscious Ijdng ? It is an offence of wrong-doing. ^ 

A thing called a stumbling-block by the Lord means : a 
stumbling-block to what ? It is a stumbling-block to the 
attainment of the first (stage in) meditation, it is a stumbling- 
block to the attainment of the second (stage in) meditation 
. . . the third (stage in) meditation, . . . the fourth 
(stage in) meditation, it is a stumbling-block to the 
attainment of the meditations, of the deliverances, , of the 
contemplations, of the attainments*, of the renunciations, of 



1 vutthita, fern., agreeing with its subject dpatti. VA. 1034 reasonably 
explains : " here, either, whatever monk there comes to be not falling into 
an offence, or, having fallen is removed from it, this is the meaning of ' if 
there is no offence ' ". Cf. dpattiya vutthdna in MV. I. 36. 10. 

* vedissdmi . . . jdnissdmi. 

* In the Pacittiyas, however, conscious lying appears as the first offence 
in this clcLss. Vin. Texts i. 245, n. says that because of this " we cannot 
interpret here dukkata in the technical sense of a dukkata offence ". I think, 
however, that the difference in the penalties laid down for conscious lying 
may point to different stages in the growth of the legislation. 

* Cf. Vin. iii. 91, 92, iv. 25. 



3.7-4.2] MAHAVAGGAII 135 

the escapes,^ of the aloofnesses, of states that are good. 

Therefore means : for that reason. 

By [a monk) who remembers means : by (one) knowing, by 
(one) perceiving. 

By {a monk) who desires purity means : by (one) wishing 
to remove (an offence), by (one) wishing to be purified. 

II 7 II 
Existent offence means : either one comes to be committed, 

or, if fallen into, is not removed. 

Should he revealed means : it should be revealed in the 
midst of an Order or in the midst of a group or to one individual. 

For when it is revealed there comes to be comfort for him 
means : In what is there comfort ? There comes to be 
comfort in the attainment of the first (stage in) meditation, 
there comes to be comfort in the attainment in the second 
(stage in) meditation . . . the third (stage in) meditation 
. . . the fourth (stage in) meditation ; there comes to be 
comfort in the attainment of the meditations, of the deliver- 
ances, of the contemplations, of the attainments, of the 
renunciations, of the escapes, of the aloofnesses, of states that 
are good. 2 || 8 H 3 || 

Now at that time monks, thinking : " The recital of the 
Patimokkha is allowed by the Lord," recited the Patimokkha 
daily. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, the Patimokkha should not be recited daily. 
Whoever should (so) recite it, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. I allow you, monks, to recite the Patimokkha on an 
Observance day." |1 1 || 

Now at that time monks, thinking : " The recital of the 
Patimokkha on an Observance day is allowed by the Lord," 
recited the Patimokkha three times during the half-month — 
on the fourteenth, on the fifteenth and on the eighth (days) 
of the half-month. They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : 

" Monks, the Patimokkha should not be recited three times 

1 nissarana. ' Escapes ' mentioned at Ud. 80; Hi. p. 37, 61 ; D. iii. 275; 
A. iii. 245-6, D. iii. 239-240 ; A. iii. 290, D. iii. 247 ; M. i. 84 ff., etc. 

* Cf. the forest or jungle dwelling monk who had comfort, phdsu, MV. I. 
73. 4. This example together with the one given above indicate that phdsu 
is by no means used exclusively to denote physical comfort. 



136 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

in the half-month. Whoever should (so) recite it, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. 1 allow you, monks, to recite the 
Patimokkha once in the half-month : either on the fourteenth 
or on the fifteenth (day)." || 2 H 4 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks recited the Pati- 
mokkha according to sissembly, each one before his own 
assembly. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, [104f] the Patimokkha should not be recited 
according to assembly, each one before his own assembly. 
Whoever should (so) recite it, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. I allow you, monks, a (formal) act of Observance for 
all together."! || i || 

Then it occurred to the monks : "A (formal) act of Observ- 
ance for all together is allowed by the Lord. Now, how far 
does ' being all together '^ (go) ? As far as one residence, or 
the whole earth ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said: 

" I allow, monks, ' being all together ' (to mean) as far as 
one residence." || 2 || 

Now at that time the venerable Kappina the Great^ was 
staying near Rajagaha at Maddakucchi in the deer-park. 
Then as the venerable Kappina the Great was meditating in 
seclusion a reasoning arose in his mind thus : " Should I go 
to an Observance or .should I not go, should I go to a (formal) 
act of the Order or should I not go, I, nevertheless, am purified 
with the highest purification." || 3 1| 

Then the Lord, knowing by mind the reasoning in the 
mind of the venerable Kappina the Great, as a strong man 
might stretch out his bent arm or might bend back his out- 
stretched arm, even so did he, vanishing from Mount Vulture 
Peak appear in Maddakucchi in the deer-park before the 



^ samaggdnam. Cf. samagga at Vin. iv. 52, " all come ", and see B.D. 
ii. 267, n. 7 ; and cf. samagga samgha at Vin. iv. 154, 218, 231 meaning a 
complete Order. 

* sdmaggl. 

^ At A. i. 25 called chief of the exhorters of monks. Verses at Thag. 
547-556. See Pss. Breth. p. 254 S.. and N.B. that on p. 256 " taught the 
sisters " (or nuns) should read " taught the brethren " (or monks), as noticed 
at Pss. Breth. p. 417. DPPN. ii. 475, art : Mahakappina, should be corrected 
accordingly. See Sakya, p. 140 ff., for Mis. Rhys Davids' suggestion that 
Kappina was Assaji's teacher. 



5.4—6.1] MAHAVAGGAII 137 

venerable Kappina the Great. The Lord sat down on an 
appointed seat, and the venerable Kappina the Great, having 
greeted the Lord, sat down at a respectful distance. \\ 4 || 

As the venerable Kappina the Great was sitting down at 
a respectful distance the Lord spoke thus to him : " Now, 
Kappina , as you were meditating in seclusion did not a reason- 
ing arise in your mind thus : * Should I go to an Observance 
or should I not go, should I go to a (formal) act of the Order 
or should I not go, I, nevertheless, am purified with the 
highest purification ' ? " 

" Yes, Lord." 

" But if you brahmans^ do not reverence, revere, esteem, 
honour the Observance, who is there who will reverence, 
revere, esteem, honour the Observance ? You go along, 
brahman, to the Observance, do not not go ; go likewise to a 
(formal) act of the Order, do not not go." 

" Yes, Lord," the venerable Kappina the Great answered 
the Lord in assent. || 5 || 

Then the Lord, having gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted 
the venerable Kappina the Great with talk on dhamma, as a 
strong man might stretch out his bent arm or bend back his 
outstretched arm, even so did he, vanishing from before 
the venerable Kappina the Great in Maddakucchi in tne 
deer-park appear on Mount Vulture Peak. H 6 || 5 || [105] 

Then it occurred to the monks : " It is laid down by the 
Lord that ' being all together ' (means) as far as one residence. 
Now, how far does one residence (go) ? " They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow you, monks, to agree upon a boundary. And 
thus, monks, should it be agreed upon : First, marks should 
be announced, 2 a mark consisting of a hillside, a mark con- 
sisting of a rock, a mark consisting of a grove, a mark con- 
sisting of a tree, a mark consisting of a road, a mark consisting 
of an anthill, a mark consisting of a river, a mark consisting 
of (a piece of) water. The Order, having announced the 
marks, should be informed by an experienced, competent 

^ Brahman probably being used here in its Buddhist sense of " best, 
highest ". Kappina was older than Gotama. 
' nimitta kittetabba. 



138 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. 
In as much as marks all round are announced, if it seems 
right to the Order the Order may agree upon a boundary 
in accordance with these marks for the same communion, 
for one Observance. This is the motion. || 1 1| 

Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. In as much as 
marks all round are announced, the Order is agreeing upon 
a boundary in accordance with these marks for the same 
communion, for one Observance. If the agreement upon a 
boundary in accordance with these marks for the same com- 
munion, for one Observance, is pleasing to the venerable ones, 
they should be silent ; he to whom it is not pleasing should 
speak. The boundary in accordance with these marks is 
agreed upon by the Order for the same communion, for one 
Observance. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore it is 
silent ; thus do I understand this '." |j 2 || 6 H 

Now at that time the group of six monks, thinking : "An 
agreement upon a boundary is allowed by the Lord," agreed 
upon very extensive boundaries, of four yojanas and five 
yojanas and six yojanas. Monks coming for Observance 
arrived while the Patimokkha was being recited, and they 
arrived just after it had been recited, and they stayed (a 
night) on the way. They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : 

" Monks, a very extensive boundary should not be agreed 
upon, of four yojanas or five yojanas or six yojanas. Whoever 
should (so) agree, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I 
allow you, monks, to agree upon a boundary of three yojanas 
at most."i II I II 

Now at that time the group of six monks agreed upon the 
other side of a river as a boundary. Monks coming for 
Observance were carried away and their bowls were carried 
away and their robes were carried away. They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, the other side of a river should not be agreed 
upon as a boundary. Whoever should (so) agree, there is an 

* According to VA. 1046 this means that having established the middle 
of the proposed residence, the boundary should not be more than one and 
a half yojanas from it in each direction. A triangle may be agreed upon, 
three yojanas from comer to comer. 



7.2—8.3] MAHAVAGGAII 139 

offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, when there 
may be a reliable boat^ or a reliable bridge^ to agree upon 
the other side of such a river as a boundary." || 2 I| 7 || 

Now at that time monks recited the Patimokkha in successive 
cells [106] without (making) a rendezvous.' In-coming 
monks did not know or they thought, " Where will the 
Observance be carried out to-day ? " They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, the Patimokkha should not be recited in successive 
cells without (making) a rendezvous. Whoever should (so) 
recite it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, 
monks, to carry out the Observance having agreed upon an 
Observance-hall that the Order desires : a dwelling-place or 
a curved house or a long house or a mansion or a cave.^ And 
thus, monks, should it be agreed upon : || i || 

" The Order should be informed by an experienced, com- 
petent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen 
to me. If it seems right to the Order, the Order should agree 
upon such and such a dwelling-place as an Observance-hall. 
This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. 
The Order is agreeing upon such and such a dwelling-place 
as an Observance-hall. If the agreement upon such and such 
a dwelling-place as an Observance-hall is pleasing to the 
venerable ones, let them be silent ; he to whom it is not 
pleasing should speak. Such and such a dwelling-place as 
an Observance-hall is agreed upon by the Order. It is 
pleasing to the Order, therefore it is silent ; thus do I under- 
stand this '." II 2 II 

Now at that time in a certain residence two Observance- 
halls came to be agreed upon. IVIonks assembled together in 



1 dhuvandvd. VA. 1046 gives various possibilities, one of which is a boat 
which plies regularly at the fords. 

* dhuvasetu. VA. 1047 says "made of a collection of trees or boards 
joined together or a bridge where a caravan can go or what is suitable for 
the crossing over of elephants and horses is a large bridge ; or a ' reliable 
bridge ' means having even at that moment cut down a tree, a bridge that 
is suitable for people to cross over by one at a time. But it is not a ' reliable 
bridge ' if it is not possible to cross by holding the jungle-rope and creepers 
twined above it ". 

* On samketa see B.D. i. 74, 88, 128, 135, ii. 164, 239 (and «. 3), 291, 294. 

* Cf. above, I. 80. 4 (and notes) and Vin. i. 284. 



140 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

both thinking : " Observance will be carried out here," 
" Observance will be carried out here." They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, two Observance-halls in one residence should not 
be agreed upon. Whoever should (so) agree, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, having abolished^ 
one, to carry out the Observance in one place (only). || 3 || 

" And thus, monks, should it be abolished : The Order 
should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, 
saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. If it 
seems right to the Order, the Order may abolish such and 
such an Observance-hall. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, 
let the Order listen to me. The Order is abolishing such and 
such an Observance-hall. If the abolition of such and such 
an Observance-hall is pleasing to the venerable ones, they 
should be silent ; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. 
Such and such an Observance-hall is abolished by the Order. 
It is pleasing to the Order, therefore it is silent ; thus do I 
imderstand this '." || 4 || 8 || 

Now at that time in a certain residence a very small 
Observance-hall came to be agreed upon. A large Order of 
monks came to be assembled together on an Observance-day. 
Monks, sitting on ground that had not been agreed upon, 
heard the Patimokkha. Then it occurred to these monks : 
"It is laid down by the Lord [107] that the Observance is 
to be carried out having agreed upon an Observance-hall, 
but we heard the Patimokkha while we were sitting on 
ground that was not agreed upon. Now was the Observance 
carried out for us or was it not carried out ? " They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, if one is sitting on the ground, whether it has 
been agreed upon or not agreed upon, and hears the Pati- 
mokkha* from there, the Observance is carried out for him. 

II I il 
" Well then, monks, if an Order desires a maximum for 



* VA. 1039 explains this to mean " having abolished one of the 
proclamations ", i.e. having rescinded one of the agreements so that one 
of the places already agreed upon as an Observance-hall is no longer regarded 
in this light. 



9.2—11.1] MAHAVAGGAII 141 

Observance^ of a certain size let it agree upon a maximum 
for Observance of that size. And thus, monks, should it be 
agreed upon : First, marks should be announced. The 
Order, having announced the marks, should be informed by 
an experienced, competent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, 
let the Order listen to me. In as much as marks all round 
are announced, if it seems right to the Order the Order may 
agree upon a maximum for Observance in accordance with 
these marks. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the 
Order listen to me. In as much as marks all round are 
announced, the Order is agreeing upon the maximum for 
Observance in accordance with these marks. If the agree- 
ment upon a maximum for Observance in accordance with 
these marks is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should 
be silent ; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. The 
maximum for Observance is agreed upon by the Order in 
accordance with these marks. It is pleasing to the Order, 
therefore it is silent ; thus do I understand this '." || 2 || 9 |1 

Now at that time in a certain residence newlj'' ordained 
monks, 2 being the first to have assembled together on an 
Observance day, saying : " The elders are not coming yet," 
went away. The Observance was not at a right time.^ They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow, monks, on an Observance day monks who are 
elders to assemble together first." || i || 10 || 

Now at that time in Rajagaha several residences came 
to have the same boundary. Monks quarrelled about this, 
saying : " Let the Observance be carried out in our residence," 
" Let the Observance be carried out in our residence." They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" This is a case, monks, where several residences come to 

* uposathapamukham. Not noticed in P.E.D. It must refef to the size 
of a site for hearing the Observance by a maximum number of monks of which 
an Order might consist. 

* These navaka bhikkhu were only " newly ordained " or junior in 
comparison with the majjhimd bhikkhu, those of middle standing and ordained 
for as long as five years, and with the theras, elders, ordained for as many 
as ten years. A monk is called navaka or nava for the first four years of 
his religious life after the date of his ordination. 

' I.e. not on the fourteenth or fifteenth day of a half-month. 



142 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

have the same boundary. Monks quarrel about this, saying : 
' Let the Observance be carried out in our residence ', ' Let 
the Observance be carried out in our residence '. Monks, 
those monks, one and all,^ having assembled togethei in one 
place, should carry out the Observance, or, having assembled 
together they should carry out the Observance there where 
a monk who is an elder is staying. But the Observance 
should not be carried out by an incomplete Order. ^ WTioever 
should (so) carry it out, there is an offence of wrong-doing." 
ill II 11 II [108] 

Now at one time the venerable Kassapa the Great, going 
from Andhakavinda^ to Rajagaha for Observance and crossing 
a river* on the way, was nearly^ carried away, and his robes 
got wet. Monks spoke thus to the venerable Kassapa the 
Great : " Why are your robes wet, your reverence ? " 

" Now I, your reverences, coming from Andhakavinda to 
Rajagaha for the Observance and crossing a river on the 
way, was nearly carried away. Because of this my robes are 
wet." They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Whatever boundary, monks, is agreed upon by an Order 
for the same communion, for one Observance, let the Order 
agree (to regard) that boundary (as a place where a monk is) 
not away, separated from the three robes." || i || 

"And thus, monks, should it be agreed upon : The Order 
should be informed bj' an experienced, competent monk, 
saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. What- 
ever boundary was agreed upon by the Order for the same com- 
munion, for one Observance, if it seems right to the Order 

* sabbeh' eva. 

■ na tv eva vaggena samghena, as below, MV. II. 22. 2 ; 23. 2 and 
subsequently. On vagga, see B.D. ii. 269, n. 10. 

' According to VA. 1049 Andhakavinda was at least a gavuta from 
Rajagaha. Around Rajagaha were eighteen large viharas having the same 
boundary, but the " being all together " of an Order took place in the Bamboo 
Grove. 

* VA. 1049 says the Sappini (Sippinl), which they say rises in Mt. Vulture 
Peak, and because it flows quickly so near its source that is why the elder 
was nearly carried away. 

• manam, also at Ja. i. 149, DhA. iii. 147. 

• ticlvarena avippavdsa. Cf. Nissag. II where a monk incurs an offence 
if he is away from the three robes even for one night unless he has obtained 
the agreement of the monks. But one who is ill may obtain an agreement 
to be regarded as not separated from his robes, although in fact he is. The 
above ruling is to the same effect. See B.D. ii. 14, n. 



12.2—4] MAHAVAGGAII 143 

the Order may agree (to regard) that boundary (as a place 
where a monk is) not away, separated from the three robes. 
This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. 
Whatever boundary was agreed upon by the Order for the 
same communion, for one Observance the Order is agreeing 
(to regard) that boundary (as a place where a monk is) not 
away, separated from the three robes. If the agreement (to 
regard) this boundary (as a place where a monk is) not away, 
separated from the three robes is pleasing to the venerable 
ones, they should be silent ; he to whom it is not pleasing 
should speak. This boundary is agreed upon the by Order 
(to be regarded as a place where a monk is) not away, separated 
from the three robes. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore 
it is silent ; thus do I understand this '." || 2 || 

Now at that time monks, thinking: "An agreement (for a 
monk to be regarded) as not away, separated from the three 
robes is allowed by the Lord," laid aside robes in a house.^ 
These robes were lost and burnt and eaten by rats. The 
monks became badly dressed, their robes worn thin. Monks 
spoke thus : " Why are you, your reverences, badly dressed, 
your robes worn thin ? " 

" Now we, your reverences, thinking : 'An agreement (for 
a monk to be regarded) as not away, separated from the 
three robes is allowed by the Lord,' laid aside robes in a house. 
These robes have been lost and burnt and eaten by rats. 
That is why we are badly dressed, our robes worn thin." 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Whatever boundary, monks, is agreed upon by an Order 
for the same communion, for one Observance, let the Order 
agree (to regard) that boundary (as a place where a monk is) 
not away, separated from the three robes, except it be a 
village and the precincts of a village. 2 y 3 || 

" And thus, monks, should it be agreed upon^ : . . . [109] 

^ In Nissag. XXIX monks, if staying in jungle lodgings are allowed to lay 
aside one of their three robes in a house. But, except with the agreement 
of the monks, they must not be away from their robes for more than six 
nights. 

• Defined at Vin. iii. 46 ; see B.D. i. 74, n. 2. " Village having one precinct " 
defined at Vin. iii. 200, see B.D. ii. 17 and note VA. 1051 says that the above 
ruling is not for nuns because they live in a village ; see also Vin. Texts i. 
256, n. I. 

' The same as || 2 || above, but after the words " away, separated from 
the three robes " add " except it be a village and the precincts of a village." 



144 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

' . . . thus do I understand this '. \\ 4 || 

" When agreeing upon a boundary, monks, first the boundary 
for the same communion should be agreed upon, afterwards 
the (place where a monk is regarded) as not away, separated 
from the three robes should be agreed upon. In abolishing 
a boundary, monks, first the (place where a monk is regarded) 
as not away, separated from the three robes should be 
abolished, afterwards the boundary for the same communion 
should be abolished. And thus, monks, should the (place 
where the monk is regarded) as not away, separated from the 
three robes be abolished : The Order should be informed by 
an experienced, competent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, 
let the Order listen to me. Whatever was agreed upon by 
the Order (as a place where a monk is to be regarded) as 
not away, separated from the three robes, if it seems right 
to the Order, the Order may abolish that (place where a monk 
is to be regarded) as not away, separated from the three 
robes. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order 
listen to me. Whatever was agreed upon by the Order (as 
a place where a monk is to be regarded) as not away, separated 
from the three robes, the Order is abolishing (that place where 
a monk is to be regarded) as not away, separated from the 
three robes. If the abolition of (the place where a monk 
is to be regarded) as not away, separated from the three 
robes is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent ; 
he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. That (place 
where a monk is to be regarded) as not away, separated from 
the three robes is abolished by the Order. It is pleasing to 
the Order, therefore it is silent ; thus do I understand this '. 

II 5 II 

"And thus, monks, should a boundary for the same com- 
munion^ be abolished : The Order should be informed by an 
experienced, competent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let 
the Order listen to me. Whatever boundary has been agreed 
upon by the Order for the same communion, for one Observ- 
ance, if it seems right to the Order, the Order may aboHsh 
that boundary. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the 
Order listen to me. Whatever boundary has been agreed 

* " For the same communion " omitted in Oldenberg's text, but included 
in the Ceylon edn. 



12.6—13.2] MAHAVAGGAII 145 

upon by the Order for the same communion, for one Observ- 
ance, the Order is abolishing that boundary. If the abolition 
of that boundary for the same communion, for one Observance 
is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent ; he 
to whom it is not pleasing should speak. That boundary 
for the same communion, for one Observance is abolished by 
the Order. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore it is silent ; 
thus do I understand this '. || 6 |I 

" Monks, when a boundary is not agreed upon, not 
estabUshed, whatever village or little town^ (a monk) lives 
depending on, whatever is the village boundary of that village 
or the little town boundary of that little town, this in that 
case [110] is (the boundary) for the same communion, for 
one Observance. If, monks, he is in what is not a village, 
in a jungle,^ in this case the same communion, one Observance, 
is seven abbhantaras^ all round. No river, monks, is a 
boundary, no sea is a boundary, no natural lake is a boundary. 
Where there is a river, monks, or a sea or a natural lake, 
that which in this case is (the boundary) for the same com- 
munion, one Observance, is the distance that a man of average 
(height) can throw water all round." || 7 |j 12 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks combined boundary 
with boundary.* They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : " Monks, those for whom a boundary was agreed upon 
first, that (formal) act of theirs is legitimate, it is irreversible, 
fit to stand. ^ Monks, those for whom a boundary was agreed 
upon afterwards, that (formal) act of theirs is not legitimate, 
it is reversible, not fit to stand. Monks, boundary should 
not be combined with boundary. Whoever should (so) 
combine, there is an offence of wrong-doing." || i || 

Now at that time the group of six monks placed boundary 
within boundary.^ They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : " Monks, those for whom a boundary was agreed upon 



1 nigama, see B.D. ii. 63, n. 2. 

* " Jungle " defined at B.D. i. 74, 85. 
» See B.D. ii. Intr.. p. L. 

* slmdya simam sambhindanti. 

* Cf. B.D. iii. 161 {Vin. iv. 214,) and Vin. i. 313, 316 f. The last two, 
akuppa and thdndraha, are defined at VbkA . 330. 

* simdya slmam ajjhottharanti. 



146 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

first, that (formal) act of theirs is legitimate, it is irreversible, 
fit to stand. Monks, those for whom a boundary was agreed 
upon afterwards, that (formal) act of theirs is not legitimate, 
it is reversible, not fit to stand. Monks, a boundary should 
not be placed within a boundary. Whoever should (so) 
place within, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, 
monks, when a boundary is being agreed upon, having left 
an interspace between boundaries,^ to agree upon a boundary." 
II 2 II 13 II 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now, how many Observance 
days are there ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : " Monks, there are these two Observance days, the 
fourteenth and the fifteenth. These, monks, are the two 
Observance days." || i || 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now, how many (formal) 
acts for Observance are there ? " They told this matter to 
the Lord. He said : " Monks, there are these four (formal) 
acts for Observance : a (formal) act for Observance (carried 
out) not by rule when an Order is incomplete'^ ; a (formal) 
act for Observance (carried out) not by rule when an Order 
is complete ; a (formal) act for Observance (carried out) by 
rule when an Order is incomplete ; a (formal) act for Observ- 
ance (carried out) by rule when an Order is complete. Now, 
monks, that which is a (formal) act for Observance carried 
out not by rule when an Order is incomplete, such a (formal) 
act for Observance, monks, should not be carried out, nor 
is such a (formal) act for Observance allowed by me. || 2 || 

" Then, monks, that which is a (formal) act for Observ^ance 
(carried out) not by rule when an Order is complete, [111] 
such a (formal) act for Observance, monks, should not be 
carried out nor is such a (formal) act for Observance allowed 
by me. Then, monks, that which is a (formal) act for Observ- 
ance (carried out) by rule when an Order is incomplete, such 
a (formal) act for Observance should not be carried out nor 

1 slmantarika. This may be quite small : a hattha (on which see B.D. ii. 
Intr. p. Li.) according to VA. 1056 ; a span or four finger-breadths according 
to the two Sinh. Comys. cited at VA. 1056. 

• adhammena vaggam ; cf. Vin. iv. 37, 126, 152, 1 53, adhamtnena vd vaggena 
vd. See MV. IX. 3 for elucidations of " not by rule " and " by rule ", and of 
" incomplete" and " complete assemblies ". 



14.3—15.2] MAHAVAGGA II 147 

is such a (formal) act for Observance allowed by me. Then, 
monks, that which is a (formal) act for Observance (carried 
out) by rule when an Order is complete, such a (formal) act 
for Obseivance, monks, may be carried out and such a (formal) 
act for Observance is aUowed by me. Therefore, monks, 
thinking : ' We will carry out a (formal) act for Observance 
like this, that is to say by rule when an Order is complete ' 
— thus you should train yourselves, monks." || 3 || 14 || 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now, how many ways for 
the recital of the Patimokkha are there ? ". They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, there are these five 
(ways for the) recital of the Patimokkha : having recited the 
provenance,^ the rest may be announced as though it had 
been (already) heard^ ; this is the first (way for the) recital 
of the Patimokkha. Having recited the provenance, having 
recited the four offences involving defeat, the rest may be 
announced as though it had been (already) heard ; this is the 
second (way for the) recital of the Patimokkha. Having 
recited the provenance, having recited the four offences 
involving defeat, having recited the thirteen offences entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order, the rest may be announced 
as though it had been (already) heard ; this is the third (way 
for the) recital of the Patimokkha. Having recited the pro- 
venance, having recited the four offences involving defeat, 
having recited the thirteen offences entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order, having recited the two undetermined offences, 
the rest may be announced as though it had been (already) 
heard ; this is the fourth (way for the) recital of the Pati- 
mokkha. (Recital) in full is the fifth. Monks, these are the 
five (ways for the) recital of the Patimokkha." || i || 

Now, at that time, monks, thinking : " Recital of the 
Patimokkha in brief is allowed by the Lord," all the time 
recited the Patim.okkha in brief. They told this matter to 
the Lord. He said : " Monks, the Patimokkha should not 
be recited in brief. Whoever should (so) recite it, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing." |1 2 || 



* nidana, see above, p. 127. 

• avasesam sutena sdvetabbam. 



148 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Now at that time in a certain residence in the Kosala 
country there came to be a menace from savages^ on an 
Observance day. The monks were unable to recite the 
Patimokkha in full. They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " I allow you, monks, if there is a danger, to recite 
the Patimokkha in brief." |i 3 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks, although there 
was no danger, recited the Patimokkha in brief. They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, if there is no 
danger the Patimokkha should not be recited in brief. Who- 
ever should (so) recite it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
I allow you, monks, if there is a danger, to recite the Pati- 
mokkha in brief. In this connection these are dangers : a 
danger from kings,^ a danger from thieves, a danger from 
fire, a danger from water, a danger from human beings, [112] 
a danger from non-human beings, a danger from beasts of 
prey, a danger from creeping things, a danger to life, a danger 
to the Brahma-faring.^ I allow you, monks, when there are 
dangers such as these, to recite the Patimokkha in brief ; 
in full if there is no danger." || 4 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks, unbidden,* spoke 
dhamma in the midst of an Order. They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : " Monks, dhamma should not be 
spoken, by one who is not bidden (to do so), in the midst 
of an Order. ^ Whoever should (so) speak it, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to speak dhamma by 
means of a monk who is himself an elder, or (for him) to 
bid another (to speak it)."" || 5 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks, (although) not 

^ savara-bhaya : cf. Vin. i. i68. VA. 1057 reads sancarabhaya. 

• Same list again at Vin. i. 169, ii. 244. Cf. also Vin. i. 148-149. See also 
list of seven dangers at Divy. 544. 

' On brahmacariya, see Mrs. Rhys Davids, Wayfarer's Words, ii. 533, 
"A Technical Term ", where she regards it as a term taken over from the 
brahmans who used it to denote the student-day stage in their training. 

« By the elders. VA. 1058. 

• na bhikkhave samghamajjhe anajjhitihena dhammo bhasitabbo. These cases 
probably mean that dhamma is not to be spoken or vinaya asked about 
(by one not qualified to do so) in the midst of an Order. They probably 
do not mean that one not bidden or not agreed upon in the midst of an Order 
might not speak or ask questions. 

• Cf. A. iv. 153 where if a monk " speaks dhamma himself or bids another 
(to do so) " it is one of the eight reasons for his development in the 
Brahma-faring. 



15.6—9] MAHAVAGGAII 149 

agreed upon, asked about discipline in the midst of an Order. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, 
discipline should not be asked about, by one not agreed upon, 
in the midst of an Order. Whoever should (so) ask, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to ask about 
discipline, by means of one who is agreed upon, in the midst 
of an Order. And thus, monks, may he be agreed upon : 
either oneself may be agreed upon by oneself, or another 
may be agreed upon by another. ^ || 6 1| 

And how may oneself be agreed upon by oneself ? The 
Order should be informed by an experienced, competent 
monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order Hsten to me. 
If it seems right to the Order, I could ask so and so about 
discipline '. Thus may oneself be agreed upon by oneself. 
And how may another be agreed upon by another ? The 
Order should be informed by an experienced, competent 
monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. 
If it seems right to the Order, so and so could ask so and so 
about discipline '. Thus may another be agreed upon by 
another." || 7 || 

Now at that time well behaved monks who were agreed 
upon asked about discipline in the midst of the Order. The 
group of six monks took offence, they took umbrage, they 
threatened them with harm.^ They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, to ask about discipline 
in the midst of the Order by means of one who is agreed upon, 
although^ having (first) looked round the assembly, having 
assessed* (each) individual. "^ |1 8 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks (although) not 
agreed upon answered questions on discipline in the midst 
of the Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" Monks, questions on discipline should not be answered in 
the midst of the Order by one not agreed upon. Whoever 
should (so) answer, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I 

^ Cf. above, p. 121, below, p. 150. 

* vadhena, also meaning with slaughter, with destruction. 
» pi. 

* tulayitva, lit. having weighed. Cf. tulayitabbam at Vin. iv. 142. VA. 
1059 says the one who is asking, having looked round the assembly, may ask 
about discipline if there is no risk for himself. 

» This allowance is an elaboration of that given in 15. 6, This still holds 
good, but the above safeguard is added. 

M 



150 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

allow you, monks, to answer questions in the midst of the 
Order by means of one who is agreed upon. And thus, monks, 
may he be agreed upon : either oneself may be agreed upon 
by oneself, or another may be agreed upon by another. || 9 || 

And how [113] may oneself be agreed upon by oneself ? 
The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent 
monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. 
If it seems right to the Order, I, asked about discipline by 
so and so, could answer.' Thus may oneself be agreed upon 
by oneself. And how may another be agreed upon by another? 
The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent 
monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. 
If it seems right to the Order, so and so, asked about discipline 
by so and so, could answer.' Thus may another be agreed 
upon by another." || 10 |I 

Now at that time well behaved monks who were agreed 
upon answered questions on discipline in the midst of the 
Order. The group of six monks took offence, they took 
umbrage, they threatened them with harm. They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, to answer 
questions on discipline in the midst of the Order by means 
of one who is agreed upon, although having (first) looked 
round the assembly, having assessed (each) individual." 
II II II 15 II 

Now at that time the group of six monks reproved, on 
account of an offence, a monk who had not given (them) 
leave.^ They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" Monks, a monk who has not given leave should not be 
reproved on account of an offence. Whoever should (so) 
reprove, there is an offence of wrong-dong. I allow you, 
monks, having obtained leave by saying : ' Let the venerable 
one give me leave, I want to speak to you ', to reprove him 
on account of an offence." || i || 

Now at that time well-behaved monks, having obtained the 
leave of the group of six monks, reproved them on account of 

^ anokasakata, " to make an occasion ", to give, to grant leave ; okasam 
kardpeti, to make to give, thus to obtain leave. Cf. Vin. iv. 344 where nuns 
must not question monks unless they have obtained their leave to do so, 
and where anokasakata is defined by andpucchd, without having asked (for 
permission). 



16.2—5] MAHAVAGGAII 151 

an offence. The group of six months took offence, they took 
umbrage, they threatened them with harm. They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, even 
if leave is given, to reprove for an offence after you have 
assessed the individual." || 2 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks, thinking : "Before^ 
well-behaved monks obtain our leave," themselves obtained 
the pure monks' leave beforehand,^ but there was no ground, 
no reason, since they were not offenders^. They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, leave should not be 
obtained from pure monks when there is no ground, no reason, 
since they are not offenders. Whoever should (so) obtain it, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. 1 allow you, monks, to 
obtain leave after you have assessed the individuals." || 3 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks carried out a 
(formal) act that was not legally valid in the midst of an 
Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" Monks, a (formal) act that is not legally valid should not 
be carried out in the midst of the Order. Whoever should 
(so) carry one out, there is an offence of wrong-doing." Even 
so, they carried out a (formal) act that was not legally valid. 
They told this matter [114] to the Lord. He said : "I allow 
you, monks, to protest* when a (formal) act that is not legally 
valid is being carried out." || 4 || 

Now at that time well-behaved monks protested when a 
(formal) act that was not legally valid was being carried out 
by the group of six monks. The group of six monks took 
offence, they took umbrage, they threatened them with harm. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow j'-ou, 
monks, merely to express an opinion." They expressed an 
opinion to these themselves. The group of six monks took 
offence, they took umbrage, they threatened them with 
harm. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I 
allow you, monks, when there are four or five, to protest, 
when there are two or three to express an opinion, when 
there is one, to determine : ' I do not approve of this '." \\ 5 || 

1 pure =pathamam, VA. 1059. Cf. MV. IV. 16. 3. 

* pafigacc' eva = pathamcUaratn, VA. 1059. 

* andpattika. 

* pafikkositum. Cf. B.D. iii. 58. 



152 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Now at that time the group of six monks, when the Pati- 
mokkha was being recited in the midst of the Order, inten- 
tionally did not hear. They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " Monks, a reciter of the Patimokkha should not 
intentionally not be heard. Whoever should not hear, there 
is an offence of wrong-doing." || 6 || 

Now at that time the venerable Udayin came to be reciter 
of the Patimokkha for an Order, but his voice was like a 
crow's. Then it occurred to the venerable Udayin : " It is 
laid down by the Lord that a reciter of the Patimokkha 
should be heard, but my voice is like a crow's. Now what 
line of conduct should be followed by me ? " They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow, monks, the one 
who is the reciter of the Patimokkha to exert himself, thinking: 
' How can I be heard ? ' There is no offence for one who 
exerts himself." || 7 || 

Now at that time Devadatta recited the Patimokkha 
before an assembly that contained laymen. They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, the Patimokkha 
should not be recited before an assembly that contains laymen. 
Whoever should (so) recite it, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II 8 II 

Now at that time the group of six monks, unbidden, recited 
the Patimokkha in the midst of an Order. They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, the Patimokkha 
should not be recited in the midst of an Order by one who 
is not bidden (to do so). Whoever (such) should recite it, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, that the 
Patimokkha be in charge of an elder. "^ II 9 !l 16 !| 

Told is the Portion for Repeating on Members of Other Sects. 

Then the Lord, having staj^ed in Rajagaha for as long as 
he found suiting, set out on tour for Codanavatthu. In due 
course, walking on a tour, he arrived in Codanavatthu. Now 
at that time several monks were staying in a certain residence ; 
[115] the monk who there was the elder was ignorant, 



* therddhikam pcLtitnokkhatn. VA. 1059 says that the elder should recite it 
himself or call upon another to do so. C/. the ruling which arose from speaking 
dhamma unbidden, above, p. 148. 



17.1—6] MAHAVAGGAII 153 

inexperienced, he did not know the Observance or a (formal) 
act for Observance or the Patimokkha or the recital of the 
Patimokkha. || i |! 

Then it occurred to these monks : "It is laid down by the 
Lord thfit the Patimokkha be in charge of an elder, but this 
elder of ours is ignorant, inexperienced, he does not know 
the Observance ... or the recital of the Patimokkha. Now 
what line of conduct should be followed by us ? " They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow, monks, the 
Patimokkha to be discharged^ by whoever there is an experi- 
enced, competent monk." || 2 || 

Now at that time several ignorant, inexperienced monks 
were sta5nng in a certain residence on an Observance day. 
These did not know the Observance or a (formal) act for 
Observance or the Patimokkha or the recital of the Pati- 
mokkha. These called upon an elder, saying : " Honoured 
sir, let the elder recite the Patimokkha." He spoke thus : 
" Your reverences, I am not able to do so^." They called 
upon a second elder ... He also spoke thus : . . . They 
called upon a third elder ... In this way they called upon 
(all the monks) down to the most newly ordained in the 
Order, saying : " Let the venerable one recite the Patimokkha." 
He also spoke thus : " Honoured sirs, I am not able to do so." 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : |I 3 jj 

" This is a case, monks, where several ignorant, inexperienced 
monks are staying in a certain residence . . .^ . . . ' Honoured 
sirs, I am not able to do so '. Monks, one monk should 
immediately be sent to a neighbouring residence by these 
monks, saying : ' Do go, your reverence ; having mastered 
the Patimokkha in brief or in full, come back '." 
!l4,5ll 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now, by whom should he 
be sent ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" I allow you, monks, to enjoin a newly ordained monk through 
a monk who is an elder." Newly ordained monks, (although) 
enjoined by an elder, did not go. They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : " Monks, [116] one who is not ill 

* tassadheyyam pdtimokkham. Adheyya means " to be appropriated ". 
' na me vattati, it is not for me. 

• As in II 3 il above, but told in the present tense. 



154 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

should not not go when enjoined by an elder. Whoever should 
not go, there is an offence of wrong-doing." |1 6 || 17 || 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Codanavatthu for as 
long as he found suiting, returned again to Rajagaha. Now 
at that time people asked the monks as they were walking 
for almsfood : " Which (day) of the half-month is it, honoured 
sirs ? " The monks spoke thus : " We, sirs, do not know." 
The people . . . spread it about, sa5dng : " These recluses, 
sons of the Sakyans, do not even know the calculation^ of 
the half-months, so how can they know an5^hing else that 
is good ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" I allow, you, monks, to learn the calculation of the half- 
months." II I II 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now by whom should the 
calculation of the half-months be learnt ? " They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, one and 
alP to learn the calculation of the half-months." || 2 || 

Now at that time people asked the monks as they were 
walking for aknsfood : " How many monks are there, 
honoured sirs ? " The monks spoke thus : " We, sirs, do not 
know." The people . . . spread it about, saying : " These 
recluses, sons of the Sakyans, do not even know one another, 
so how can they know anything else that is good ? " They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, to count the monks." || 3 || 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now, how should the monks 
be counted ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" I allow you, monks, on an Observance day to count by 
way of groups' or to take (a count) by ticket*." || 4 || 18 || 

Now at that time monks, not knowing, " To-day is an 
Observance day," walked to a distant village for almsfood. 
Not only did these come back while the Patimokkha was 
being recited, but they came back just after it had been 
recited. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 



^ gapand, see B.D. ii. 176, n. 5. 

• sabbeh' eva. 

' gaxiamaggena gafietwfi. 

• scdakam gaheturfi. 



19.1—20.3 MAHAVAGGAII 155 

" I allow you, monks, to announce, ' To-day is an Observance 
day '." Then it occurred to monks : " Now, by whom 
should it be announced ? " They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " I allow you, monks, to announce it in good time 
through a monk who is an elder." Now at that time a certain 
elder did not remember in good time. They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, to announce 
it even at meal-time." He did not remember even at meal- 
time. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " I 
allow you, monks, to announce it at whatever time he* 
remembers." I| i || 19 || [117] 

Now at that time the Observance-hall in a certain residence 
came to be soiled. Incoming monks looked down upon, 
criticised, spread it about, saying : " How can these monks 
not sweep the Observance-hall ? " They told this matter to 
the Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, to sweep the 
Observance-hall." || i jl 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now, by whom should an 
Observance-hall be swept ? " They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, to enjoin a newly 
ordained monk through a monk who is an elder." Newly 
ordained monks, (although) enjoined by an elder, did not 
sweep. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" Monks, one who is not ill should not not sweep when enjoined 
by an elder. Whoever should not sweep, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing." |j 2 i| 

Now at that time a seat was not prepared in an Observance- 
hall. Monks sat on the ground. Their limbs and robes 
became covered with dust. They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : "I allow you, monks, to prepare a seat in the 
Observance-hall." Then it occurred to monks : " Now, by 
whom should a seat in the Observance-hall be prepared ? " 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, to enjoin a newly ordained monk through a monk 
who is an elder." Newly ordained monks, (although) enjoined 
by an elder, did not prepare (a seat). They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : " Monks, one who is not ill should 

* I.e. the elder. 



156 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

not not prepare (a seat) when enjoined by an elder. Who- 
ever should not prepare (a seat), there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II 3 II 

Now at that time there came to be no light in an Observance- 
hall. Monks trod on (one another's) bodies and robes in the 
dark. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I 
allow you, monks, to make a light^ in an Observance-hall." 
Then it occurred to monks : " Now, by whom is the light 
to be made in an Observance-hall ? " They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, to enjoin a 
newly ordained monk through a monk who is an elder." 
Newly ordained monks, (although) enjoined by an elder, did 
not light a lamp.^ They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : " Monks, one who is not ill should not not light a 
lamp when enjoined by an elder. Whoever should not light 
a lamp, there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 4 || 

At that time in a certain residence resident monks neither 
set out drinking water nor did they set out water for washing. 
Incoming monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it 
about, saying : " How can these resident monks neither set 
out drinking water nor set out water for washing ? " They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, 
[118] to set out drinking water and water for washing." |j 5 H 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now, by whom should 
drinking water and water for washing be set out ? " They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, to enjoin a newly ordained monk through a monk 
who is an elder." Newly oidained monks, (although) en- 
joined by an elder, did not set out (the water). They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, one who is not ill 
should not not set out (water) when enjoined by an elder. 
Whoever should not set it out, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II 6 II 20 II 

Now at that time ignorant inexperienced monks, traveUing 
to distant parts,* did not ask teachers and preceptors (for 

* padlpam kdtum. 

■ padipeti, to light up, to light a lamp. 

> disamgamika ; cf. Vin. i. 263 ; and MV. I. 25. 24 where those who 
share cells may not leave the district (disa) without asking the preceptors 
for permission. 



21.1—3] MAHAVAGGA II 157 

permission). They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" This is a case, monks, where several ignorant inexperienced 
monks, travelling to distant parts, do not ask teachers and 
preceptors (for permission). Monks, they should be asked by 
these teachers and preceptors : ' Where will you go ? With 
whom will you go ? ' If, monks, these ignorant inexperienced 
ones should cite other ignorant inexperienced ones, then, 
monks, they should not be allowed to go by the teachers and 
preceptors. If they should allow them (to go), there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. And if, monks, these ignorant 
inexperienced ones should go (although) not allowed by^ the 
teachers and preceptors, there is an offence of wrong-doing. || i || 

" This is a case, monks, where several ignorant inexperi- 
enced monks are staying in a certain residence on an 
Observance day. These do not know the Observance 
or a (formal) act for Observance or the Patimokkha 
or the recital of the Patimokkha. A certain monk 
arrives there. He has heard much, he is one to whom 
the tradition has been handed down,^ he is an expert 
on dhamma, an expert on discipline, an expert on the suni- 
maries^ ; he is wise, experienced, clever ; he is conscientious, 
scrupulous, desirous of training. Monks, that monk should 
be furthered* by those monks, he should be helped, ^ he should 
be encouraged,^ he should be supported' in regard to chunam, 
clay, tooth-wood, water for washing the face. If he should 
not be furthered, helped, encouraged, supported in regard to 
chunam, clay, tooth-wood, water for washing the face, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. || 2 || 

" This is a case, monks, where several ignorant, inexperi- 
enced monks are staying in a certain residence on an Observ- 
ance-day. These do not know the Observance ... or the 

^ ananunndtd, defined at Vin. iv. 335 as andpucchd, not asking (for 
permission). Permission has to be asked for before it can be given. 

* dgatdgama. See B.D. iii. 71, n. i. 

* Cf. A. i. 117, ii. 147, iii. 179/. 

* samgahetabbo. This word is used with the next (anuggahetabbo) above, 
p. 67. 

* anuggahetabbo. See definition of anugganheyya at Vin. iv. 325 {B.D. 
iii. 376). The word occurs above, p. 67. 

* upaldpetabbo. Cf. definition of upaldpeyya at Vin. iv. 140 (B.D. iii. 
34)- 

' upatthdpetabbo. Cf. definition of upatthdpeyya at Vin. iv. 140 {B.D. 
iii. 34)- 



158 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

recital of the Patimokkha, Monks, one monk should immedi- 
ately be sent to a neighbouring residence by these monks, 
saying : ' Do go, your reverence, having mastered the 
Patimokkha in brief or in full, come back '. If he thus 
manages this, it is good. If he does not manage it, then, 
monks, those monks, one and all, should go to a residence 
where they know the Observance ... or the recital of the 
Patimokkha. [119] If they should not go, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. || 3 || 

This is a case, monks, where several ignorant, inexperienced 
monks are spending the rains in a certain residence. These 
do not know . . . {as above in || 3 ||) . . . If he thus manages 
this, it is good. If he does not manage it, then, monks, 
one monk should be sent off for seven days (with the words) : 
' Do go, your reverence, having mastered the Patimokkha 
in brief or in iuR, come back '. If he thus manages this, 
it is good. If he does not manage it, then, monks, these 
monks should not spend the rains in that residence. If they 
should spend them (there), there is an offence of wrong-doing." 
I! 4 II 21 II 

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying : " Gather 
together, monks, the Order will carry out the Observance." 
"When he had spoken thus, a certain monk spoke thus to the 
Lord : " There is. Lord, a monk who is ill. He has not 
come." He said : " I allow you, monks, to declare^ entire 
purity^ on behalf of a monk who is iU. And thus, monks, 
should it be declared : That ill monk, having approached 
one monk, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, 
having sat down on his haunches, having saluted with joined 
palms, should speak thus to him : * I will declare entire 
purity ; convey entire purity for me, announce entire purity 
for me '. If he makes it understood by gesture, if he makes 
it understood by voice, if he makes it understood by gesture 
and voice, the entire purity comes to be declared. If he does 
not make it understood by gesture, if he does not make it 

* datum, lit. to give. Cf. chandatfi dcUuiji at Vin. iv. 151 (B.D. iii. 58) 
aod below, p. 161. 

• parisuddhi, cf. above, p. 132. It means that the ill monk believes that 
he has committed none of the offences specified in the Patimokkha, or that, 
ii he has, he has confessed them, so that in regard to them he is pure. 



22.1—3] MAHAVAGGAII 159 

understood by voice, if he does not make it understood by 
gesture and voice, the entire purity does not come to be 
declared. || i || 

" If he thus manages this, it is good ; if he does not manage 
it, then, monks, that ill monk, having been brought to the 
midst of the Order on a couch or a chair, the Observance 
may be carried out. If, monks, it occurs to the monks who 
are tending the ill one : ' If we move the ill one from (this) 
place, either the disease will grow much worse or he will die^ ', 
monks, the ill one should not be moved from (that) place ; 
the Order, having gone there, should carry out the Observance; 
the Observance should not be carried out by an incomplete 
Order. 2 If it should be (so) carried out, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. || 2 || 

" If, monks, the conveyer of the entire purity goes away 
then and there, ^ although the entire purity was declared (to 
him)*, the entire purity should be declared to another. If, 
monks, the conveyor of the entire purity leaves .the Order 
then and there although the entire purity was declared (to 
him), if he passes away, if he pretends to be a novice,^ [120] 
if he pretends to be a disavower of the training, ^ if he pretends 
to be a committer of an extreme offence,'' if he pretends to 
be mad,® it he pretends to be unhinged,® if he pretends to 
have bodily pains,® if he pretends to be one who is suspended' 
for not seeing an offence, if he pretends to be one who is 
suspended for not making amends for an offence, if he pre- 
tends to be one who is suspended for not giving up a wrong 
view, if he pretends to be a eunuch,^" if he pretends to be one 



^ kdlamkiriyd bkavissati, lit. there will be a doing of (his) time. 

• As above, II. 11. i, ana several times below. 

' iatth' eva. VA. 1062, if he goes elsewhere, not to the midst of the Order. 
• * The one who has undertaken to convey the entiie purity shelves his 
responsibility and does not carry out the message entrusted to him. 

' Cf. the following sequence and the three preceding items : going away 
and leaving the Order and passing away, with Vin. i. 135, 167-8, 307, 320, 
ii. 173. 

• See B.D. i. 40 ff. At yi . v. 71 the presence of a " disavower of the training' ' 
is given as one of the reasons why the Patimokkha may be suspended. 

^ antimavatthutn ajjhdpannako, meaning a Parajika offence ; cf. p. 180. 

• Reasons for exemption from the penalty for an offence as given in Sutta- 
vibhanga. 

» ukkhitta, cf. B.D. iii. 28, n. 4. 
^^ Not to be ordained, above p. 109. 



i6o BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

living in communion as it were by theft/ if he pretends to 
be one who has gone over to another sect^, if he pretends to 
be an animal/ if he pretends to be a matricide,* if he pretends 
to be a parricide/ if he pretends to be a slayer of one perfected/ 
if he pretends to be a seducer of a nun, ^ if he pretends to be a 
schismatic, ^ if he pretends to be a shedder of (a Truth-finder's) 
blood, ^ if he pretends to be a hermaphrodite,^ the entire 
purity should be declared to another. || 3 || 

" If, monks, the conveyer of the entire purity goes away 
while he is on the road,* although the entire purity was 
declared (to him), the entire purity comes to be not conveyed. 
If, monks, the conveyer of the entire purity leaves the Order 
while he is on the road, although the entire purity was declared 
(to him), if he passes away ... if he pretends to be a herma- 
phrodite, the entire purity comes to be not conveyed. If, 
monks, the conveyer of the entire purity, after the entire purity 
was declared (to him), having arrived at the Order, then 
goes away, the entire purity comes to be conveyed. If, 
monks, the conveyer of the entire purity, after the entire 
purity was declared (to him), having arrived at the Order, 
then leaves the Order, passes away, . . . pretends to be a herma- 
phrodite, the entire purity comes to be conveyed. If, monks, 
the conveyer of the entire purity, after the entire purity was 
declared (to him), having arrived at the Order does not 
announce it because he has fallen asleep, does not announce 
it because he is indolent, does not announce it because he is 
attaining (what is higher'), the entire purity comes to be 
conveyed ; there is no offence for the conveyer of the entire 
purity. If, monks, the conveyer of the entire purity, although 
the entire purity was declared (to him), having arrived at 
the Order, intentionally does not announce it, the entire 
purity comes to be conveyed (but) there is an offence of 
wrong-doing for the conveyer of the entire purity." 
Il4l|22|| 

* theyyasarpvasaka ; not to be ordained, cf. above, p. no. 

* tittkiyapakkantaka ; not to be ordained, see above, p. no. 

• Not to be ordained, above p. in. 

* Not to be ordained, above p. 112. 

• Not to be ordained, above p. 113. 

• While he is on the way to the Order ; if he goes elsewhere. 

' samdpanno, a term which has the technical sense of attaining the 
attainments, santdpatti. See B.D. ii. 177, n. 5, 6. 



23.1—3] MAHAVAGGAII i6i 

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying : " Gather 
together, monks, the Order will carry out a (formal) act." 
When he had spoken thus a certain monk spoke thus to the 
Lord : " Lord, there is a monk who is ill ; he has not come." 
" He said : " I allow you, monks, to give the consent ^ for 
a monk who is ill. And thus, monks, should it be given : 
That ill monk, having approached one monk, having arranged 
his upper robe over one shoulder, having sat down on his 
haunches, having saluted with joined palms, should speak 
thus to him : ' I will give the consent, convey the consent 
for me, announce the consent for me.'. If he makes it. under- 
stood by gesture, if he makes it understood by voice, if he 
makes it understood by gesture and voice, the consent comes 
to be given. If he does not make it understood' by gesture, 
if he does not make it understood by voice, if he does not 
make it understood bj' gesture and voice, the consent does 
not come to be given. || i || 

" If he thus manages this, it is good. If he does not manage 
it, then, [121] monks, having taken that iU monk to the 
midst of the Order on a couch or a chair, a (formal) act may 
be carried out. If, monks, it occurs to the monks who are 
tending the ill one : ' If we move the ill one from (this) place, 
either the disease will grow much worse or he will die ', 
monks, the ill one should not be moved from (that) place ; 
the Order, having gone there, should carry out the (formal) 
act ; a (formal) act should not be carried out by an incomplete 
Order. If it should be (so) carried out, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. || 2 || 

" If, monks, the conveyer of the consent goes away then 
and there although the consent was given (to him), the 
consent should be given to another. If, monks, the conveyer 
of the consent leaves the Order then and there, although 
the consent was given (to him), if he dies ... if he pretends 
to be a hermaphrodite, the consent should be given to another. 
If, monks, the conveyer of the consent goes away while he is 
on the road, although the consent was given to him, the 
consent comes to be not conveyed. If, monks, the conveyer 
of the consent leaves the Order while he is on the road . . . 

1 chandarn datum, see B.D. iii. 58, 61. It is here the ' consent ' to send 
leave of absence by proxy. 



i62 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

{as in II. 22. 4) . . . there is an offence of wrong-doing 
for the conveyer of the consent. I allow you, monks, on an 
Observance day, to give the consent also, by declaring the 
entire purity ; they are the Order's business^." || 3 |! 23 || 

Now at that time his relations got hold of a certain monk 
on an Observance day. They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " This is a case, monks, where his relations get hold 
of a monk on an Observance day. These relations should 
be spoken to thus by the monks : ' Please will you, venerable 
ones,2 let go of this monk for a short time* while this monk 
carries out the Observance ? ' !| i || 

" If they manage this thus, it is good. If they do not 
manage it, these relations should be spoken to thus by the 
monks : ' Please will you, venerable ones, stand at a respectful 
distance for a short time while this monk declares his entire 
purity ? ' If they manage this thus, it is good. If they do 
not manage it, these relations should be spoken to thus by the 
monks : ' Please will you, venerable ones, take this monk 
outside the boundary^ for a short time while the Order carries 
out the Observance ? ' If they manage this thus, it is good. 
If they do not manage it the Observance should not be carried 
out by an incomplete Order. If it should be (so) carried out, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. || 2 || 

" This is a case, monks, where kings get hold of a monk 
on an Observance day . . . thieves . . . men of abandoned 
life^ . . . monks who are opponents oi monks' get hold of a 
monk on an Observance day. These monks who are opponents 
of monks should be spoken to thus by the monks : ' Please 
will you . . . (as *"« § I, 2) . . . the Observance should not be 
carried out by an incomplete Order. If it should be (so) 
carried out, there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 3 |I 24 || 
[122] 

• santi samghassa karanlyatfi. Same expression occurs at beginning of MV. 
II. 25. I. Karanlya is something to be done, a duty ; cf. MV. IV. 8. 5. 

• An occasion where monks address lay people with the honorific title 
iyasma. 

» muhuttarn, for a moment. 

• While outside an Order's boundary a monk would not be a member 
of that Order, and so his absence or his failure to get his entire purity declared 
would not render that Order " incomplete ". 

• dhutta. See B.D. i. 234, n. i. 

• Cf. B.D. t 49 f. 



25.1—4] MAHAVAGGAII 163 

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying : " Gather 
together, monks, there is business for the Order."^ When 
he had spoken thus a certain monk spoke thus to the Lord : 
" There is. Lord, the mad monk Gagga^ ; he has not come." 
He said : " There are, monks, these two (kinds of) madmen : 
there is the mad monk who now remembers the Observance, 
now does not remember it ; who now remembers a (formal) 
act of the Order, now does not remember it. He is one who 
does not remember aright.^ (And there is the one) who 
now comes for the Observance, now does not come for it, 
who now comes for a (formal) act of the Order, now does not 
come for it. He is one who does not come aright, jj i || 

" In a case, monks, where this madman now remembers the 
Observance, now does not remember it . . . now comes for a 
(formal) act of the Order, now does not come for it, I allow 
you, monks, to give the agreement for a madman* to such 
a madman. || 2 || 

And thus, monks, should it be given : The Order should be 
informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying : 
' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The mad monk 
Gagga now remembers the Observance, now does not remember 
it, now remembers a (formal) act of the Order, now does 
not remember it ; he now comes for the Observance, now 
does not come for it ; now comes for a (formal) act of the 
Order, now does not come for it. If it seems right to the 
Order, the Order should give the agreement for a madman 
to the mad monk Gagga, so that whether the monk Gagga ^ 
remembers the Observance or does not remember it, whether 
he remembers a (formal) act of the Order or does not remember 
it, whether he comes for the Observance or does not come for 
it, whether he comes for a (formal) act of the Order or does 
not come for it, the Order either with Gagga or without Gagga 
can carry out the Observance, can carry out a (formal) act 
of the Order. This is the motion. || 3 || 

" ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me* The mad 
monk Gagga now remembers the Observance . . . now comes 

^ aithi samghassa karaniyam. 

* Cf. Vin. ii. 80 ff. 
' eva. 

* ummattakasammuti. 

^ " mad " omitted here in text. 



i64 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

for a (formal) act of the Order, now does not come for it. 
The Order is giving the agreement for a madman to the mad 
monk Gagga so that whether the monk Gagga remembers 
... or does not come for it, the Order either with Gagga or 
without Gagga will carry out the Observance, will carry out a 
(formal) act of the Order. If the giving of the agreement 
for a madman to the mad monk Gagga so that whether he 
remembers ... or does not come for it, the Order either with 
Gagga or without Gagga will carry out the Observance, 
will carry out a (formal) act of the Order, is pleasing to the 
venerable ones, they should be silent ; he to whom it is not 
pleasing should speak. The agreement for a madman is 
given by the Order to the mad monk Gagga, so that whether 
he remembers ... or does not come for it, the Order either 
with Gagga or without Gagga will carry out the Observance, 
will carry out a (formal) act of the Order. It is pleasing to 
the Order, therefore it is silent ; thus do I understand this '." 
!l4ll25!| [123] 

Now at that time four monks were stajdng in a certain 
residence on an Observance day. Then it occurred to these 
monks : " It is laid down by the Lord that the Observance 
should be carried out, but we are (only) four persons.^ Now 
how can the Observance be carried out by us ? " They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, 
to recite the Patimokkha when there are four (of you)." 

II I II 

Now at that time three monks were staying in a certain 
residence on an Observance day. Then it occured to these 
monks : " It is allowed by the Lord to recite the Patimokkha 
when there are four (of us), but we are (only) three persons. 
Now how can the Observance be carried out by us ? " They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, 
to carry out the Observance by way of entire purity' when 
there are three (of you)' || 2 || 

" And thus, monks, should it be carried out : These monks 
should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, 

* See the scope of the powers of the " five (kinds of) Order " at Vin. i. 319. 

* pdrisuddhiuposathatn. 

' See next two paragraphs. 



26.3—7] MAHAVAGGAII 165 

saying : ' Let the venerable ones listen to me. To-day is 
an Observance day, the fifteenth. If it seems right to the 
venerable ones, let us carry out the Observance with one 
another by way of entire purity '. A monk who is an elder, 
having arranged bis upper robe over one shoulder, ha\ang 
sat down on his haunches, having saluted with joined palms, 
should speak thus to these monks : ' I, your reverences,^ am 
quite pure, understand that I am quite pure ; 1, your rever- 
ences, am quite pure, understand that 1 am quite pure ; I, 
your reverences, am quite pure, understand that I am quite 
pure'. II3II 

"A newly ordained monk, having arranged his upper robe 
over one shoulder, having sat down on his haunches, having 
saluted with joined palms should speak thus to these monks : 
' T, honoured sirs,^ am quite pure, understand that I am 
quite pure ; I, honoured sirs, am quite pure, understand 
that I am quite pure ; I, honoured sirs, am quite pure, 
understand that I am quite pure'." || 4 || 

Now at that time two monks were stajHng in a certain 
residence on an Observance day. Then it occurred to these 
monks : " It is allowed by the Lord to recite the Patimokkha 
when there are four (persons), to carry out the Observance 
by way of entire purity when there are three, but we are 
(only) two persons. Now how can the Observance be carried 
out by us ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" I allow you, monks, to carry out the Observance by way 
of entire purity when there are two (of you). || 5 |[ 

" And thus, monks, should it be carried out : The monk 
who is an elder, having arranged his upper robe over one 
shoulder, having sat down on his haunches, having saluted 
with joined palms, should speak thus to the newly ordained 
monk : ' I, your reverence, am quite pure, understand that I 
am quite pure ; I, your reverence, am quite pure, understand 
that 1 am quite pure; [124] I, your reverence, am quite pure, 
understand that I am quite pure '. || 6 || 

" The newly ordained monk, having arranged his upper 

* dvuso. It is apparently assumed that there is one elder at least and 
one or two juniors, otherwise the elder would doubtless have addressed 
the others as bhatite. 

■ bhante, because it appears to be assumed that at least one elder was 
present. 

N 



i66 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

robe over one shoulder, having sat down on his haunches, 
having saluted with joined palms, should speak thus to the monk 
who is an elder : 'I, honoured sir, am quite pure, understand 
that I am quite pure ; I, honoured sir, am quite pure, under- 
stand that I am quite pure ; T, honoured sir, am quite pure, 
understand that I am quite pure '." || 7 || 

Now at that time one monk was staying in a certain 
residence on an Observance day. Then ii occurred to this 
monk : " It is allowed by the Lord to recite the Patimokkha 
when there are four (persons), to carry out the Observance 
by way of entire purity when there are three, to carry out 
the Observance by way of entire puiity when there are two, 
but I am alone. Now how can the Observance be carried 
out by me ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

II 8 II. 

" This is a case, monks, where one monk is staying in a 
certain residence on an Observance day. That monk, having 
swept that place to which monks return — an attendance hall 
or a pavilion or the root of a tree — having put out drinking 
water and water for washing, having made ready a seat, having 
made a light, should sit down. If other monks arrive, the 
Observance should be carried out together with them ; if 
they do not arrive, it should be determined^, ' To-day is an 
Observance day for me '. If he should not (so) determine, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. |! 9 !| 

" Monks, there where four monks are sta3ang, the Pati- 
mokkha should not be recited by three (persons), having 
conveyed the entire purit}^ for one. If they should (so) recite 
it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. Monks, there where 
three monks are staying, the Obser\'ance by way of entire 
purity should not be carried out by two, having conveyed 
the entire purity for one. If they should (so) carry it out, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. Monks, there where 
two monks are staying, it should not be determined upon 
by one having conveyed the entire purity for the other. If 
he should (so) determine, there is an offence of wrong-doing." 
II 10 II 26 !| 

Now at that time a certain monk came to have fallen into 

» adhitthdtabbam ; see B.D. i. 128, n. 3. 



27.1—4] MAHAVAGGAII 167 

an offence on an Observance day. Then it occurred to this 
monk : " It is laid down by the Lord that the Observance 
should not be carried out by an offender/ but I have fallen 
into an offence. Now what line of conduct should be followed 
by me ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" This is a case, monks, where a monk comes to have fallen 
into an offence on an Observance day. Monks, that monk, 
having approached one monk, having arranged his upper 
robe over one shoulder, [125] having sat down on his haunches, 
having saluted with joined palms, should speak thus to him: 
' I, your reverence, have fallen into such and such an offence, 
I confess^ it '. It should be said by him^ : ' Do you see 
it ? ' ' Yes, I see it '. ' You should be restrained in the 
future'. II I II 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk becomes doubtful 
of an offence on an Observance day. Monks, that monk, 
having approached one monk, having arranged his upper 
robe . . . having saluted with joined palms, should speak 
thus to him : 'I, your reverence, am doubtful as to such 
and such an offence. When I come to be without doubt, 
then will I make amends for that offence '. When he has 
spoken thus, the Observance may be carried out, the Pati- 
mokkha may be heard, but no obstacle should be put in 
the way of the Observance from such a cause," || 2 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks confessed* a 
collective^ offence. They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " Monks, a collective offence should not be con- 
fessed. Whoever should confess it, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing." At that time the group of six monks acknow- 
ledged a collective offence. Thej'^ told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : " Monks, a collective offence should not be 
acknowledged. Whoever should acknowledge (such), there 
is an offence of wrong-doing." || 3 || 

Now at that time a certain monk remembered an offence 



1 See CV. IX. 2. 

• patidesemi. 

• I.e. by the monk whom the offender approached. 

• desenti. 

» sabhdgd, shared in by them all, but whether acting together or singly 
is not clear. VA. 1064 instances eating at the ^vrong time or eating what has 
ijot been left over, 



i68 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

while the Patimokkha was being recited. Then it occurred 
to this monk : " It is laid down by the Lord that the Observ- 
ance should not be carried out by an offender, and I have 
fallen into an offence. Now what line of conduct should 
be followed by me ? " They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " This is a case, monks, where a monk remembers 
an offence while the Patimokkha is being recited. Monks, 
this monk should speak thus to the monk next to him : 'I, 
your reverence, have fallen into such and such an offence. 
Having removed from here I will make amends for that 
offence '. When he has spoken thus, the Observance may 
be carried out, the Patimokkha may be heard, but no obstacle 
should be put in the way of the Observance from such a cause. 

Il4l! 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk becomes doubtful 
as to an offence while the Patimokkha is being recited. Monks, 
this monk should speak thus to the monk next to him : ' I, 
your reverence, am doubtful as to such and such an offence. 
When I come to be without doubt, then will I make amends 
for that offence '. "WTien he has spoken thus, the Observance 
may be carried out, the Patimokkha may be heard, but no 
obstacle should be put in the way of the Observance from 
such a cause." |j 5 I| 

Now at that time the whole Order in a certain residence 
came to have fallen into a collective offence on an Observance 
day. Then it occurred to these monks : " It is laid down by 
the Lord that a collective offence should not be confessed, 
that a collective offence [126] should not be acknowledged, 
but this whole Order has fallen into a collective offence. 
Now what line or conduct should be followed by us ? " They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : " This is a case, 
monks, where in a certain residence the whole Order comes 
to have fallen into a collective offence on an Observance 
da3^ Monks, one monk should immediately be sent to a 
neighbouring residence by these monks, with the words : 
* Go along, your reverence, and come back having made 
amends for that offence, and we will make amends for the 
offence in your presence '. || 6 ]| 

" If they thus manage this, it is good. If they do not 
manage it, the Order should be informed by an experienced, 



27.7— II] MAHAVAGGAII 169 

competent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen 
to me. This whole Order has fallen into a collective offence. 
W'Tien it shall see another monk, a pure one, not an offender, 
then it shall make amends for that offence in his presence '. 
When he has spoken thus.the Observance may be carried out, 
the Patimokkha may be heard, but no obstacle should be 
put in the way of the Observance from such a cause. I] 7 I| 

" This is a case, monks, where in a certain residence the 
whole Order comes to be doubtful about a collective offence 
on an Observance day. The Order should be informed by 
an experienced, competent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, 
let the Order listen to me. This whole Order is doubtful 
about a collective offence. When it comes to be without 
doubt, then will it make amends for that offence'. When 
he has spoken thus, the Observance may be carried out, 
the Patimokkha may be heard, but no obstacle should be 
put in the way of the Observance from such a cause. || 8 || 

" This is a case, monks, where in a certain residence the 
Order, entered on the rains, has fallen into a collective 
offence. Monks, one monk should immediately be sent to 
a neighbouring residence by these monks with the words . . . 
{as tw II 6, 7 II) ... If they do not manage it, one monk should 
be sent away for seven days, with the words : ' Go along, 
your reverence, and come back having made amends for 
that offence, and we will make amends for that offence in 
your presence '." || 9 || 

Now at that time in a certain residence the whole Order 
came to have fallen into a collective offence. It did not 
know the name or the class^ of that offence. A certain 
monk came there ; he had heard much, he was one to whom 
the tradition had been handed down^ ; he was an expert on 
dhamma, an expert on discipline, an expert on the summaries ; 
he was wise, experienced, clever ; he was conscientious, 
scrupulous, desirous of training.^ A certain monk approached 
that monk ; having approached, he spoke thus to him : 
" What kind of an offence does he fall into, your reverence, 
who does such and such a thing ? " || 10 || 

He spoke thus : " Whoever does such and such a thing, 

^ gotta. 

• Cf. above, p. 157. 



170 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

your reverence, falls into this kind of offence. This is the 
kind of offence that you, your reverence, have fallen into ; 
make amends for this offence." He spoke thus : "I, your 
reverence, have not fallen into this offence altogether alone ; 
this [127] whole Order has fallen into this offence." He 
spoke thus : " What has it to do with you, your reverence, 
whether another has fallen or has not fallen ? Please do you, 
your reverence, remove^ your own offence." |1 ii || 

Then that monk, having at that monk's bidding made 
amends for that offence, approached those monks ; having 
approached them, he spoke thus to those monks : " It is 
said, your reverences, that whoever does such and such a 
thing falls into this kind of offence. This is the kind of 
offence that you, your reverences, have fallen into ; make 
amends for this offence." But these monks did not want to 
make amends for that offence at that monk's bidding. They 
told this matter to the lord. He said : || 12 |i 

" This is a case, monks, where in a certain residence the 
whole Order comes to have fallen into a collective offence. 
It does not know the name or the class of that offence. A 
certain monk comes there ; he has heard much . . . desirous 
of training. A certain monk approaches that monk ; having 
approached, he speaks thus to that monk : ' WTiat kind of 
offence does he fall into, your reverence, who does such and 
such a thing ? ' || 13 || 

" He speaks thus : ' Whoever does such and such a thing, 
your reverence, falls into this kind of offence. This is the 
kind of offence that you, your reverence, have fallen into ; 
make amends for this offence '. He speaks thus : ' I, your 
reverence, have not fallen into this offence altogether alone ; 
this whole Order has fallen into this offence '. He speaks 
thus : ' What has it to do with you, your reverence, whether 
another has fallen or has not fallen ? Please do you, your 
reverence, remove your own offence.' || 14 H 

" Then if that monk, having at that monk's bidding made 
amends for that offence, approaches those monks and having 
approached them speaks thus to those monks: 'It is said, 
your reverence, that whoever does such and such a thing 

^ vutthaha. 



27.15—28.3] MAHAVAGGAII 171 

falls into this kind of offence. This is the kind of offence 
that you, your reverences, have fallen into ; make amends 
for this offence ' ; and if, monks, these monks should make 
amends for that offence at that m.onk's bidding, that is good. 
But if they should not make amends for it, then, monks, 
these monks need not be spoken to by that monk if he is not 
wiUingi." !! 15 II 27 || 

Told is the Portion for Repeating on Codanavatthu. 

Now at that time in a certain residence several resident 
monks, four or more, collected together on an Observance 
day. They did not know that there were other resident 
monks who had not arrived. [128] Thinking^ of the rule,^ 
thinking of discipline, thinking that they were complete, they 
carried out the Observance, they recited the Patimokkha 
while they were incomplete. While the Patimokkha was 
being recited by them, other resident monks, a larger number,* 
arrived. They told this matter to the Lord. || i jj 

He said : " This is a case, monks, where in a certain resi- 
dence . . . {as in II I II above) . . . recite the Patimokkha while 
they are incomplete. While the Patimokkha is being recited 
by them, other resident monks, a larger number, arrive. 
Monks, the Patimokkha should be recited again by these 
monks, ^ and there is no offence for the reciters. || 2 || 

" This is a case, monks, where in a certain residence . . . 
{as in II 2 II above) . . . While the Patimokkha is being recited 
by them, other resident monks, a like number, arrive. What 
has been recited is duly recited, the rest should be heard, 
and there is no offence for the reciters. 

" This is a case, monks, . . . {as in \\2 \\ zbove) . . . While 
the Patimokkha is being recited by them, other resident 

^ akdmd, cf. Vin. iii. i86 {B.D. i. 328). If the offending monks do not wish 
to make amends, the other monk need not speak to them — perhaps meaning 
that he need not speak to them in the words given at the end of !| 14 H above. 
But cf. A. ii. 113, " For this is destruction . . . where a Truthfinder or his 
fellow Brahma-farers deem that he is one who should not be spoken to ". 

■ saniiino. 

• dhamma, i.e. the rules that Observance should be carried out by a complete 
assembly. 

* I.e. than those already assembled. 

' Presumably meaning by those already assembled together, and who 
have already recited part of it ; cf. 29. i below, where they incur an offence 
of wrong-doing for reciting it when they know that they are incomplete. 



172 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

monks, a smaller number, arrive. What has been recited is 
duly recited, the rest should be heard, and there is no offence 
for the reciters. || 3 || 

" This is a case, monks, . . . When the Patimokkha has 
just been recited by them, other resident monks, a larger 
number, arrive. Monks, the Patimokkha may be recited 
again by these monks, and there is no offence for the reciters. 

" This is a case, monks, . . . When the Patimokkha has 
just been recited by them, other resident monks, a like number, 
arrive. What has been recited is duly recited, the entire 
purity should be announced in their presence,^ and there is 
no offence for the reciters. 

" This is a case, monks, ... a smaller number, arrive. 
What has been recited is duly recited, the entire purity should 
be announced in their presence, and there is no offence for the 
reciters. \\ 4 || 

" This is a case, monks, . . . When the Patimokkha has 
just been recited by them and the assembly has not risen, 
other resident monks, a larger number, arrive. Monks, the 
Patimokkha may be recited again by those monks, and 
there is no offence for the reciters. 

" This is a case, monks . . . [129] ... a like number, arrive. 
What has been recited is duly recited, the entire purity should 
be announced in their presence, and there is no offence for 
the reciters. 

" This is a case, monks, ... a smaller number, arrive. 
What has been recited is duly recited, the entire purity 
should be announced in their presence, and there is no offence 
for the reciters. || 5 || 

" This is a case, monks, . . . When the Patimokkha has 
just been recited by them and part of the assembly has risen, 
other resident monks, a larger number, arrive ... (as in 
II 5 II above) ... a like number ... a smaller number . . . 
I|6|i 

" This is a case, monks, . . . When the Patimokkha has just 
been recited by them and the whole assembly has risen, 
other resident monks, a larger number, arrive . . . {as in 



^ This means that the monks arriving late must announce their entire 
purity to the ones already assembled and who had recited the Patimokkha. 



28.7—30.1] MAHAVAGGAII 173 

II 6 II above) ... a like number ... a smaller number . . . jj 7 || 

Told are the Fifteen Cases in which there is No Offence. 
II 28 II 

" This is a case, monks, where in a certain residence several 
resident monks, four or more, collect together on an Observ- 
ance day. They know that there are other resident monks 
who have not arrived. Thinking of the rule, thinking of 
discipline, thinking that they are incomplete, they carry out 
the Observance and recite the Patimokkha while they are 
incomplete. While the Patimokkha is being recited by 
them, other resident monks, a larger number, arrive. Monks, 
the Patimokkha should be recited again by those monks, 
and there is an offence of wrong-doing for the reciters. \\ i|| 

" This is a case, monks, . . . {as in || i jj) . . . a like number, 
arrive. What has been recited is duly recited, the rest 
should be heard, and there is an offence of wrong-doing for 
the reciters. 

This is a case, monks {as in || i j|) . . . a smaller number, 
arrive. What has been recited is duly recited, the rest should 
be heard, and there is an offence of wrong-doing tor the reciters. 

1!2|| 

" This is a case, monks . . . When the Patimokkha has 
just been recited by them and the assembly has not risen 
. . . part of the assembly has risen . . .the whole [130] 
assembly has risen, and other resident monks, a larger number 
... a like number ... a smaller number, arrive. What has 
been recited is duly recited, the entire purity should be 
announced in their presence, and there is an offence of wrong- 
doing for the reciters. || 3 || 

Told are the Fifteen Cases on thinking that (an Assembly) 
is incomplete when it is incomplete || 29 || 

" This is a case, monks . . . They know that there are other 
resident monks who have not arrived. Thinking : ' Now, is 
it allowable for us to carry out the Observance or is it not 
allowable ? ' they carry out the Observance and recite the 
Patimokkha (although) they are in doubt. While the Pati- 
mokkha is being recited by them, other resident monks, a 



174 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

larger number, arrive. Monks, the Patimokkha should be 
recited again by those monks . . . (c/. II. 29, 2, 3) . . . an 
offence of wrong-doing for the reciters. |I i || 

" This is a case, monks, , . . [cf. II. 29, 2, 3) . . . an offence 
of wrong-doing for the reciters. |I 2 j| 

Told are the Fifteen Cases on being in Doubt. || 30 || 

" This is a case, monks, . . . They know that there are 
other resident monks who have not arrived. Thinking : 
* Indeed, it is allowable for us to carry out the Observance, 
it is not unallowable for us ', they, acting badly, ^ carry out 
the Observance and recite the Patimokkha. While the 
Patimokkha is being recited by them, other resident monks, 
a larger number, arrive. Monks, the Patimokkha should be 
recited again by these monks, and there is an offence of 
wrong-doing for the reciters, jj i !j 

" This is a case, monks, ... (c/. II. 29, 2, 3) ... an offence 
of wrong-doing for the reciters. || 2 || 

Told are the Fifteen Cases on Acting Badly. |I 31 1| 

" This is a case, monks, . . . They know that there are 
other resident monks who have not arrived. Saying, ' These 
are perishing, these are being destroyed, what good are these 
to you ? ' they carry out the Observance and recite the 
Patimokkha aiming at a schism, ... (as in II. 29, 2, 3 ; 
instead of offence of wrong-doing read grave offence). || 1 1| 
[131] . . . II2II 

Told are ihe Fifteen Cases on Aiming at a Schism || 32 |i 
Told are the Seventy-five Cases.* 

" This is a case, monks, . . . They know that other resident 
monks are entering within the boundary. They know that 
other resident monks have entered within the boundary. 
They see other resident resident monks entering within the 
boundary. They see other resident monks entered within the 
boundary. They hear that other resident monks are entering 
within the boundary. They hear that other resident monks 
have entered within the boundary. 

* kukkuccapakatd, expl. at VA. 1065 as overcome, doing as they wished. 

* Five times fifteen cases, in Chaps. 28-82. 



33.1—34.4] MAHAVAGGAII 175 

" From a hundred and seventy-five triads referring to 
resident (monks) with resident (monks) ; to incoming (monks) 
with resident (monks) ; to resident (monks) with incoming 
(monks) ; to incoming (monks) with incoming (monks), 
there come to be seven hundred triads by means of (these) 
sets.i J! I II 33 II 

" This is a case, monks, where the fourteenth is (the 
Observance day) for resident monks, the fifteenth for in- 
coming ones. If the resident ones are larger in number, 
the incoming ones should accommodate themselves to the 
resident ones. If they are equal in number, the incoming 
ones should accommodate themselves to the resident ones. 
If the incoming ones are larger in number, the resident ones 
should accommodate themselves to the incoming ones. || i || 

" This is a case, monks, where the fifteenth is (the Observ- 
ance day) for resident monks, the fourteenth for incoming 
ones. If the resident ones are larger in number, the in- 
coming ones should accommodate themselves to the resident 
ones. If . . . {as in \\ i || above) . . . || 2 || 

" This is a case, monks, where the first day of a lunar fort- 
night^ is (the Observance day) for resident monks, the fifteenth 
for incoming ones. If the resident ones are larger in number, 
the resident ones, if they are not willing, need not hold a 
meeting 3 with the incoming ones. The Observance should 
be carried out by the incoming ones having gone outside the 
boundary. If they are equal in number, the resident ones, 
if they are not willing, need not hold a meeting with the 
incoming ones. The Observance should be carried out by 
the incoming ones having gone outside the boundary. If the 
incoming ones are larger in number, the resident ones should 
hold a meeting with the incoming ones or they should go 
outside the boundary. || 3 || 

" This is a case, monks, where the fifteenth is (the Observ- 
ance day) for resident monks, [132] the first day of the lunar 

1 peyydlamukhena, as at Vism. 46. Peyydla = pariydya, and is arrange- 
ment, order, disposition. Each " set " refers to each pair (resident with 
resident . . . incoming with incoming) of triads in all its permutations and 
combinations : they know, they see, they hear, and they do not know, see 
and hear. 

* pdtipada, cf. B.D. ii. 314, n. i. 

• na ddtabbd sdmaggl, need not give completion to. 



176 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

fortnight for incoming ones. If the resident ones are larger 
in number, the incoming ones should hold a meeting with 
the resident ones or they should go outside the boundary. 
If they are equal in number, the incoming ones should hold 
a meeting with the resident ones or they should go outside 
the boimdary. If the incoming ones are larger in number, 
the incoming ones, if they are not willing, need not hold a 
meeting with the resident ones. The Observance should be 
carried out by the resident ones having gone outside the 
boundary. || 4 !| 

" This is a case, monks, where incoming monks see signs of 
residence of resident monks, features of residence, marks of 
residence, indications of residence, carefully prepared couches 
and chairs, mattresses and squatting mats, carefully arranged 
water for drinking and water for washing, carefully swept 
cells ; but having seen (these signs) they come to be doubtful, 
thinking : ' Now are there resident monks, or are there 
not?' II 5 II 

If these, being doubtful, do not search and, not having 
searched, carry out the Observance, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. If these, being doubtful, search and having 
searched do not see (anj" monks), and if not having seen 
(any) they carry out the Observance, there is no offence. 
If these, being doubtful, search and having searched see 
(some monks), and if having seen (them) they carry out the 
Observance together, there is no offence. If these, being 
doubtful, search and having searched see (some monks), and 
if having seen (them) they carry out the Observance apart, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. If these, being doubtful, 
search and having searched see (some monks), and if having 
seen (them) they say : ' You are perishing, you are being des- 
troyed, what is the good of these to you ? '* cind carry out 
the Observance aiming at a schism, there is a grave offence. ||6|| 

" This is a case, monks, where incoming monks hear signs 
of residence of resident monks, features of residence, marks of 
residence, indications of residence, the sound of footsteps 
as they are pacing up and down, the sound of stud5dng, the 
sound of coughing, the sound of sneezing ; but having heard 

^ As in II. 82 above. 



34.7— II] MAHAVAGGAII 177 

they come to be doubtful, thinking : ' Now are there resident 
monks or are there not ? ' If these, being doubtful, do not 
search ...(== || 6 ||) .. . there is a grave offence. |! 7 || 

" This is a case, monks, where resident monks see signs of 
incoming of incoming monks, features of incoming, marks 
of incoming, indications of incoming, unknown bowls, un- 
known robes, unknown pieces of cloth to sit upon, water for 
washing the feet sprinkled about ; but having seen (these 
signs), they come to be doubtful, thinking : ' Now are there 
incoming monks or are there not ? ' If these, being doubtful, 
do not search . . . (= ||6!|) . . . there is a grave offence. 
Pii 

" This is a case, monks, where resident monks hear signs of 
incoming of incoming monks, features of incoming, marks of 
incoming, indications of incoming, the sound of footsteps 
as they are arriving, the sound of sandals tapping, the sound 
of coughing, the sound of sneezing ; but having heard they 
come to be doubtful, thinking : ' Now are there incoming 
monks or are there not ? ' If these, being doubtful, do not 
search . . . (= !| 6 ||) . . . there is [133] a grave offence. || 9 || 

" This is a case, monks, where incoming monks see resident 
monks belonging to a different communion. They get the 
(wrong) view that they belong to the same communion ; 
having got the (wrong) view that they belong to the same 
communion, if they do not ask, and not having asked carry 
out the Observance together, there is no offence. If they 
ask, and having asked pay no attention,^ and iiaving paid no 
attention carry out the Observance together, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. If the}'' ask, and having asked pay 
no attention, and having paid no attention carry out the 
Observance apart, there is no offence. || 10 |I 

" This is a case, monks, where incoming monks see resident 
monks belonging to the same communion. They get the 
(wrong) view that they belong to a different communion ; 
having got the (wrong) view that they belong to a different 
communion, if they do not ask, and not having asked carry 

^ ndbhivitaranti. V.A. 1066 says " they are not able to neglect the status 
of a differing communion ; the meaning is : they do not make them give up 
that wrong view ". Cf. Vin. iii. 73 where abhivitaritvd appears to mean 
" having committed ". P.E.D. gives for abhivitarati " to pay heed, to 
observe ". CP.D. merely says " to come to an end ". 



178 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

out the Observance together, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. If they ask, and having asked pay attention, and 
having paid attention carry out the Observance apart, there 
is an offence of wrong-doing. If they ask, and having asked 
pay attention, and having paid attention carry out the 
Observance together, there is no offence. |1 ii || 

" This is a case, monks, where resident monks see incoming 
monks belonging to a different communion. They get the 
(wrong) view that they belong to the same communion . . . 
(= II 10 |]) . . . there is no offence. !| 12 || 

" This is a case, monks, where resident monks see incoming 
monks belonging to the same communion. They get the 
(wrong) view that they belong to a different communion . . . 
(= II II II) . . . there is no offence. || 13 || 34 H 

" Monks, you should not go on an Observance day from 
a residence where there are monks to a residence where 
there are no monks except with an Order,^ except there be 
a danger.^ Monks, you should not go on an Observance day 
from a residence where there are monks to what is not a 
residence^ where there are no monks except with an Order, 
except there be a danger. Monks, you should not go . . . 
either to a residence or to what is not a residence where there 
are no monks except with an Order, except there be a danger. 

II I II 

" Monks, you should not go on an Observance day from 

what is not a residence where there aie monks to a residence 

where there are no monks except . . . Monks, you should not 

go on an Observance day from what is not a residence where 

there are monks to what is not a residence where there are 

no monks except . . . Monks, you should not go . . . from 

what is not a residence where there are monks either to a 

residence or to what is not a residence where there are no 

monks, except with an Order, except there be a danger. 

II 2 II 

" Monks, you should not go on an Observance day from 

1 Unless there go sufficient monks to form an Order. Cf. 85 with CV. II. 

1- 3. 4. 

• See above, II. 15. 4, where ten " dangers " are enumerated. 

• VA . 1066 says to a place where a hall and so forth are undergoing repairs. 



35.3—5] MAHAVAGGAII 179 

either a residence or from what is not a residence where there 
are monks to a residence where there are no monks except 
with an Order, except there be a danger. Monks, [134] 
you should not go on an Observance day from a residence 
or from what is not a residence where there are no monks 
to what is not a residence where there are no monks except 
... a danger. Monks, you should not go . . . either from 
a residence or from what is not a residence where there are 
no monks either to a residence or to what is not a residence 
where there are no m.onks, except ... a danger. || 3 || 

" Monks, you should not go on an Observance day from a 
residence where there are monks to a residence where there are 
monks if the monks there should belong to a different com- 
munion, except with an Order, except there be a danger. 
Monks, you should not go . . . from a residence where there 
are monks to what is not a residence where there are monks 
if the monks there should belong to a different communion 
... a danger. Monks, you thould not go . . . from a residence 
where there are monks either to a residence or to what is not 
a residence where there are monks . . , (c/. || i, 2, 3 |1) . . . 
Monks, you should not go . . . either from a residence or from 
what is not a residence where there are monks either to a 
residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks 
if the monks there belong to a different comnmnion, except 
with an Order, except there be a danger. 1| 4 || 

" Monks, you may go on an Observance day from a residence 
where there are monks to a residence where there are monks 
should the monks there belong to the same communion and if 
he knows, ' I am able to arrive this very day '. Monks, 
you may go on an Observance day from a residence where 
there are monks to what is not a residence where there are 
monks should the monks there belong to the same communion, 
and if he knows, 'I am able to arrive this very day '. . . to a 
residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks 
. . . from what is not a residence where there are monks to a 
residence where there are monks ... to what is not a residence 
where there are monks ... to a residence or to what is not 
a residence where there are monks . . . Monks, you may go 
on an Observance day from what is not a residence where 
there are monks to a residence where there are monks . . . 



i8o BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

to what is not a residence where there are monks ... to a 
residence or to what is not a residence where there are 
monks should the monks there belong to the same 
commimion and if he knows, ' I am able to arrive this very 
day'. II5II35II 

" Monks, the Patimokkha should not be recited in a seated 
assembly (of monks) before a nun. Whoever should (so) 
recite it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. Monks, the 
Patimokkha should not be recited in a seated assembly (of 
monks) before a probationer ... a novice ... a woman novice 
. . . one who has disavowed the training . . . one who has 
committed an extreme offence. Whoever should (so) recite it, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. || 1 1| 

" The Patimokkha should not be recited in a seated assembly 
before one suspended for not seeing an offence. Whoever 
should (so) recite it should be dealt with according to the 
rule.i. The Patimokkha should not be recited in a seated 
assembly before one suspended for not making amends for 
an offence . . . before one suspended for not giving up a wrong 
view. Whoever should (so) recite it should be dealt with 
according to the rule.^ || 2 || 

" The Patimokkha should not be recited in a seated assembly 
before a eunuch.^ Whoever should (so) recite it, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. The Patimokkha should not be 
recited in a seated assembly before [135] one living in com- 
munion as it were by theft . . . before one who has gone over 
to a sect . . . before an animal . . . before a matricide . . . 
before a parricide . . . before a slayer of one perfected ... 
before a seducer of a nun . . . before a schismatic . . . before a 
shedder of (a Truth-finder's) blood . . . before a hennaphrodite.' 
Whoever should (so) recite it, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. II 3 II 

" Monks, Observance should not be carried out by declaring 
the entire purity of one on probation* unless the assembly 
has not risen. And, monks. Observance should not be carried 

1 Probably referring to P5c. LXIX. See B.D. iii. 28, n. 4. 

• As in MV. II. 22. 3 above. 
' As in MV. II. 22. 3 above. 

* pdrivasika. Rules for monks under probation detailed in CV. II, III. 



36.4] MAHAVAGGAII i8i 

out on a iion-Observance day unless the Order be unanimous."^ 

II4I136I1 

The Third Portion for Repeating in the Section on Observance. 

In this Section are eighty-six items. This is its key : 

Other sects and Bimbisara, they assembled together in silence, 
on dhatnma, in private, on the Patimokkha, daily, thenceforth 

once. 
According to assembly, for all together, being all together, 

and Maddakucchi, 
a boundary, extensive, about a river, successive, two, and 

small ones. 
Newly ordained (monks), and then in Rajagaha, a boundary 

(as a place where a monk) is not away from (his robes), 
in agreeing first on the boundary, afterwards on abolishing 

the boundary. 
When not agreed upon a village boundary, the throwing of 

water in river, sea, 
lake, they combined, and likewise they placed within. 
How many ? (formal) acts, recital, savages, and if there is not, 
dhamma, discipline, they threatened, again a threat to 

discipline, 
Reproof, if leave is given, a protest against what is not legally 

valid, 
more than four or five, opinion, intentionally, and if he would 

exert himself. 
With laymen, unbidden, in Codana (vatthu), he did not 

know, 
several did not know, immediately, and if he should not go. 
Which ? how many ? and to announce at a distance, he did 

not remember, 
soiled, a seat, a light, distant parts, another who has heard 

much. 
Immediately, Observance day and the rains, and a (formal) 

act of entire purity, relations, 
Gagga, four and three, two and one, an offence, collective 

(offence), he remembered, 

» See MV. X. 5. 14. 



i82 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

The whole Order, doubtful, they did not know, one who has 

heard much, 
a larger, a like, a smaller (number), and when the assembly 

has not risen. 
Some have risen, all, and they know, they are doubtful, 
Those (acting) badly say, ' Indeed it is allowable ', knowing, 

seeing, and they hear. 
Let them come if (a monk) is residing, the four (sets of) fifteen 

(cases) again, 
the first day of a fortnight (and) the fifteenth, both com- 
munions (by) mark. 
One on probation (and) a non-Observance day, unless the 

Order be unanimous. 
These partitioned keys are needed for distinguishing the items. 

[136]. 



i83 



THE GREAT DIVISION (MAHAVAGGA) III 

At one time the awakened one, the Lord was sta5dng at 
Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels' feeding 
place. Now at that time (the use of) a rains-residence for 
monks had not come to be laid down by the Lord. So these 
monks^ walked on tour during the cold weather and the 
hot weather and the rains. H i || 

People looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, 
saying : " How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, walk 
on tour during the cold weather and the hot weather and 
the rains, trampling down the crops and grasses, injuring life 
that is one-facultied and bringing many small creatures to 
destruction^ ? Shall it be that those members of other sects, 
whose rules are badly kept, cling, to and prepare a rains- 
residence, shall it be that these birds, having made their 
nests in the tree-tops, cling to and prepare a rains-residence,' 
while these recluses, sons of the Sakyans walk on a tour 
during the cold weather and the hot weather and the rains, 
trampling down the crops and grasses, injuring life that is 
one-facultied and bringing many small creatures to destruc- 
tion ? " II 2 II 

Monks heard these people who . . . spread it about. Then 
these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord, 
on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned 
talk, addressed the monks, sa3dng : " I allow you, monks, 
to enter upon the rains."* |1 3 || 1 1| 

Then it occurred to these monks : " Now, when should the 
rains be entered upon ? " They told this matter to the Lord. 



* te 'dha bhikkhu. VA. 1067 says that idha is only a conjunction ; this 
is borne out by the several v. II. given at Vin. i. 376. 

* Cf. Vin. iv. 296 (B.D. iii. 320) where it is made a pdcittiya for nuns 
to walk on tour during the rains. 

' Quoted A A. ii. 97. 

* vassatn upagantum. 



i84 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

He said : " I allow you, monks, to enter upon the rains in 
the rainy season^." || 1 1| 

Then it occurred to these monks : " Now, how many 
(periods) are there for beginning the rains^ ? " They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, there are these two 
(periods) for beginning the rains : the earlier and the later.* 
The earlier may be entered upon the day after (the full moon 
of) Asalhi, the later may be entered upon a month after (the 
full moon of) AsaUii.* These, monks, are the two (periods) 
for beginning the rains." I| 2 || 2 1| [137] 

Now at that time the group of six monks, having entered 
upon the rains, walked on tour during the rains. People 
. . . spread it about, sa5dng : " How can these recluses, sons 
of the Sakyans, walk on tour during the cold weather and 
the hot weather and the rains, trampling down . . . {as in 1, 2) 
. . . bringing many small creatures to destruction ? ' || 1 1| 

Monks heard these people who . . . spread it about. Those 
who were modest monks . . . spread it about, saying : " How 
can this group of six monks, having entered upon the rains, 
walk on tour during the rains ? " Then these monks told 
this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord, on this occasion, 
in this connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the 
monks, saying : " Monks, having entered- upon the rains, but 
not having kept either the first three months or the last 
three months, one should not set out on tour. Whoever 
should (thus) set out, there is an offence of wrong-doing." 
1|2||3|| 

Now at that time the group of six monks did not want to 
enter upon the rains. They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " Monks, one should not not enter upon the rains. 
Whoever should not enter upon (them), there is an offence 
of wrong-doing." || 1 1| 



1 vassina. Cf. Vin. iv. 74, loo, 286. Vassina, the rainy season, lasts 
for four months. Vassa, as meaning the rains-retreat for monks, had to 
be kept for three out of the four montiis of the rainy season. 

» vassupan&yika. See G.S. i. 47, n. i, and Vin. Texts i. 299, n. i. 

• Cf. A. i. 51. A A. ii. 97 says that tiiis was laid down twenty years after 
the lord had attained enlightenment. 

* These are two out Df the three dates for allotting lodgings, Vin. ii. 167. 



4.2—5.2] MAHAVAGGAIII 185 

Now at that time the group of six monks, on a day for 
beginning the rains, not desiring to enter upon the rains, 
intentionally passed a residence by.^ They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : " Monks, on a day for beginning the 
rains, a residence should not be intentionally passed by by 
one who does not desire to enter upon the rains. Whoever 
should pass one by, there is an offence of wrong-doing." |1 2 1| 

Now at that time King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, 
desiring to postpone the rains, sent a messenger to the monks, 
saying : " What if the masters could enter upon the rains at 
the next full-moon day ? "^ They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, to obey kings." 
II 3 II 4 II [138] 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Rajagaha for as long as 
he found suiting, set out on tour for Savatthi. Walking on 
tour, in due course he arrived at Savatthi. Then the Lord 
stayed there in Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapin(Jika's 
monastery. Now at that time in the Kosala country a lay- 
follower, Udena,3 had had a dwelling-place built for an Order.* 
He sent a messenger to monks, saying : " Let the revered 
sirs come ; I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and 
to see the monks." || i |I 

Monks spoke thus : " It is laid down by the Lord, sir, 
that one should not set out on tour, having entered upon the 
rains and not having kept the first three months or the last 
three months. Let Udena, the layfollower, wait until the 
monks have kept the rains ; when they have finished the 
rains they will go. But if there is something urgent to be 
done,^ let him establish* the dwelling-place in the presence 
of resident monks who are already there.'" || 2 || 

^ avasaffi atikkamanti. 

' junhe, explained at VA. 1068 as mdse, month, and would therefore mean 
at the next period (a month later) for beginning the rains-retreat. This seems 
a better interpretation ot junhe here than does the P.E.D.'s " bright fortnight 
of the month ". Cf. kale and junhe below, p. 231. 

* Heard of nowhere but here I think. 

* Cf. Vin. iv. 287 (B.D. iii. 302), where " a certain lay follower " did 
likewise and wanted to give robe-material to both the Orders. 

* accayika karafilya, see B.D. ii. 151, n. 6 for explanation and references. 

* patitthdpetu. At Vin. iv. 287 there w^s a " festival (maha) for the 
dwelling-place ", but patitthapcti probably does not imply this. 

' tatth' eva. 



i86 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

The layfollower, Udena, . . , spread it about, saying : " How 
can these revered sirs, when sent for by me, not come, for 
I am a benefactor, a builder,^ a supporter of the Order ? " 
Monks heard the layfollower, Udena, as he . . . spread it about 
Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. || 3 !| 

Then the Lord on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, 
addressed the monks, saying : "I allow you, monks, to go 
if you are sent for by seven (classes of people), and if the 
business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not 
sent for : by a monk, a nun, a probationer, a novice, a woman 
novice, a layfollower, a woman layfollower, I allow you, 
monks, to go if you are sent for by these (seven classes of 
people) and if the business can be done in seven days, but 
not if you are not sent for. The return should be made in 
seven days. || 4 || 

This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place for an Order 
comes to have been built by a layfollower. If he should 
send a messenger to monks, saying : ' Let the revered sirs 
come, I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see 
the monks ', you should go, monks, if you are sent for and if 
the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not 
sent for. The return should be made in seven days. || 5 \\ 

" This is a case, monks, where a curved house^ for an Order 
comes to have been built by a layfollower ... a long house^ 
... a mansion^ ... a cave^ . . a cell' ... a porch ... an 
attendance hall* ... a fire-hall ... a hut for what is allowable* 
... a privy ... a place for pacing up and down in' ... a 
hall in the place for pacing up and down in' ... a well . . . 
a hall at the well ... a bathroom [139] ... a hall in the 
bathroom ... a lotus pond ... a shed ... a monastery^ . . . 
a site for a monastery comes to have been built by a lay- 
follower. If he should send a messenger to monks, sajdng : 

^ karaka, also a worker and a doer of good works. 

* Cf. above, p. 75. 

' This occurs again at Vin. ii. 159 with all except the last two of the 
following buildings. 

* upatthdnasdld. See B.D. ii. 194, n. 4. 

» kappiyakutl. Cf. same word at Vin, ii. 159, and see kappiyabhumi 
at Vin. i. 239 (below, p. 328.) Note that this is replaced in || 9 1| by 
" kitchen ". 

• cankama, monk's walk. See CV. V. 14. 2, 3. 
' cankamanasald. 

• drama, translated " park " in || 9 |1 below. See B.D. ii. 2, n. 2. 



5.6—9] MAHAVAGGA III 187 

* Let the revered sirs come, I want to give a gift and to hear 
dhamma and to see the monks ', you should go, monks, if 
you are sent for and if the business can be done in seven 
days, but not if you are not sent for. The return should 
be made in seven days. |I 6 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a dweUing-place ... a curved 
house ... a long house ... a site for a monastery (= || 6 ||) 
... for several monks, ... for one monk comes to have been 
built by a layfollower . . . The return should be made in 
seven days. || 7 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place ... a site 
for a monastery^ for an Order of nuns, ... for several nuns 
... for one nun ... for several probationers . . . for one 
probationer . . . for several novices . . . for one novice . . . 
for several women novices . . . for one woman novice comes 
to have been built by a layfollower. If he should send a 
messenger to monks^ saying : ' Let the revered sirs come, I 
M'ant to give a gift and to hedii dhamma and to see the monks ', 
you should go, monks, if 3^ou are sent for and if the business 
can be done in seven days, but not if you are not sent for. 
The return should be made in seven days. || 8 |I 

" This is a case, monks, where a dwelling comes to have 
been built by a layfoUower for himself ... a sleeping-room 
... a stable^ ... a watch-tower* ... a quadrangular building^ 
... a shop ... a hall for a shop ... a long house ... a 
mansion ... a cave ... a cell ... a porch ... an attend- 
ance hall ... a fire hall ... a kitchen* ... a privy . . . 
a place for pacing up and down in ... a hall in the place 
for pacing up and down in ... a well ... a hall at the well . . . 
... a bathroom ... a hall in the bathroom ... a lotus pond 



^ Same as the edifices given in || 6 ||, except for the privy, bathroom and hall 
in a -bathroom, -the two former of which nuns are not to use {Vin. ii. 280). 
Edd. Vin. Texts i. 304, n. i say that they think the two cases referring to 
women novices should be excepted. 

* Apparently monks had to accept gifts on behalf of the nuns. 

* uddosita. See B.D. ii. 16, n. 2, B.D. iii. 177, n. 2. 

* atta, see B.D. ii. 16, n. 3. Mentioned also, with the next (mala) as a 
" lodging " at DA . 2og. 

* mala, see B.D. ii. 16, n. 4. 

* rasavati, " possessing flavours ". Very likely the word occurs nowhere 
but here. VA. 1068 calls it bhattageha, food-house, perhaps "larder". 
It replaces the happiyakutl, hut for what is allowable, which in III. 5. 6 
a lay follower may buUd for an Order. 



i88 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

... a shed ... a park^ ... a site for a park comes to 
have been built by a layfoUower for himself, or there comes 
to be his son's marriage, or there comes to be his daughter's 
marriage, or he becomes ill, or he speaks a well known dis- 
course.2 If he should send a messenger to monks, saying : 
' Let the revered sirs come, they will master this discourse 
before this [140] discourse falls into oblivion ' ; or if he has 
some business, something to be done, and should send a 
messenger to monks, saying : ' Let the revered sirs come, 
I want to give a gift and to hear dhamvia and to see the 
monks ', you should go, monks, if you are sent for and if 
the business can be done in seven days, but not if you are 
not sent for. The return should be made in seven days. 

II9II 

" This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place for an Order 
comes to have been built by a woman layfoUower. If she 
should send a messenger to monks, saying : ' Let the revered 
sirs come, I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to 
see the monks ', you should go, monks, if you are sent for 
and if the business can be done in seven days, but not if you 
are not sent for. The return should be made in seven days 

11 10 II 

" This is a case, monks, where a curved house for an Order 
comes to have been built by a woman layfoUower . . . 
(= I! 6 II) ... a site for a monastery comss to have been built 
for an Order by a woman layfoUower. If she should send a 
messenger . . . (= || lo I|) . . . The return should be made 
in seven days. || ii || 

" This is a case, monks, where a dweUing-place ... a site 
for a monastery for several monks ... for one monk . . . 
for an Order of nuns ... for several nuns ... for one nun 
. . . for several probationers ... for one probationer . . . 
for several novices . . . for one novice ... for several women 
novices ... for one woman novice comes to have been built 
by a woman layfoUower. If she should send a messenger 
. . . (= II 8 II) . . . The return should be made in seven days. 

" This is a case, monks, where a dweUing-place comes to 
have been built by a woman layfoUower for herself . . . 

* drama, also meaning a monastery. 

* suttanta. 



5.12—6.2] MAHAVAGGAIII 189 

(= ||9 II) . . . or if she comes to be ill, or if she speaks a 
well known discourse. If she should send a messenger to 
monks, saying : ' Let the masters come, and they will master 
this discourse before this discourse falls into oblivion ', or if 
she has some business, something to be done, and should 
send a messenger to monks, saj'ing : ' Let the masters come, 
I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see the 
monks ', you should go, monks, if you are sent for and if the 
business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not 
sent for. The return should be made in seven days. || 12 || 
" This is a case, monks, where a dwelling-place . . . 
(=s 11 8 II) . . . a site for a monastery for an Order ... for 
several monks, ... for one monk ... for an Order of nuns 
... for several nuns ... for one nun ... for several pro- 
bationers ... for one probationer ... for several novices 
... for one novice [141] ... for several women novices 
... for one woman novice ... for him- (her-) self is built 
by a monk ... a nun ... a probationer ... a novice 
... a woman novice. If he (she) should send a messenger 
to monks, saying : ' Let the revered sirs (masters) come. 
I want to give a gift and to hear dhamma and to see the 
monks ', you should go, monks, if you are sent for and if the 
business can be done in seven days, but not if you are not 
sent for. The return should be made in seven days." 
II 13 II 5 II 

Now at that time a certain monk came to be ill. He sent a 
messenger to monks, saying : " I, now, am ill, let monks 
come, I want monks to come ". They told this matter to 
the Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, to go even if not 
sent for, all the more if sent for, and if the business can be 
done in seven days, to five (classes of people) : to a monk, 
a nun, a probationer, a novice, a woman novice. 1 allow 
you, monks, to go to these five (classes of people) even if 
not sent for, all the more if sent for, and if the business can 
be done in seven days. The return should be made in seven 
days. JliJI 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk comes to be ill. 
If he should send a messenger to monks, saying : 'I, now, 
am ill, let monks come, I want monks to come ', you should 



190 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

go, monks, even if not sent for, all the more if sent for, and 
if the business can be done in seven days, thinking : ' 1 will 
look about for a meal for the invalid, or I will look about for 
a meal for the one who is tending the invalid, or I will look 
about for medicine for the invalid, or I will ask (after) him^, 
or 1 will tend him '. The return should be made in seven days. 

" This is a case, monks, where dissatisfaction comes to 
have arisen in a monk. If he should send a messenger to 
monks, saying : ' Dissatisfaction has arisen in me, let monks 
come, 1 want monks to come ', you should go, monks, even if 
not sent for, all the more if sent for, and it the business can 
be done in seven days, thinking : ' I will allay his dissatisfaction 
or get (someone) to allay it, or I will give him a talk on 
dhamma '.^ The return should be made in seven da5rs. 

113 II 

" This is a case, monks, where remorse comes to have 
arisen in a monk. If he should send a messenger to monks, 
saying : ' Rem.orse has arisen in me ... I ^vant monks to 
come ', you should go, monks, ... if the business can be 
done in seven days, thinkmg : 'I will dispel his remorse or 
get (someone) to dispel it, or I will give him a talk on dhamma'.^ 
The return should be made in seven days, jl 4 !| 

" This is a case, monks, where a wrong view comes to have 
arisen in a monk. If he [142] should send ... if the business 
can be done in seven days, thinking : ' I will dissuade him 
from the wrong view or get (someone) to dissuade him, or 
r will give him a talk on dhamma '.^ The return should be 
made in seven days. |j 5 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk comes to have 
committed an offence against an important rule and to 
deserve probation. ^ If he should send a messenger to monks, 
sa5^ng : ' I have committed an offence against an important 
rule, I deserve probation, let monks come, I want monks to 
come ', you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the 
more if sent for, and if the business can be done in seven days, 

^ pucchdmi, I think meaning to inquire after his health here {cf. " monks 
asking after ill ones ", B.D. ii. 341, 399, 402), and not to " ask him (questions 
referring to the Dhamma) ", as at Vin. Texts i. 306, and which is more usually 
paripucchati. 

• Cf. MV. I. 25. 20. 21 ; CV. II. 1-8. 



6.6—10] MAHAVAGGA III 191 

thinking : ' I will make an effort for placing (him) on probation, 
or I will make a proclamation, or I will become one who 
completes a group '.^ The return should be made in seven days. 
116 II 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk deserves to be sent 
back to the beginning.^ If he should send a messenger to 
monks, saying : ' I deserve to be sent back to the beginning, 
let monks come, I want monks to come ', you should go 
monks, even if not sent for, ... if the business can be done 
in seven days, thinking : ' I will make an effort for sending 
(him) back to the beginning, or I will make a proclamation, 
or I will become one who completes a group '. The return 
should be made in seven days. || 7 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk deserves mdnatta 
(discipline)^. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying: 
' I desire mdnatta (discipline), let monks come, I want monks 
to come ', you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all 
the more if sent for, if the business can be done in seven days, 
thinking : ' I will make an effort for inflicting mdnatta dis- 
cipline (on him), or I will make a proclamation, or I will 
become one who completes a group '. The return should 
be made in seven days. || 8 1| 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk deserves rehabilita- 
tion.* If he should send a messenger . . . thinking : ' I will 
make an effort for (his) rehabilitation, or I will make a pro- 
clamation, or I will become one who completes a group '. 
The return should be made in seven days. || g |i 

" This is a case, monks, where an Order becomes desirous 
of carrying out a (formal) act against a monk — either one of 
censure or one of guidance or one of banishment or one of 
reconciliation or one of suspension.^ If he should send a 
messenger to monks, saying : ' The Order desires to carry 
out a (formal) act agamst me, let monks come, I want monks 
to come ', you should go ... if the return can be made in 
seven days, thinking : [143] ' How then may the Order not 

* For placing him on probation, for granting or giving it, parivasaddna. 

* muldya patikassandraho. Cf. MV. I. 25. 21 ; and Vin. ii. 7, 34, 162, 
A . i. 99. 

» Cf. MV, I. 25. 21, CV. II. 5. 

* Cf. MV. I. 25. 21 ; CV. II. 9. 
» Cf. MV. I. 25. 22. 



192 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

carry out a (formal) act or may change it to something 
lighter ? ' The return should be made in seven days. |1 lo !| 

" Or a (formal) act comes to be carried out against him 
by the Order — either one of censure ... or one of suspension. 
If he should send a messenger to monks, saying : ' The Order 
carried out a (formal) act against me ... I want monks to 
come ', you should go monks, . . . thinking : ' How then 
may he conduct himself properly, be subdued, mend his ways, 
(so that) the Order can revoke that (formal) act ? '^ The 
return should be made in seven days. |i ii I| 

" This is a case, monks, where a nun comes to be ill . . . 

(=iir.6.2)i|i2j| 

. . . where dissatisfaction comes to have arisen in a nun . . . 

(III. 6. 3) II 13 II 

. . . where remorse comes to have arisen in a nun . . . 

(=111.6.4) II 14 I! 

. . . where a wrong view comes to have arisen in a nun 

. . . (=111.6.5) II 15 I! 

. . . where a nun comes to have committed an offence against 
an important rule and to deserve mdnatta (discipline). ^ If she 
should send a messenger to monks, saying : ' I [144] have 
committed an offence against an important rule and deserve 
mdnatta (discipline), let the m^asters come, I want the masters 
to come ', you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the 
more if sent for, and if the business can be done in seven 
days, thinking : ' I will make an effort for inflicting mdnatta 
(discipline) on her. '^. The return should be made in seven 
days. II i6 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a nun deserves to be sent 
back to the beginning. If she should send a messenger . . . 
(= III. 6. 7) . . . thinking : ' I will make an effort for 
sending (her) back to the beginning '. The return should be 
made in seven days. || 17 j| 

" This is a case, monks, where a nun deserves rehabilitation 
(=: III. 6. 9) . . . thinking : ' I will make an effort for (her) 
rehabilitation'. The return should be made in seven days. ||i8|| 



» Cf. MY. I. 25. 22. 

* Nuns did not unaergo probation, parivasa ; cf. their Sanghidisesas. 
' The monk does not say that he will make a proclamation or become one 
to complete a group. 



6.19—25] MAHAVAGGAIII 193 

" This is a case, monks, where an Order becomes desirous 
of carrying out a (formal) act against a nun, either one of 
censure ... or one of suspension . . . (= III. 6. 10) . . . 
The return should be made in seven days. || 19 || 

" Or a (formal) act comes to be carried out against her 
by an Order — either one of censure ... or one of suspension 
. . . (= ril. 6. 11) . . . The return should be made in 
seven days. || 20 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a probationer comes to be 
ill . . . (c/. III. 6. 2) ... in seven days. || 21 || 

"This is a case, monks [145] where dissatisfaction comes 
to have arisen in a probationer . . . where remorse comes to 
have arisen in a probationer . . . where a wrong view comes 
to have arisen in a probationer . . . where a probationer's 
training comes to be interrupted.^ If she should send a 
messenger to monks, saying : ' My training is interrupted, 
let the masters come, I want the masters to come ', you 
should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the more if sent for 
and if the business can be done in seven days, thinking : 
' I will make an effort for her to undertake the training '^. 
The return should be made in seven days. || 22 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a probationer becomes 
desirous of being ordained.^ If she should send a messenger 
to monks, saying : ' I am desirous of being ordained . . . 

I want the masters to come ', you should go, monks, . . . 
thinking : ' Either 1 will make an effort for her ordination 
or I will make a proclamation or I will become one who 
completes a group '.* The return should be made in seven 
days. 11 23 11 

" This is a case, monks, where a novice becomes ill . . . 
(III. 6. 2) . . . The return should be made in seven days. 

II 24 11 

"... where dissatisfaction . . . where remorse . . . where 
a wrong view comes to have arisen in a novice . . . where 
a novice becomes desirous of asking about his year's standing.^ 

1 kupita, see B.D. iii. 366. 

* sikkhdsamdddnam. 

' With the upasampadd ordination. See B.D. iii., Intr. p. xliv ff. 

* Nuns' upasampadd ordination takes place before an Order of monks. 

» vassa. See above, p. 109. This must be the technical meaning of vassatn 
pucchiturn, which edd. Vin. Texts i. 310, n. say " is unknown to us ". 



194 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

If he should send a messenger to monks, saying : ' I am 
desirous of asking about my year's standing ... I want 
monks to come ', you should go . . . thinking : ' 1 will ask 
or I will explain '. The return should be made in seven 
days. II 25 I! 

"... where a novice becomes desirous of being ordained 
. . . {as in III, 6. 23) . . . The return should be made in 
seven days. || 26 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a woman novice comes to 
be ill . . . (III. 6. 2) . . . [146] The return should be made 
in seven days. || 27 || 

"... where dissatisfaction . . . where remorse . . . where 
a wrong view comes to have arisen in a woman novice . . . 
where a woman novice becomes desirous of asking about her 
year's standing ... (III. 6. 25) .. . The return should be 
made in seven days. || 28 || 

"... where a woman novice becomes desirous of under- 
taking the training.^ If she should send a messenger to 
monks, saying : ' Now I am desirous of undertaking the 
training, let the masters come, I want the masters to come ', 
you should go, monks, even if not sent for, all the more if 
sent for, and if the business can be done in seven days, think- 
ing : ' I will make an effort for her to acquire the training '. 
The return should be made in seven days." j| 29 || 6 j| 

Now at that time a certain monk's mother became ill. 
She sent a messenger to her son, saying : " Now I am ill, 
let my son come, I want my son to come." Then it occurred 
to that monk : " It is laid down by the Lord that, if the 
business can be done in seven days, one can go if sent for 
but not if not sent for to seven (classes of people) ; and, if 
the business can be done in seven days, to go even if not sent 
for, all the more if sent for to five (classes of people)* ; and 
my own mother' is ill, but she is not a layfoUower. Now 
what line of conduct should be followed by me ? " They 
told this matter to the Lord. || i || 

* Balancing the " to be ordained " of probationers and male novices. 
The woman novice had to become a probationer and spend two years in 
training in the six rules for probationers before she could become ordained. 

* See above, p. 189. 

* ayaa ca me mata, and this my mother. 



7.2.-8] MAHAVAGGAIII 195 

He said : " I allow you, monks, to go even if not sent for, 
all the more if sent for, if the business can be done in seven 
days, to seven (classes of people) : to a monk, a nun, a pro- 
bationer, a novice, a woman novice, a mother, a father. 
1 allow you, monks, to go even if not sent for, all the more 
if sent for, it the business can be done in seven days, to these 
seven (classes of people). The return should be made in 
seven days, jj 2 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk's mother comes to 
be ill. If she should send a messenger to her son, saying : 
' Now I am ill, let my son come, I want my son to come ', 
you should go, monks, . . . (=111. 6. 2) . . . The return 
should be made in seven days. || 3 || 

" This is a case, monks, [147] where a monk's father comes 
to be ill. If he should send a messenger to his son, saying : 
' Now I am ill, let my son come, I want my son to come ', 
you should go . . . (= III. 6. 2) . . . The return should be 
made in seven days. !| 4 || 

" This is a case, monks, where d monk's brother comes to 
be ill. If he should send a messenger to his brother, saying : 
' Now I am ill, let my brother come, I want my brother to 
come ', you should go, monks, if sent for, but not if not sent 
for, if the business can be done in seven days. The return 
should be made in seven days. || 5 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk's sister comes to be 
ill. If she should send a messenger to her brother, saying : 
' Now I am ill, let my brother come, I want mj^ brother to 
come ', you should go . . . (= |1 5 ||) . . . The return should 
be made in seven days. || 6 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk's relative comes to 
be ill. If he should send a messenger to monks, saying : 
' Now I am ill, let the revered sir come, I want the revered 
sir to come ', you should go, monks, if sent for, but not if 
not sent for, if the business can be done in seven days. The 
return should be made in seven daj^s. || 7 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a person living with monks^ 
comes to be ill. If he should send a messenger to monks, 
saying : ' Now I am ill, let monks come, I want monks to 

1 bhikkhugatika. VA. 1069 and Cing. edn. read bhatika; VA. explains 
as " a man (purisa) living in one dwelling-place together with monks ". 



196 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

come ', you should go, monks, if sent for, but not if not sent 
for, if the business can be done in seven days. The return 
should be made in seven days." |I 8 1| 7 || 

Now at that time an Order's dwelling-place was falling to 
pieces. A certain layfoUower had the goods^ removed into 
the jungle. He sent a messenger to monks, saying : " If 
the revered sirs would fetch away^ these goods, I would give 
them back these goods." They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : "I allow you, monks, to go away on business 
connected with an Order. The return should be made in 
seven days." || 1 1| 8 || 

Told is the Portion for Repeating on Rains-residence. 

Now at that time in the Kosala country monks who had 
entered upon the rains in a certain residence came to be 
molested by beasts of prey who seized them and attacked 
them. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " This 
is a case, monks, where monks who have entered upon the 
rains come to be molested by beasts of prey who seize them 
and attack them. This is indeed a danger,^ and you should 
depart. There is no offence in cutting short the rains. This 
is a case, monks, where monks who have entered upon the 
rains come to be molested by creeping things which bite 
them and attack them. This is indeed ... in cutting short 
the rains. |1 1 1| [148] 

" This is a case, monks, where monks . . . are molested 
by thieves who rob them and thrash them. This is indeed 
... in cutting short the rains. This is a case, monks, where 
monks . . . are molested by demons* who take possession of* 
them and sap their vitality.' This is indeed ... in cutting 
short the rains. || 2 || 

^ hhaxiiam chedapitam hoti. No justification for " had a quantity of wood 
cut " as at Vin. Texts i. 312. VA. 1069 explains by dabbasambhdrabhari^a, 
goods forming a substantial collection. Cf. bhan4aka at Vin. iv. 304 referring 
to the goods or " things ", property that some nuns wanted to receive from 
ThuUananda's burning dwelling. 

* Oldenberg's text avahareyyum ; Cing. edn. avahdpeyyunt. 

» See above, p. 148, where this and some of the following dangers are 
enumerated although not in quite the same order. 

* pisdca. Not among the " ten dangers ". 

* avisanti, explained at VA. 1070 as " they enter into the body ". 

* ojatft haranti, they carry ofif the life-strength. 



9.3—11.1] MAHAVAGGAIII 197 

" This is a case, monks, where the village of monks who 
have entered upon the rains comes to be burnt by fire and 
the monks go short of almsfood. This is indeed a danger 
... in cutting short the rains. This is a case, monks, where 
the lodgings of monks who have entered upon the rains 
come to be burnt by fire and the monks go short of lodgings. 
This is indeed ... in cutting short the rains. \\ 3 || 

" This is a case, monks, where the village of monks who 
have entered upon the rains comes to be carried away by 
water and the monks go short of almsfood. This is indeed 
... in cutting short the rains. This is a case, monks, where 
the lodgings of monks who have entered upon the rains 
come to be carried away by water and the monks go short 
of lodgings. This is indeed a danger, and you should depart. 
There is no offence in cutting short the rains." || 4 |1 9 || 

Now at that time the village of certain monks who had 
entered upon the rains in a certain residence was removed^ 
on account ot thieves. They told this matter to the Tord. 
He said : "I allow you, monks, to go to that village." The 
village was split in two. They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " I allow you, monks, to go where there are the 
more (people)." The majority came to be of little faith, 
not believing. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" r allow you, monks, to go to those who have faith and are 
believing." j| i || 10 || 

Now at that time in the Kosala country monks who had 
entered upon the rains in a certain residence did not obtain 
a sufficiency, as much as they needed, of coarse or of sump- 
tuous food. They told this matter to the Lord. He said 
" This is a case, monks, where monks who have entered upon 
the rains do not obtain a sufficiency, as much as they need, 
of coarse or of .sumptuous food. This is indeed a danger, ^ 
and they should depart. There is no offence in cutting short 
the rains. This is a case, monks, where monks who have 
entered upon the rains obtain a sufficiency, as much as they 



^ vutthasi, arose, got up ; thus, went away, 

» This is a " danger to life ", the ninth danger listed at Vin. i. 113, 



198 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

need, of coarse or of sumptuous food, but they do not obtain 
beneficial foods. This is indeed a danger ... in cutting short 
the rains. || i Ij 

" This is a case, monks, where monks who have entered 
upon the rains obtain a sufficiency, as much as they need, 
of coarse or of sumptuous food, they obtain beneficial [149] 
foods, but they do not obtain beneficial medicines. This is 
indeed a danger . . . the rains. This is a case, monks, where 
monks who have entered upon the rains obtain a sufficiency, 
as much as they need, of coarse or of sumptuous food, they 
obtain beneficial foods, they obtain beneficial medicines, but 
they do not obtain a suitable attendant. This is indeed a 
danger ... in cutting short the rains. || 2 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a woman invites a monk 
who has entered upon the rains, saying : ' Come, honoured 
sir, I will give you gold^ or I will give you gold ornaments^ 
or 1 will give you a field or I will give you a site^ or I will 
give you a bulP or I will give you a cow or I will give you 
a slave or I will give you a slave woman or I will give you 
(my) daughter as wife or I will be your wife or 1 will lead 
another wife to you.' If it then occurs to the monk : ' The 
mind is called quickly-changing* by the Lord, and this may 
be a danger to my Brahma-faring ', he should depart. There 
is no offence in cutting short the rains. |! 3 jj 

" This is a case, monks, where a low class woman ... a 
grown girl^ ... a eunuch invites a rnonk who has entered 
upon the rains . . . where relations invite . . . kings . . . 
thieves . . . men of abandoned life invite a monk who has 
entered upon the rains, saying : ' Come, honoured sir, we 
will give you gold ... or we will give you a daughter as 
wife or we will lead another wife to you '. If it then occurs 
to the monk : ' The mind is called quickly-changing by the 
Lord ...'... There is no offence in cutting short the rains. 
This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon 



^ hiraHHa suvanna. See B.D. i. 28, n. 

* vatthu. Probably meaning a site for a hut or a dwelling-place, as in 
Sangh. VI. VII. 

* gavum. 

* lahuparivatta citta. For this sentiment, cf. S. ii. 95, Thag. 11 11 ; also 
the expression vibbhantacitta at It. p. 91 ; and lahucittakata, p. loi, above, 

» thullahumari ; cf. above, p. 87, n. 6, 



11.4—8] MAHAVAGGA III 199 

the rains sees a treasure^ without an owner. If then it occurs 
to the monk : ' The mind is called quickly changing . . . ' 
. . . Tnere is no offence in cutting short the rains, || 4 {| 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered 
upon the rains sees several monks striving for a schism in 
the Order. If then it occurs to the monk : 'A schism in an 
Order is called serious by the Lord,^ do not let the Order be 
divided in my presence ', he should depart. There is no 
offence in cutting short the rains, 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered 
upon the rains hears : ' It is said that several monks are 
striving for a schism in the Order '. If then it occurs to 
that monk , . . in cutting short the rains. || 5 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered 
upon the rains hears : ' It is said that several m.onks in a 
certain residence are striving for a schism in the Order '. 
If it then occurs to the monk : ' Now these monks are my 
friends. I should speak to them, sajang : Indeed, your 
reverences, a schism in the Order is called serious by the 
Lord, please do not let a schism in the Order be promoted 
by the venerable ones ', and if he thinks : ' They will do my 
bidding, they will attend, they will give ear ', he should 
depart. There is no offence in cutting short the rains. || 6 || 

"This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered 
upon the rains bears : ' It is said that several monks in a 
certain residence [150] are striving for a schism in the Order '. 
If it then occurs to the monk : ' Now these monks are not 
friends of mine, but those who are friends of theirs are friends 
of mine ; to these I shall speak, and when I have spoken to 
them, they will speak to them,^ saying : Indeed, your rever- 
ences, a schism in the Order is called serious by the Lord . , . ' 
(= II 6 II) , . . in cutting short the rains, |! 7 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon 
the rains hears : ' It is said that the Order in a certain resi- 
dence is divided by several monks ', If it then occurs to the 
monk : ' Now these monks are friends of n:iine. I should 

1 nidhi ; store, hoardings, treasure at Sn. 285, DIip. 76, Khu. VIII. 2, 9. 
At Jd. vi. 79 explained as vdkaclramvdsana , putting on a bark dress. Cf. 
the ruHng as to picking up treasure (ratana) at Pac. LXXXIV, 

* At Vin. ii. 198, in speaking to Devadatta. 

' I.e. to the schismatic monks. 



200 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

speak to them, saying :....(= || 6 ||) ... in cutting short 
the rains. ]| 8 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered 
upon the rains hears : ' It is said that an Order in a certain 
residence is divided by several monks '. If it then occurs to 
the monk : ' Now these monks are not Iriends of mine, but 
those who are friends of theirs are friends of mine ; to these 
I shall speak, and when I have spoken to them, they will 
speak to them, saying : Indeed, your reverences, a schism 
in the Order is called serious by the Lord ...'(= || 6 |1) .. . 
There is no offence in cutting short the rains. || g || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered 
upon the rains hears : ' It is said that several nuns in a 
certain residence are striving for a schism in the Order '. 
If it then occurs to the monk : ' Now these nuns are friends 
of mine. I should speak to them, saying : Sisters, a schism 
in the Order is called serious by the Lord, please do not let 
a schism in the Order be promoted by the sisters', and if he 
thinks : ' They will do my bidding, they will attend, they 
will give ear ', he should depart. There is no offence in 
cutting short the rains. || lo || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered 
upon the rains hears : ' It is said that several nuns in a cer- 
tain residence are striving for a schism in the Order '. If it 
then occurs to the monk : ' Now these nuns are not friends 
of mine, but those who are friends of theirs are friends of 
mine ; to these I shall speak, and when I have spoken to 
them, they will speak to them, saying : Sisters, a schism 
in the Order ...'(= || lo ||) .. . there is no offence in cutting 
short the rains. || ii || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk who has entered upon 
the rains hears : ' It is said that the Order in a certain resi- 
dence is divided by several nuns '. If it then occurs to the 
monk : ' Now these nuns are friends of mine. I should speak 
to them, saying : Sisters, a schism in the Order . . . ' 
(= 11 10 II) . . . in cutting short the rains. || 12 || 

" This is a case . . . hears : ' It is said that the Order in 
a certain residence is divided by several nuns '. If it then 
occurs to the monk : ' Now these nuns are not friends of mine, 
but those who are friends of theirs are friends of mine ; to 



11.13—12.5] MAHAVAGGAIII 2oi 

these I shall speak, and when I have spoken to them, they 
will speak to them, saying : Sisters, a schism in the Order ..." 
(= II 10 II) . . . in cutting short the rains." || 13 || 11 j] 

Now at that time a certain monk [151] became desirous of 
entering on the rains in a cow-pen.^ They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, to enter on 
the rains in a cow-pen." The cow-pen was removed.^ They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, 
to go to that cow-pen," || i || 

Now at that time, as the beginning of the rains was approach- 
ing, a certain monk became desirous of going in a caravan. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow you, 
monks, to enter on the rains in a caravan." Now at that time, 
as the beginning of the rains was approaching, a certain monk 
became desirous of going in a boat. They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, to enter on the 
rains in a boat." || 2 || 

Now at that time monks entered on the rains in hollow trees. 
People looked down on, criticised, spread it about, saying : 
" Like demon-worshippers. "3 They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : " Monks, you should not enter on the rains 
in hollow trees. Whoever should (so) enter on them, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing." || 3 || 

Now at that time monks entered on the rains in forks of 
trees. People . . . spread it about, saying : " Like hunters." 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, you 
should not enter on the rains in the forks of trees. Whoever 
should (so) enter on them, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." ||4|| _ 

Now at that time monks entered on the rains in the open air. 
When the gods rained they ran up to the foot of trees and to 
the shelter of a nimb tree.* They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " Monks, you should not enter on the rains in the 



* vaja. K^-J. 1 07 1 explains as the dwelling-place of cowherds. Word occurs 
at A. iii. 393, Vism. 166, 279 in meaning of " cow-pen ". 

• viitthdst : cf. above p. 197, n. i. 

' pisacillika, or perhaps aboriginees. See Vin. Texts I. 318 n., and CV. 
v. 10. 2 ; V. 27. 5. Cf. pisaca above, p. 196. 

♦ nimbakosa. Kosa can mean cavity, thus the hollow of a tree, or it might 
mean a sheath or enclosure, thus the shelter, the cover of a tree. 



202 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

open air. WTioever should (so) enter on them, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing." || 5 || 

Now at that time monks entered on the rains without lodg- 
ings. They suffered from cold and they suffered from heat. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, you 
should not enter on the rains without lodgings. Whoever 
should (so) enter on them, there is an offence of wrong-doing." 
II61I 

Now at that time monks entered on the rains in a charnel- 
house. People . . . spread it about, saying : " Like those who 
burn corpses ". They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" Monks, you should not enter on the rains in a charnel-house. 
Whoever . . . wrong-doing." || 7 || 

Now at that time monks entered on the rains under a 
simshade.^ People . . . spread it about, saying : " Like 
cowherds ", They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" Monks, you should not enter on the rains under a sunshade. 
Whpever . . . wrong-doing." 1| 8 |! [152] 

Now at that time monks entered on the rains in a water-jar.' 
People . . . spread it about, saying : " Like followers of other 
sects ". They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, 
you should not enter on the rains in a water-jar. Whoever 
... of wrong -doing." 1| 9 || 12 || 

Now at that time an agreement came to be made by an 
Order in Savatthi that no one should be allowed to go forth 
during the rains. A nephew of Visakha, Migara's mother, 
having approached monks, asked for the going forth. Monks 
spoke thus : " Sir, an agreement was made by the Order that 
during the rains no one should be allowed to go forth. Wait, 
sir, until the monks have kept the rains ; when they have 
kept the rains they will allow you to go forth." Then these 
monks, having kept the rains, spoke thus to the nephew of 
Visakha, Migara's mother : " Come now, sir, go forth." He 
spoke thus : " Honoured sirs, if I could have gone forth, I 



^ chatta is the regular word for sunshade. It can also mean a canopy. 

* cati, some big vessel ; used for containing and transporting water at 
J a. i. 99. loi. Perhaps above the long bath -like stone vessels still to be seen 
at Anuradhapura. 



13.1—14.3] MAHAVAGGAIII 203 

should have been pleased. But now, I, honoured sirs, will 
not go forth." |1 1 || 

Visakha, Migara's mother . . . spread it about, saying: 
" How can the masters make an agreement to the effect that 
no one should be allowed to go forth during the rains ? At 
what time should dhamma not be followed ? " Monks heard 
Visakha, Migara's mother, as she . . . spread it about. Then 
these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, 
an agreement that no one should be allowed to go forth during 
the rains should not be made. Whoever should make (one), 
there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 2 || 13 || 

Now at that time a rains-residence belonging to King 
Pasenadi of Kosala came to be assented to for the earlier 
period^ by the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans. 
As he was going to that residence, he saw on the way two 
residences with many robes. It occurred to him : " Now, 
suppose I should spend the rains in these two residences ? 
Thus would many robes accrue to me." He spent the rains 
in these two residences. King Pasenadi of Kosala . . . spread 
it about, saying : " How can this master Upananda, the son 
of the Sakyans, having assented to our rains-residence, break 
his word ? Is not lying condemned in many a figure by the 
Lord and restraint from lying extolled ? " || i 1| 

Monks heard King Pasenadi of Kosala as he . . . spread it 
about. Those who were modest monks . . , spread it about, 
saying : " How can [153] the venerable Upananda, the son of 
the Sakyans, having assented to a rains-residence belonging 
to King Pasenadi of Kosala, break his word ? Is not lying 
condemned in many a figure by the Lord and restraint from 
lying extolled ? " || 2 || 

Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the 
Lord on this occasion, having had the Order of monks convened, 
questioned the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, 
saying : " Is it true, as is said, Upananda, that you, having 
assented to a rains-residence belonging to King Pasenadi of 
Kosala, broke your word ? " 

" It is true, Lord." The awakened one, the Lord, rebuked 
him, saying : 

^ purimikaya, that is, for the first three months of the rainy season. 



204 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" How can you, foolish man, having assented to a rains- 
residence belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala, break your 
word ? Foolish man, is not lying condemned in many a figure 
by me and restraint from lying extolled ? It is not, foolish 
man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased . . ." and having 
rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the 
monks, saying : jj 3 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be 
assented to by a monk for the earlier period. As he is going 
to that residence he sees on the way two residences with many 
robes. It occurs to him : ' What now if I should spend the 
rains in these two residences ? Thus would many robes 
accrue to me.' He spends the rains in these two residences. 
Monks, the earlier period is not valid for that monk, 
and also there is an offence of wrong-dcing in the assent. 

114 II 

" This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be 
assented to by a monk for the earlier period. As he is going 
to that residence he carries out Observance outside it, he reaches 
a dwelling-place on the day after the Observance day, he 
prepares a lodging, he sets out drinking-water and water for 
washing, he sweeps a cell, and, having nothing to do, he 
departs that self-same day. Monks, the earlier period is not 
valid for that monk, and also there is an offence of wrong-doing 
in the assent. 

" This is a case, monks, . . . (= !| 5 ||) . . . he sweeps a cell, and, 
having something to do, he departs that self-same day. Monks 
... in the assent. || 5 || 

" This is a case, monks, . . . and, having nothing to do, he 
departs, having spent two or three days. Monks, ... in the 
assent. 

" This is a case, monks, . . . and, having something to do, 
he departs, having spent two or three days. Monks, . . in 
the assent. 

" This is a case, monks, . . . and, having stayed two or three 
days, he departs on some business that can be done in seven 
days. But he passes those seven days outside. Monks, . . . 
in the assent. 

" This is a case, monks, . . . and, having stayed two or three 
days he departs on some business that can be done in seven 



14.6— II] MAHAVAGGAIII 205 

days. [154] He returns within seven days. Monks, the 
earlier period is valid for that monk, and there is no offence 
in the assent. || 6 || 

" This is a case, monks, . . . and having something to do 
before the Invitation, ^ he departs for seven days. IVIonks, 
whether that monk returns or whether he does not return 
to that residence, the earlier period is valid for that monk, 
and also there is no offence in the assent. || 7 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to 
be assented to by a monk for the earlier period. Having arrived 
at that residence he carries out the Observance, he reaches a 
dwelling-place on the da}?^ after the Observance day^ . . . 

!l 8-10 II ^ 

" This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be 
assented to by a monk for the later period. As he is going to 
that residence he carries out Observance outside it . . . {the 
whole passage is identical with \\ 5-10 || ; for earlier period read 
later period ; for before the Invitation read before the komudi 
cdtumdsinP) . . . and also there is no offence in the assent." 
!l II II 14 II 

The Third Section : that on beginning the Rains 

This is its key : 

To enter on (the rains), and just when ? how many ? and 
during the rains, 

and they did not want to, intentionally, to postpone, a lay- 
follower, [155] 

111, and a mother, a father, and a brother, then a relation, 

a p>erson living with monks, a dwelling-place, and also beasts 



^ Pavdrand, a ceremony held at the end of the third month of the rains. 
See MY. IV. " 

* II 5-7 II aie repeated, the only difference being that there the monk held 
Observance outside the residence to which he was going ; here he holds it 
when he has arrived. 

' Cf. p. 231, below. This is the full moon day of the month Kattika, 
and marks the end of the later period for keeping the rains, and thus the end 
of the fourth month of the rainy season. See Vin. Texts i. 324, n. 2 and Dial. 
i. 66, n. I. According to DA. 139 the white lotus, kumuda, blooms then. 



2o6 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

of prey, creeping things, 
And so thieves, and demons, burnt, and in regard to both^, 
carried away by water, was removed, and the majority, bene- 

factors^, 
And about coarse and sumptuous (foods), beneficial medicines, 

an attendant, 
a woman, a low class woman, and a grown girl, a eunuch, and 

about a relation. 
Kings, thieves, men of abandoned life, a treasure, schisms, and 

by what is eightfold ^, 
a cow-pen, and a caravan, and a boat, in a hollow, and in a 

fork, 
A rains-residence in the open air, and about one who had 

no lodgings, 
a charnel-house, and under a sunshade, and these went upon 

(the rains) in a water-jar. 
An agreement, having assented, and Observance days outside, 
the earlier, the later, one should combine them after the same 

fashion*. 
He departs having nothing to do, and likewise because he has 

something to do, 
spending two or three days^, and on business that can be done 

in seven days, 
And then going away for seven days, whether he should return 

or should not come back, 



* tadubhayena. Word is not in the text. Reference is to MV. III. 9. 3, 
where the case is taken of both a village and monks' lodgings being burnt. 

* dayaka. Word not in the text, but it probably refers to the minority 
who, because believing, may be presumed to have given alms to the monks, 
MV. III. 10. I. Indeed these three headings: "was removed, and the 
majority, benefactors " refer to one and the same episode, and should therefore 
not be counted as separate items in reckoning the total of " fifty- two items " 
in this Chapter. 

* I.e. the eight ways of making a schism which the monk hears about, 
MV. III. 11. 6-13. The first way, which he sees, MV. III. 11. 5, has as its 
key -word the word " schisms " which also includes the next heading — 
" by what is eightfold ". 

* yathdnayena yojaye, referring to the similar permutations of events 
which are repeated for the later as for the earlier period of the rains. 

' The Cing. reading of dvihaiiham vasitvdna is to be preferred to Oldenberg's 
dvihatfhd ca puna, " after two or three days and again ", as it corresponds 
more closely to MV. III. 14. 6. The latter, however, might be justified by 
the three cases there mentioned of " two or three days ". 



MAHAVAGGAIII 207 

In the key to the items the order^ should observe the 
woven way. 2 

In this Chapter there are fifty-two items.' [156] 



1 antarikd, sphere, compass ; interval, i.e. the intervals between the items, 
the range they cover, hence their order. 

* tantintagga, the way that is strung or woven together, so the sacred text 
or tradition. Cf. DA. 2, MA. i. 2. Tantibhadda at Vin. i. 312, tantidhara 
at Vism. 99. 

' This number is perhaps arrived at by (i) omitting " in regard to both " 
as a separate heading, being already included under " burnt " ; (2) taking 
" was removed, majority, benefactors " as one heading (see n. 2 p. 206) ; 
(3) taking line 7 as one heading referring to MV. III. 11. i, 2 ; (4) taking 
" schisms, and what is eightfold " as one heading (see n. 3 p. 206) ; (5) 
taking " the earlier, the later, one should combine them after the same 
fashion " as one headmg (see n. 4 p. 206) ; (6) taking the last line but one 
as referring to one and the same eventuality, in MV. III. 14. 7. 



208 



THE GREAT DIVISION (MAHAVAGGA) IV 

At one time the enlightened one, the Lord was staying at 
Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's monastery. 
Now at that time several monks, friends and associates, entered 
on the rains in a certain residence in the Kosala country. 
Then it occurred to these monks : " Now by what means can 
we, aU together, on friendly terms and harmonious, spend- a 
comfortable rainy season and not go short of almsfood ? " || i || 

Then it occurred to these monks : " If we should neither 
address one another nor converse, but whoever should return 
first from the village for almsfood^ should make ready a seat, 
should put out water for (washing) the feet, a footstool, a 
footstand, having washed a refuse-bowP should set it out, 
should set out drinking water and water for washing ; 

II2|| 

Whoever should return last from the village for almsfood, 
if there should be the remains of a meal and if he should so 
desire, he may eat them ; but if he does not so desire, he may 
throw them away where there is but little green grass' or he 
may drop them into water where there are no living creatures,* 
he should put up the seat, he should put away the water for 
(washing) the feet, the footstool, the footstand, he should put 
away the refuse-bowl having washed it, he should put away 
the drinking water and the water for washing, he should sweep 
the refectory , || 3 |1 

Whoever should see a vessel for drinking water or a vessel for 
washing water or a vessel (for water) for rinsing after evacua- 
tion, ^ void and empty, should set out (water) ; if it is impossible 
for him (to do this) he should set out (water) by signalling with 



1 From here to near the end of || 4 || cf. MV. X. 4. 5 ; CV. VIII. 5. 3 ; 
M. i. 207. 

* This is a receptacle for the leavings of meals. 

' appaharita, or few crops, or no green grass, MA. i. 94 explaining by tinani, 
grasses, and referring to Pac. XI. 

* This sentence occurs also at MV. VI. 26. 6, S. i. 169, 5m. p. 15, M. i. 13. 
' Cf. MA. ii. 242. 



1.4—8] MAHAVAGGAIV 209 

his hand, having invited a companion (to help him) by a move- 
ment of his hand^ ; but he should not for such a reason break 
into speech. Thus may we, all together, on friendly terms 
and harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and not 
go short of almsfood." || 4 jj 

Then these monks neither addressed one another nor con- 
versed. Whoever returned first from the village for almsfood 
made ready a seat, put out water for (washing) the feet, a foot- 
stool, a footstand, set out a refuse-bowl having washed it, set 
out drinking water and water for washing. || 5 || [157] 

Whoever returned last from the village for almsfood, if 
there were the remains of a meal ate them if he so desired ; 
if he did not so desire he threw them away where there was but 
little green grass or he dropped them into water where there 
were no living creatures, he put up the seat, he put away the 
water for (washing) the feet, the footstool, the footstand, he 
put away the refuse-bowl having washed it, he put away the 
drinking water and the water for washing, he swept the refec- 
tory. II 6 11 

\Mioever saw a vessel for drinking water or a vessel for 
washing water or a vessel (for water) for rinsing after evacuation, 
void and empty, set out water. If it was impossible for him 
(to do this) he set out water by signalling with his hand, having 
by a movement of his hand invited a companion (to help him) ; 
but not for such a reason did he break into speech. || 7 || 

Now it was the custom for monks who had kept the rains 
to go and see the Lord.^ Then these monks, having kept the 
rains, at the end of the three months packed away their lodgings 
and taking their bowls and robes, set out for Savatthi. In 
due course they approached Savatthi, the Jeta Grove, 



^ AIA. ii. 242 says that if any of these vessels is empty, having taken it 
to a pond and washed it inside and outside, having filtered water (into it), 
having set it down on the bank, they invite another monk (to help them) 
by a movement of the hand. 

I think that hatthavikdrena (" by a movement of the hand ") and 
hatthavilanghakana (" by signalling with the hand ") are complementary 
and are used to emphasise the gesture-language needed in place of speech. 
I therefore think that there should be no comma, as in Oldenberg's edn., 
after hatthavikdrena (there is none at M. i. 207) since this makes the passage 
read " if it is impossible for him (to do this) by a movement of the hand ", 
i.e. if he is not able to move the vessel single-handed. This is of course a 
possible reading, but it is not elegant Pali and balance and emphasis are lost. 

* For following passage, cf. B.D. i. 153 f. 



210 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Anathapindika's monastery and the Lord. Having approached, 
having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. 
Now it is the custom for awakened ones, for Lords to exchange 
friendly greetings with in-coming monks. || 8 || 

Then the Lord spoke thus to these monks : "I hope that 
you were well, monks, I hope that you kept going, I hope that, 
all together, on friendly terms and hannonious, you passed a 
comfortable rainy season and did not go short of almsfood ? " 

" We were well, Lord, we kept going. Lord, and we. Lord, 
all together, on friendly terms and harmonious, passed a com- 
fortable rainy season and did not go short of almsfood." || 9 || 

Now, Truthfinders (sometimes) ask knowing, and knowing 
(sometimes) do not ask ; they ask, knowing the right time 
(to ask), and they do not ask, knowing the right time (when not 
to ask). Truthfinders ask about what belongs to the goal, not 
about what does not belong to the goal ; there is bridge- 
breaking for Truthfinders in whatever does not belong to the 
goal. In two ways do awakened ones, Lords question monks, 
either : " Shall we teach dhamma ? " or " Shall we lay down 
a rule of training for disciples ? "^ Then the Lord spoke 
thus to these monks : 

" But in what way did you, monks, all together, on friendly 
terms and harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and 
not go short of almsfood ? " || 10 || 

" In that connection did we. Lord, several friends and 
associates, enter on the rains in a certain residence in the 
Kosala country. Then it occurred to us, Lord : ' Now by 
what means can we, all together, on friendly terms and 
harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and [158] not 
go short of almsfood ? ' Then it occurred to us, Lord : ' If 
we should neither address one another^ . . . Thus could we, 
all together, on friendly terms and harmonious, spend a 
comfortable rainy season and not go short of almsfood.' So 
we. Lord, neither addressed one another nor conversed. 
Whoever returned first from the village for almsfood made 
ready a seat^ . . . but not for such a reason did he break into 
speech. Thus did we. Lord, all together, on friendly terms and 

* As at Vin. i. 59, 250, iii. 6, 88-89. 

* As in I! 2-4 ||. 
' As in II 5-7 II. 



l.ii— 14] MAHAVAGGAIV 211 

harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and not go 
short of almsfood." I| ii II 

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying : " Indeed, 
monks, these foolish men, having spent an uncomfortable 
time, pretend to have spent an equally comfortable time. 
Indeed, monks, these foolish men, having spent communion 
like beasts, pretend to have spent an equally comfortable time. 
Indeed . . . like sheep, pretend to have spent an equally com- 
fortable time. Indeed . . . having spent communion in 
indolence, pretend to have spent an equally comfortable time. 
How, monks, can these foolish men observe an observance of 
members of (other) sects : the practice of silence ?- || 12 i| 

"It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) 
pleased ..." Having rebuked them, having given reasoned 
talk, he addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, an observance of members of other sects, the prac- 
tice of silence, should not be observed. Whoever should 
observe it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, 
monks who have kept the rains to ' invite ' ^ in regard to three 
matters : what has been seen or heard or suspected. That 
will be what is suitable for you in regard to one another, a 
removal of offences^, an aiming at (grasping) the discipline.* 

!l 13 II 

And thus, monks, should one invite. The Order should be 
informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying : 
' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. To-da}' is an 
Invitation day. ^ If it seems right to the Order, the Order may 
invite.' A monk who is an elder, having arranged his upper 
robe over one shoulder, having sat down on his haunches, 
having saluted with joined palms, should speak to it thus : 

^ mugabbata, custom of being dumb {miiga), according to VA. 1073, for 
three months. Cf. the monks who sat like dumb swine, mugastikard, when 
they might have been speaking dhamnici, above, p. 131. 

* pavdrctum, a technical term used for a monk to ' invite ' others at the end 
of the rains to tell him if he has been seen or heard or suspected to have 
committed any offences. If they do so, and he acknowledges an offence 
by seeing it and making amends for it, he becomes rid of it, and is therefore 
puie to take his place in the Order's business. 

' dpattiviitthdnatd, or a rising up from an offence (or offences). Cf. dpatti 
vutthitd at MV. II. 3. 5, and vutthdsi at III. 10. i, a village was removed. 

* vinayapurekkhdratd. Cf. atthapurekkhdra dhammapurekkhdra at e.g. Vin. 
iii. 130, iv. II, 277. 

^ pavdrand, invitation. MA. i. 93 distinguishes four kinds of pavdrapd 
and places first this one held at the end of the rains. 



212 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

' Your reverences, I invite the Order in respect of what has 
been seen or heard or suspected. Let the venerable ones speak 
to me out of compassion, and seeing I will make amends. ^ 
And a second time . . . And a third time, your reverences, 
I invite the Order in respect of what has been seen or heard 
or suspected. Let the venerable ones speak to me out of 
compassion, and seeing I will make amends.' A newly ordained 
monk, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder . . . 
having saluted with joined palms, should speak to it thus : 
' Honoured sirs, 1 invite the Order [159] in respect of what has 
been seen . . . And a second time . . . And a third time . . . 
and seeing I will make amends.' " || 14 || 1 1| 

Now at that time the group of six monks remained ^ on seats 
while monks who were elders, sitting down on their haunches, 
were themselves inviting. Those who were modest monks . . . 
spread it about, saying : " How can this group of six monks 
remain on seats while monks who are elders, sitting down on 
their haunches, are themselves inviting ? " Then these monks 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks 
remained on seats . . . were themselves inviting ? " 

"It is true. Lord." The awakened one, the Lord rebuked 
them, saying : 

" How, monks, can these foolish men remain on seats . . . 
are themselves inviting ? It is not, monks, for pleasing those 
who are not (yet) pleased ..." And having rebuked them, 
having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, you should not remain on seats while monks who 
are elders, sitting down on their haunches, are themsleves 
inviting. I allow you, monks, to invite while each and every 
one is sitting down on his haunches." || i || 

Now at that time a certain elder, feeble with age, thinking : 
" Until all have invited ", while sitting down on his haunches 
and waiting, fell down in a faint. They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : "1 allow you, monks, (each one) to sit down 
on his haimches during the period until he invites, and having 
invited, to sit down on a seat." || 2 || 2 |1 

* I.e. for the offence imputed to him and " seen " by him. 

* acchanti. VA. 1074 says they were sitting down, they did not stand up. 



3.1—5] MAHAVAGGA IV 213 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now, how many Invitation 
(days) are there ? " They told this to the Lord. He said : 
" Monks, there are these two Invitation (days), the fourteenth 
and the fifteenth. These, monks, are the two Invitation 
(days)."i II I, I 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now, how many (formal) 
acts for the Invitation are there ? " They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : " Monks, there are these four (formal) 
acts for the Invitation : a (formal) act for the Invitation 
(carried out) not by rule and when an assembly is incomplete . . . 
(=11. 14. 2, 3 ; read act for the Invitation instead of act for 
Observance) . . . you, monks, should train yourselves thus ". 
II 2 II 

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying : " Gather 
together, monks, the Order will invite. "^ When he had 
spoken thus a certain monk spoke thus to the Lord : " There 
is, Lord, a monk who is ill. He has not come." He said : 
" I allow you, monks, to give the Invitation on behalf of a 
monk who is ill. And thus, monks, should it be given : That 
ill monk, [160] having approached one monk, having arranged 
his upper robe over one shoulder, having sat down on his 
haunches, having saluted with joined palms, should speak 
thus to him : ' I will give the Invitation, convey the Invitation 
for me, invite on my behalf.' If he makes it understood by 
gesture, if he makes it understood by voice, if he makes it 
understood by gesture and voice, the Invitation comes to be 
given. If he does not make it understood by gesture ... by 
gesture and voice, the Invitation does not come to be given. || 3 || 

If he thus manages this, it is good. If he does not manage 
it then, monks, that ill monk, having been brought to the 
midst of the Order on a couch or a chair, should invite. If, 
monks, it occurs to the monks who are tending the ill one . . . 
(= II. 22. 2) . . . the ill one should not be moved from (that) 
place ; the Order having gone there may invite, but one 
should not invite if an Order is incomplete. WTioever should 
so invite, there is an offence of wrong-doing. || 4 || 

" If, monks, the conveyor of the Invitation goes away then 
and there . . . (= MV. II. 22. 3, 4 ; read Invitation, although 

1 Cf. MV. II. 14. I. 
» Cf. MV. II. 22. I. 



214 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

the Invitation, the conveyor of the Invitation instead of entire 
purity, although the entire purity, the conveyor of the entire 
purity) . . . there is an offence of wrong-doing for the con- 
veyer of the Invitation. I allow you, monks, on an Invitation 
day to give the consent also by giving the Invitation ; they 
are the Order's business."^ I! 5 II 3 || 

Now at that time his relations got hold of a certain monk 
on an Invitation day . . . [as in MV. 11. 24. 1-3 ; read Invitation 
day for Observance day, and gives the Invitation for declares 
his entire puritv, and invites for carries out the Observance) 

. . . [161] .. .11 3 II 4 II 

Now at that time five monks were staying in a certain 
residence on an Invitation day. Then it occurred to these 
monks : " It is laid down by the Lord that an Order may 
invite^, but we are (only) five persons. Now, how can we 
invite ? " They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" I allow you, monks, to invite in an Order of five.^ " || i || 

Now at that time four monks were staying in a certain 
residence on an Invitation day. Then it occurred to these 
monks : " It is allowed by the Lord to invite in an Order of 
five, but we are (only) four persons. Now, how can we invite ? " 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, to invite one another when you are (only) four. || 2 || 

" And thus, monks, should one invite : These monks should 
be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying : 
* Let the venerable ones listen to me. To-day is an Invitation 
day. If it seems right to the venerable ones, let us invite one 
another.' These monks should be spoken to thus by a monk 
who is an elder, having arranged his upper robe over one 
shoulder, having sat down on his haunches, having saluted 
with joined palms : ' I, your reverences, invite the venerable 
ones in regard to what has been seen or heard or suspected. 

1 Cf. MV. II. 23. 3- 

« Cf. MV. IV. 1. 14. 

' The procedure for inviting an Order has been given in MV. IV. 1. 14 
and is not repeated here. " Inviting one another " when there are only four, 
three or two persons has not yet been explained, and so directions for the 
right method are given in the next paragraphs. Various sizes of samghas 
are given at MV. IX. 4. i, with the formal acts they may not carry out. This 
whole passage should be compared with MV. II. 26. i-io. 



5.3—7] MAHAVAGGAIV 215 

Let the venerable ones speak to me out of compassion, and seeing, 
I will make amends. And a second time . . . And a third time 
. . . and seeing, I will make amends.' These monks should 
be spoken to thus by a newly ordained monk, having arranged 
. . . ' I, honoured sirs, invite the venerable ones in regard to 
what has been seen or heard or suspected . . . And a second 
time . . . And a third time . . . and seeing, I will make amends.' " 

I! 3 1! 

Now at that time three monks were staying in a certain 
residence on an Invitation day. Then it occurred to these 
monks : " It is allowed by the Lord to invite in an Order of 
five persons, and to invite one another when there are four, 
but we are (only) three persons. Now how can we invite ? " 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, to invite one another when you are (only) three. And 
thus, monks, should one invite : These monks should be 
informed . . . (= || 3 ||) [162] ... I will make amends.' " || 4 || 

Now at that time two monks were staying in a certain 
residence on an Invitation day. Then it occurred to these 
monks : "It is allowed by the Lord to invite in an Order 
of five (persons), to invite one another when there are four, 
to invite one another when there are three, but we are (only) 
two persons. Nov/, how can we invite ? " They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, to invite 
one another when you are (only) two. || 5 || 

"And thus, monks, should one invite : The monk who is the 
elder, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, 
having sat down on his haunches, having saluted with joined 
palms, should speak thus to the newly ordained monk : 'I, 
your reverence, invite the venerable one in regard to what has 
been seen or heard or suspected. Let the venerable one speak 
to me out of compassion, and seeing, I will make amends. 
And a second time . . . And a third time . . . and seeing, I will 
make amends.' The newly ordained monk, having arranged 
his upper robe . . . with joined palms, should speak thus to 
the monk who is the elder : 'I, honoured sir, invite the 
venerable one . . . And a third time . . . and seeing, I will make 
amends.' " || 6 || 

Now at that time one monk was staying in a certain residence 
on an Invitation day. Then it occurred to that monk : " It is 



2i6 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

allowed by the Lord to invito in an Order of five (persons), to 
invite one another , . . when there are (only) two, but I am 
alone. Now, how can I invite ? " They told this matter to 
the Lord. || 7 || 

He said : " This is a case, monks, where one monk is sta5ring 
in a certain residence on an Invitation day. Monks, that monk, 
having swept the place to which monks return — an attendance 
hall or a pavilion or the root of a tree — having put out drinking 
water and water for washing, having made ready a seat, having 
made a light, should sit down. If other monks arrive, he may 
invite together with them ; if they do not arrive, he should 
determine : ' To-day is an Invitation day for me '. If he 
should not (so) determine, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

I|8!| 

" Monks, there where five monks are sta5dng, four should 
not invite in an Order, having conveyed the invitation for one. 
If they should (so) invite, there is an offence of wTong-doing. 
Monks, there where four monks are staying, three should not 
invite one another, having conveyed the invitation for one. 
If they should (so) invite, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
Monks, there where three monks are staying, [163] two should 
not invite one another, having conveyed the invitation for one. 
If they should (so) invite, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
Monks, there where two monks are staying, one should not 
determine, having conveyed the invitation for the other. 
If he should (so) determine, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II 9 II 5 II 

Now at that time a certain monk came to have fallen into 
an offence on an Imitation day.^ Then it occurred to this 
monk : " It is laid down by the Lord that an offender should 
not invite,^ and I have fallen irto an offence. Now what line 
of conduct should be followed by me ? " They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : " This is a case, monks, . . . (c/. II. 
27. I, 2 ; read Invitation day /or Observance day). . . When 
he has spoken thus, he may invite, but no obstacle should be 
put in the way of the Invitation from such a cause." jj i || 



1 Cf. II. 27. I. 

* Cf. below, p. 223. 



6.2—7.3] MAHAVAGGAIV 217 

Now at that time a certain monk, as he was himself inviting, 
remembered an offence.^ Then it occurred to this monk : 
" It is laid down by the Lord that an offender should not invite, 
and I have fallen into an offence. Now what line of conduct 
should be followed by me ? " They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : " This is a case, monks, where a monk, as 
he is himself inviting, remembers an offence. Monks, this 
m.onk should speak thus to the monk next to him : ' I, your 
reverence, have fallen into .such and such an offence ; removing 
from here, 2 I will make amends for that offence.' When he 
has spoken thus, he may invite, but no obstacle should be put 
in the way of the Invitation from such a cause. || 2 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk as he is himself inviting, 
becomes doubtful about an offence. Monks . . . [cf. MV. II. 
27. 5^) . . . When he has spoken thus he may invite, but no 
obstacle should be put in the way of the Invitation from such a 
cause." il 3 II 6 II 

Told is the First Portion for Repeating. 

Now at that time several resident monks, five or more, 
collected together in a certain residence on an Invitation day.* 
They did not know that the other resident monks had not 
arrived. Thinking of the rule, thinking of discipline, thinking 
that they were complete, they invited while they were incom- 
plete. While they were inviting, other resident monks, a 
larger number, arrived. They told this matter to the Lord. || i || 

He said : " This is a case, monks, where several resident 
monks . . . [IG^] . . . [as in \\ i || above) . . . While they are 
inviting, other resident monks, a larger number, arrive. Monks, 
those monks should invite again ; there is no offence for those 
who have invited.^ || 2 || 

"This is a case, monks, . , . other resident monks, a like number 
... a smaller number, arrive. Those who have invited have 



1 Cf. MV. II. 27. 4. 

* Or, having risen up from here. 

' Both Oldenberg, Vin. i. 164, and Vin. Texts i. 336 compare this part 
to MV. II. 27. 4-8, which would mean that a monk also invited the Order 
collectively. 

* Cf. MV. II. 28. 1-7. 

^ pavaritdnam, for the inviters, corresponding to the " reciters " of MV. 
II. 28. 2. 



2i8 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

duly invited ; the remainder should invite, and there is no 
offence for those who have invited. |1 3 || 

" This is a case, monks, where several resident monks, five or 
more, collect together in a certain residence on an Invitation 
day . . . When they have just finished inviting, other resident 
monks, a larger number, arrive. Monks, those monks should 
invite again ; there is no offence for those who have invited. 

" This is a case, monks, ... a like number ... a smaller number, 
arrive. Those who have invited have duly invited ; they^ 
should invite in their presence, and there is no offence for those 
who have invited. |1 4 || 

"This is a case, monks, . . . When they have just finished 
inviting but the assembly has not risen . . . (= || 4 ||) . . . no 
offence for those who have invited. 

" This is a case . . . and part of the assembly has risen . . . 
(= ||4 II) . . . no offence for those who have invited. 

" This is a case, monks, where . . . the whole assembly has 
risen, and other resident monks, a larger number ... a like 
number ... a smaller number, arrive. Those who have invited 
have duly invited ; they should invite in their presence, and 
there is no offence for those who have invited." |1 5 || 
Told are the Fifteen Cases in which there is No Offence. || 7 || 

" This is a case, monks, where in a certain residence several 
resident monks, five or more, collect together on an Invitation 
day. 2 They know that other resident monks have not arrived. 
Thinking of the rule, thinking of discipline, thinking that they 
are incomplete they invite while they are incomplete. While 
they are inviting, other resident monks, a larger number, 
arrive. Monks, these monks should invite again, and there 
is an offence of wrong-doing for those who have invited. || i || 

" This is a case, monks, . . . [165] ... a like number ... a 
smaller number, arrive. Those who have invited have duly 
invited ; the remainder should invite and there is an offence 
of wrong-doing for those who have invited. || 2 || 

" This is a case, monks, . . . When they have just finished 
inviting . . . and the assembly has not risen . . . part of the 
assembly has risen . . . the whole assembly has risen, and other 

^ I.e. the resident monks who arrive late. 
« C/. MV. II. 29. 



8.3—11.1] MAHAVAGGAIV 219 

resident monks, a larger number ... a like number ... a smaller 
number, arrive. Those who have invited have duly invited ; 
they should invite in their presence, and there is an offence of 
wrong-doing for those who have invited. || 3 || 

Told are the Fifteen Cases on being Aware that an Assembly 
is incomplete when it is incomplete. || 8 || 

" This is a case, monks, where several resident monks, 
five or more, collect together on an Invitation day.^ They 
know that other resident monks have not arrived. Thinking : 
' Now, is it allowable for us to invite or is it not allowable ? ' 
they invite (although they are in doubt). While they are 
inviting, other resident monks, a larger number, arrive. Monks, 
these monks should invite again, and there is an offence of 
v/rong-doing for those who have invited. || i || 

" This is a case, . . . [cf. IV. 8. 2, 3) . . . they should invite 
in their presence, and there is an offence of wrong-doing for 
those who have invited." || 2 || 

Told are the Fifteen Cases on Being in Doubt. || 9 || 

" This is a case,^ ... (as in || 9 || i i|) . . . Thinking, ' Indeed, 
it is allowable for us to invite, it is not unallowable for us', they, 
acting badly, invited. While they are inviting . . . offence of 
wrong-doing for those who have invited. || i || 

" This is a case,^ . . . {cf. IV. 8. 2,3) . . . they should invite 
in their presence, and there is an offence of wrong-doing for 
those who have invited. || 2 i| " 

Told are the Fifteen Cases on Acting Badly. || 10 1| 

" This is a case,* . . . [166] . . . They know that there are other 
resident monks who have not arrived. Saying : ' These are 
perishing, these are being destroyed, what good are these to 
you ? ' they invite, aiming at a schism. While they are 
inviting, other resident monks, a larger number, arrive. Monks, 
those monks should invite again, and there is a grave offence 
for those who have invited. || i 1| 

1 Cf. MY. II. 30. 
» Cf. II. 81. I. 
» Cf. II. 31. 2. 
* Cf. II. 32. 



220 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" This is a case, . . . {cf. IV. 8 2, 3 ; Read grave offence 
instead of offence of wrong-doing ; in the case of a like number, 
a smaller number read those who have invited have duly 
invited, the rest should invite) . . . they should invite in their 
presence, and there is a grave offence for those who have 
invited." || 2 1| 
Told are the Fifteen Cases on aiming at a Schism. |I 11 || 

Told are the Seventy-five Cases. 

" This is a case,^ . . . They know that other resident monks 
are entering within the boundary. They know that other 
resident monks have entered within the boundary. They see 
other resident monks entering within the boundary. They 
see other resident monks entered within the boundary. They 
hear other resident monks entering within the boundary. 
They hear other resident monks who have entered within the 
boundary. 

" From a hundred and seventy-five triads referring to 
resident (monks) with resident (monks) ; to incoming (monks) 
with resident (monks) ; to resident (monks) with incoming 
(monks) ; to incoming (monks) with incoming (monks), there 
come to be seven hundred triads by means of (these) sets. 
il I II 12 II 

" This is a case, monks, where the fourteenth is (the Invita- 
tion day) for resident monks, the fifteenth for incoming monks 
. . . (= II. 34. 1-35. 5. Read they should invite, they invite, 
on an Invitation day instead of Observance should be carried 
out, they carry out the Observance, on an Observance day) . . . 
if he knows, ' I am able to arrive this very day '. || i || 13 || 

" Monks, one should not invite in a seated assembly before 

a nun . . .2 [167] . . . II I 3 II 

" Monks, one should not invite by giving the Invitation of 
one on probation unless the assembly has not risen.^ And, 
monks, one should not invite on a non-Invitation day unless 
the Order be unanimous." || 4 |1 14 || 

1 Cf. II. 33. 

« See II. 36. 1-3. 

» C/. II. 36. 4. 



15.1—4] MAHAVAGGAIV 221 

Now at that time in a certain residence in the Kosala 
country there came to be a menace from savages on an Invita- 
tion day.^ The monks were unable to invite by using the 
threefold formula.^ They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : "I allow you, monks, to invite by using a two-fold 
formula." The menace from the savages became even greater. 
The monks were unable to invite by using the two-fold formula. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, to invite by using a onefold formula." The menace 
from the savages became even greater. The monks were 
unable to invite by using the onefold formula. They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, to 
invite those who keep the rains (all) together." || i || 

Now at that time in a certain residence people were giving 
gifts on an Invitation day until the night was almost ended. 
Then it occurred to those monks : " People are giving gifts 
until the night is almost ended. If the Order invites by the 
threefold formula, then the Order will not be invited before 
dawn breaks. Now what line of conduct should be followed 
by us ? " They told this matter to the Lord. || 2 || 

He said : " This is a case, monks, ... (as in || 2 ||) . . . before 
dawn breaks '. The Order should be inform.ed by an experi- 
enced, competent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order 
listen to me. People [168] are giving gifts until the night is 
almost ended. If the Order invites by the threefold formula, 
then the Order will not be invited before dawn breaks. If it 
seems right to the Order, the Order may invite those who keep 
the rains together by a twofold formula, by a onefold formula. ' 

113 II _ 

" This is a case, monks, where in a certain residence on an 
Invitation day monks are speaking dhamma, those versed in 
the discourses are chanting a discourse, the discipline experts 
are propounding discipline, the talkers on dhamma are discussing 
dhamma, monks are quarrelling^ until the night is almost 

1 Cf. II. 15. 3. 

* See IV. 1. 14. As Bu. at VA . 1077 seems to imply the motion (natti) could 
be shelved if the Order approves. Then the inviting monk had merely three 
times to repeat his request to invite the Order. Above, he is allowed to curtail 
the number o"f times he makes the request. Cf. dvevdcika and tevdcika above 
MY. I. 4.5, I. 7. 10. 

^ " Quarrelling " really means arguing and disputing about points 
of dhamma and discipline. 



222 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

ended. If it then occurs to these monks : ' Monks are quarrel- 
ling until the night is almost ended. If the Order invites by 
the threefold formula, then the Order will not be invited before 
dawn breaks ', the Order should be informed by an experienced, 
competent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen 
to me. Monks are quarrelling . . . the Order will not be invited 
before dawn breaks. If it seems right to the Order, the Order 
may invite those who keep the rains together by a twofold 
formula, by a onefold formula.' " || 4 || 

Now at that time in a certain residence in the Kosala 
country a large Order of monks came to have collected together 
on an Invitation day, and (only) a small (place) was sheltered 
from the rain and a great cloud had come up. Then it occurred 
to these monks : " Now this large Order of monks has collected 
together, and (only) a small (place) is sheltered from the rain 
and a great cloud has come up. Ii the Order invites by the 
threefold formula, then the Order will not be invited before 
this cloud pours down rain. Now what line of conduct should 
be followed by us ? " They told this matter to the Lord. || 5 || 

He said : " This is a case, monks, where in a certain residence 
a large Order of monks has collected together on an Invitation 
day, and (only) a small (place) ...asin\\^\\ above) ... If it 
then occurs to these monks : ' Now this large Order of monks 
. . . pours down rain ', the Order should be informed by an 
experienced, competent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the 
Order listen to me. This large Order of monks . . . pours down 
rain. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may invite 
those who keep the rains together by a twofold formula, by a 
onefold formula.' || 6 || 

" This is a case, monks, where in a certain residence on an 
Invitation day there comes to be a danger from kings . . . from 
thieves . . . from fire . . . from water . . . from human beings 
. . . from non-human beings . . . from beasts of prey . . . from 
creeping things ... to life ... to the Brahma-faring.^ It then 
occurs to these monks : ' Now this is [169] a danger to the 
Brahma-faring. If the Order invites by the threefold formula, 
then the Order will not be invited before there is a danger to 
the Brahma-faring.' The Order should be informed by an 

* C/. above p. 148. 



15.7—16.3] MAHAvAGGAIV 223 

experienced, competent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let 
the Order listen to me. This is a danger to the Brahma- 
faring, rf the Order invites by the threefold formula, then 
the Order will not be invited before there is a danger to the 
Brahma-faring. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may 
invite those who keep the rains together by a twofold formula, 
by a onefold formula.' " I| 7 || 15 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks invited (while 
they were) offenders. They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " Monks, an offender should not invite. Whoever 
(such) should invite, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I 
allow you, monks, having obtained leave from whatever 
offender is inviting, to reprove him for the offence."^ || i || 

Now at that time the group of six monks, (although) obtain- 
ing leave, did not wish to give leave. They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : " I allow you, monks, to suspend 
the invitation^ of one not giving leave. And thus, monks, 
should it be suspended : If on an Invitation day, whether the 
fourteenth or the fifteenth, one should say in the presence of 
that individual, in the midst of the Order : ' Honoured sirs, 
let the Order listen to me. The individual so-and-so is an 
offender ; I am suspending his invitation ; one should not 
invite in his presence', the invitation comes to be suspended." 
If 2 II 

Now at that time the group of six monks, saying : " Before 
well behaved monks suspend our invitation "^, themselves sus- 
pended beforehand, without ground, without reason, the 
invitation of pure monks who were not offenders, and they also 
suspended the invitation of those who had (already) invited. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, one 
should not suspend without ground, without reason, the invita- 
tion of pure monks who are not offenders. Whoever should 
(so) suspend it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. Nor, monks, 
should one suspend the invitation of those who have invited. 
Whoever should (so) suspend it, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. II 3 II 

1 Cf. MV. II. 16. I. 

* pavdranam thapctum, cf. Vin. ii. 5, 22, 32. 
3 Cf. MV. 11.16. 3. 



224 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Monks, an invitation conies to be (duly) suspended thus, 
not (duly) suspended thus. And how, monks, does an invita- 
tion come to be not (duly) suspended ? If, monks, one 
suspends an invitation when the invitation has been spoken, 
uttered and brought to a close by the threefold formula, the 
invitation comes to be not (duly) suspended. If, monks, 
one suspends an invitation when the invitation has been spoken, 
uttered and brought to a close by a twofold formula ... by a 
onefold formula ... by those keeping the rains together, [170] 
an invitation comes to be not (duly) suspended. It is thus, 
monks, that an invitation comes to be not (dulj'^) suspended. 

II 4 II 

" And how, m.onks, does an invitation come to be (duly) 

suspended ? If, monks, one suspends an invitation when the 

invitation has been spoken, uttered, but not brought to a close^ 

by the threefold formula, the invitation comes to be (duly) 

suspended. If, m^onks, one suspends . . . but not brought to a 

close by the twofold formula ... by the onefold formula . . . 

by those keeping the rains together, the invitation comes to be 

(duly) suspended. It is thus, m.onks, that an invitation comes 

to be (duly) suspended. || 5 || 

" This is a case, m.onks, when on an Invitation day a monk 
suspends (another) mionk's invitation. If other monks know 
concerning this monk : ' This venerable one is not pure in the 
conduct of his body, he is not pure in the conduct of his speech, 
he is not pure in his mode of livelihood ; he is ignorant, inex- 
perienced ; he is not competent when being himself questioned 
to give an explanation^,' and if having snubbed^ him, they 
say : ' That's enough, m.onk, let there be no strife, let there be 
no quarrel, let there be no dispute, let there be no contention ', 
the Order may invite. || 6 || 

" This is a case, monks, ... (as in \\ 6 || above) ' ... is pure in 
the conduct of his body, but he is not pure in the conduct of 
his speech, he is not pure in his mode of livelihood ... to give 
an explanation ', . . . the Order may invite. || 7 || 

" This is a case, monks, ... (as in || 6 || above) ' ... is pure in 

^ Correct in the Pali text pariyositaya to apart-, as noted at Vin. Texts 
i. 342, n. I. 

* anuyogam ddtutjt. 

' omadditva, having cnished. VA. 1078 says that it is here a verbal 
crushing. 



16.8—12] MAHAVAGGAIV 225 

the conduct of his body, he is pure in the conduct of his speech, 
but he is not pure in his mode of livelihood . . .' . . the Order 
may invite. || 8 i| 

" This is a case, monks . . . (as m || 6 || above) ' ... is pure in 
the conduct of his body, pure in the conduct of his speech, 
pure in his mode of livelihood ; but he is ignorant, inexperi- 
enced ; he is not competent when himself being questioned ..." 
. . . the Order may invite. || 9 || 

" This is a case, monks, . . . [as in || 6 |I above) ' ... is pure 
in the conduct of his body . . . pure in his mode of livelihood ; 
he is learned, experienced ; he is competent when being himself 
questioned to give an explanation ', one should speak thus to 
him : ' If you, your reverence, suspend this monk's invitation, 
why do you suspend it ? Do you suspend it on account of a 
falling away from moral habit^ ? Do you suspend it on account 
of a falling away from good habits^ ? [171] Do you 
suspend it on account of a falling away from (right) view^ ? ' 

II 10 II 

" If he should speak thus : ' I suspend it on account of a 
falling away from moral habit ... a falling away from (right) 
view ', one should speak thus to him : ' But does your reverence 
know what is a falling away from moral habit ... a falling away 
from (right) view ? ' If he should speak thus : ' I know, your 
reverence, what is a falling away from moral habit ... a falling 
away from (right) view ', one should speak thus to him : 
' But which, your reverence, is a falling away from moral habit, 
which is a falling away from good habits, which is a falling away 
from (right) view ? ' || n || 

" If he should speak thus : ' This is a falling away from moral 
habit : the four offences involving defeat, the thirteen offences 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. This is a falling away 
from good habits : a grave offence, an offence of expiation, an 
offence which ought to be confessed, an offence of wrong-doing, 
an offence of wrong speech. This is a falling away from (right) 

^ Defined at A. i. 268 as onslaught on creatures, taking what is not given, 
wrong conduct in sense-pleasures, lying, slandering, using harsh words, 
babbling. These three " falling aways " or failures are mentioned above 
p. 82 f. 

* A. i. 268 has cittavipatti for dcdravipatti of above. 

* Defined a,t A. i. 268 in the terms of Ajita Kesakambalin's annihilationist 
views (c/. D. i. 55). 



226 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

view : a wrong view, taking up an extreme view^ ', one should 
speak thus to him : ' But if you, your reverence, suspend this 
monk's invitation, do you suspend it on account of what was 
seen, do you suspend it on account of what was heard, do you 
suspend it on account of what was suspected ? ' || 12 || 

" If he should speak thus : ' I am suspending it on account 
of what was seen, or, I am suspending it on account of what 
was heard, or, I am suspending it on account of what was 
suspected ', one should speak to him thus : ' But, if you, your 
reverence, are suspending this monk's invitation on account 
of what was seen, how have you seen, when have you seen, 
where have you seen ? Have you seen him committing an 
offence involving defeat ? Was he seen committing an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order ? Was he seen com- 
mitting a grave offence, an offence of expiation, an offence 
which ought to be confessed, an offence of wrong-doing, an 
offence of wrong speech ? And where were you ? And where 
was this monk ? And what were you doing ? And what 
was this monk doing ? ' || 13 || 

" If he should speak thus : ' But I, your reverences, am not 
suspending this monk's invitation on account of what was seen, 
but I am suspending the invitation on account of what was 
heard ', one should speak to him thus : ' But, if you, your 
reverence, suspend this monk's invitation on account of what 
was heard, what have you heard, how have you heard, when 
have you heard, where have you heard ? Did you hear that 
he had committed an offence involving defeat ? Did you hear 
that he had committed an offence entailing a formal meeting 
of the Order ? Did you hear that he had committed a grave 

1 antaggdhikd ditthi. See Morris, J.P.T.S., 1884, p. 70, " the (heretical) 
doctrine of maintaining or holding the three antas or goals, which, according 
to the Sangiti Suttanta [D. iii. 216) are sakkdyo anto, sakkayasamuddo anto, 
sakkayanirodho anto ". With D. iii. 216, cf. A. iii. 401, and see P.E.D. which 
questions Morris' interpretation of anta as goal. A ntaggdhikd ditthi also occurs 
at D. iii. 45, A. i. 154, ii. 240, iii. 130, Vbh. 367. Various such " extreme 
views " are mentioned at 5. ii. 17, ig, 63, Pts. i. 151 fif. DA. iii. 839 explains : 
" this view is called ' taking up an extreme ' through taking up the extreme 
{anta) of the annihilationists." AA. ii. 254 explains "a view established 
having taken up the extreme {anta) of what is founded on the ten " (" doctrines 
of the annihilationist ", G.S. i. 138, n. i). AA . iii. 279 explains : " established 
having taken up (the position of) the eternalist or the annihilationist." Ten 
" divers views " are mentioned at 5. iii. 258, while ten " extreme views " 
are differentiated from ten " wrong views " at NdA. i. 162. These two sets 
of ten are mentioned at Nd. i. 113, with twentv sakkayaditthi (Nd. L 112). 



16.14—17] MAHAVAGGAIV 227 

offence, an offence of expiation, an offence which ought to be 
confessed, an offence of wrong-doing, an offence of wrong 
speech ? Did you hear from a monk ? Did you hear from a 
nun ... a probationer ... a novice ... a woman novice . . . 
a layfoUower ... a woman layfoUower . . . kings . . . king's 
ministers . . . from leaders of (other) sects . . . from disciples 
of (other) sects ? ' || 14 || 

" If he should speak thus : ' But I, your reverences, am not 
suspending this monk's invitation on account of what was 
heard, but I am suspending the invitation on account of what 
was suspected ', one should speak to him thus : ' But, if you, 
your reverence, are suspending this monk's invitation on 
account of what was suspected, what did you suspect, how 
did you suspect, when did you suspect, where did you suspect ? 
[172] Did you suspect that he had committed an offence 
involving defeat ? Did you suspect that he had committed 
an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order ? Did you 
suspect that he had committed a grave offence, an offence of 
expiation, an offence which ought to be confessed, an offence 
of wrong-doing, an offence of wrong speech ? Did you suspect, 
having heard from a monk . . . from disciples of (other) sects ? ' 

II 15 II 

" If he should speak thus : ' But I, your reverences, am not 
suspending this monk's invitation on account of what was 
suspected, moreover I do not know on account of what I am 
suspending this monk's invitation ', and if, monks, the reprov- 
ing monk does not satisfy his intelligent fellows in the Brahma- 
faring with his explanation, it is sufficient to say that the 
reproved monk is blameless. But if the reproving monk 
satisfies his intelligent fellows in the Brahma-faring with his 
explanation, it is sufficient to say that the reproved monk is 
blameworthy. || 16 || 

" If that reproving monk, monks, admits that he has de- 
famed (another monk) with an unfounded charge of an offence 
involving defeat, then the Order, having charged him with an 
offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order,^ may invite. 
If, monks, that reproving monk admits that he has defamed 
(another monk) with an unfounded charge of an offence entailing 

» See For. Meet. VIII. 



228 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

a formal meeting of the Order, the Order, having had him 
dealt with according to the rule,^ may invite. If, monks, that 
reproving monk admits that he has defamed (another monk) 
with an unfounded charge involving a grave offence, an offence 
of expiation, an offence which ought to be confessed, an offence 
of wrong doing, an offence of wrong speech, the Order, having 
had him dealt with according to the rule,^ may invite. || 17 1| 

" If, monks, that reproved monk admits that he has com- 
mitted an offence involving defeat, the Order, having expelled 
him, may invite. If, monks, that reproved monk admits that 
he has committed an offence entailing a formal meeting of the 
Order, the Order, having charged him with an offence entailing 
a formal meeting of the Order, may invite. If, monks, that 
reproved monk admits that he has committed a grave offence 
... an offence of wrong speech, the Order, having had him dealt 
with according to the rule, may invite. || 18 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk comes to have com- 
mitted a grave offence on an Invitation day. Some monks 
view it as a grave offence, other monks view it as an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. Monks, those 
monks who view it as a grave offence, having led that monk 
to one side, having had him dealt with according to the rule, 
having approached the Order, should speak to it thus : ' Your 
reverences, the monk who has fallen into that offence has made 
amends for it according to rule. If it seems right to the Order, 
the Order may invite.' || 19 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk comes to have com- 
mitted a grave offence on an Invitation day. Some monks 
view it as a grave offence, other monks view it as an offence 
of expiation. Some [173] monks view it as a grave offence, 
other monks view it as an offence which ought to be confessed. 
Some monks view it as a grave offence, other monks view it as 
an offence of wrong-doing. Some monks view it as a grave 
offence, other monks view it as an offence of wrong speech. 
Monks, those monks who view it as a grave offence . . . 
(= II ig II) ' . . . the Order may invite '. || 20 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk comes to have com- 

1 See Pac. LXXVI. 

• C/. SaAgh. IX (Vin. iii. 170). VA. 1078 says that offences incurred 
in all these cases are those of wrong-doing. 



16.21—25] MAHAVAGGAIV 229 

mitted an offence of expiation on an Invitation day ... an 
offence which ought to be confessed ... an offence of wrong- 
doing ... an offence of wrong speech. Some monks view it 
as an offence of wrong speech, other monks view it as an offence 
entailing a formal meeting of the Order. Monks, those monks 
who view it as an offence of wrong speech . . . ( = || 19 ||) 
' . . . the Order may invite '. || 21 || 

" This is a case, monks, where a monk comes to have com- 
mitted an offence of wrong speech on an Invitation day. Some 
monks view it as an offence of wrong speech, other monks view 
it as a grave offence ; some nionks ... as an offence of wrong 
speech, other monks ... of expiation ; some monks . . . 
offence of wrong speech, other monks . . . which ought to be 
confessed ; some monks view it as an offence of wrong speech, 
other monks view it as an offence of wrong-doing. Monks, 
those monks who view it as an offence of wrong speech . . . 
(= II 19 II) ' . . . the Order may invite '. || 22 || 

" This is a case, monks, where if on an Invitation day a monk 
should speak in the midst of the Order, saying : ' Honoured 
sirs, let the Order listen to me. This matter is known but not 
the individual^ '. If it seems right to the Order, the Order, 
having set aside the matter, may invite^ ', and he should be 
spoken to thus : ' Your reverence. Invitation is laid down by 
the Lord for those who are pure. If the matter is known 
but not the individual, speak about that now at once.' || 23 || 

" This is a case, monks, where if on an Invitation day a 
monk should speak in the midst of the Order, saying : 
' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This individual 
is known but not the matter. If it seems right to the Order, 
the Order, having set aside the individual, may invite ; and 
he should be spoken to thus : ' Your reverence. Invitation 
is laid down by the Lord for those who are complete.^ If the 
individual is known but not the matter, speak about that now 
at once.' || 24 || 

" This is a case, monks, . . . ' Honoured sirs, let the Order 
listen to me. This matter is known and the individual. If 



^ le., the person who committed the offence or " matter ", vatthu. 

• VA. 1078 says " when we know the person, then we will reprove him, 
but let the Order invite now ". 

• A complete Order. 



230 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

it seems right to the Order, the Order, having set aside the 
matter and the individual, may invite ', and he should be 
spoken to thus : ' Your reverence. Invitation is laid down by 
the Lord for the pure and for those who are complete. If the 
matter is known and also the individual, speak about that 
now at once.' || 25 || 

" If, monks, the matter is known before an Invitation day, 
the individual afterwards, it is right to say so. If, monks, 
[174] the individual is known before an Invitation day, the 
matter afterwards, it is right to say so. If, monks, both the 
matter and the individual are known before an Invitation 
day, and (a monk) opens up (the cases) after the Invitation 
is finished, there is an offence of expiation for opening up."^ 
II 26 II 16 II ■ 

Now at that time several monks, friends and associates, 
entered on the rains in a certain residence in the Kosala 
country. In their neighbourhood other monks, makers of 
strife, makers of quarrels, makers of dispute, makers of con- 
tention, makers of legal questions in an Order, entered on the 
rains, saying : " When these monks have kept the rains we 
will suspend the invitation on an Invitation day." But those 
monks heard : " It is said that in our neighbourhood other 
monks . . . entered on the rains, saying : ' When these monks 
... on an Invitation day.' Now, what line of conduct should 
be followed by us ? " They told this matter to the Lord. || i || 

He said : " This is a case, monks, where several monks, 
friends and associates, enter on the rains in a certain residence. 
In their neighbourhood . . . {as in || i ||) ' . . . on an Invitation 
day '. I allow you, monks, to carry out two or three Obser- 
vances with these monks on the fourteenth (day) 2, thinking : 
' How can we invite before those monks (invite) ? ' If, monks, 
those monks who are makers of strife . . . makers of legal ques- 
tions in an Order, arrive at a residence, then, monks, those 

^ See Pac. 63, where it is an offence to open up for further discussion 
a matter already settled. 

• VA. 1079 says, " here, the fourth and fifth are the two ' fourteen (days) ', 
but there is usually a third ' fourteenth ' ; therefore the third and fourth, 
or the third, fourth and fifth are the two or three ' fourteenths ' that should be 
carried out. Thus there come to be two ' fourteenths '. Proceeding thus 
— the thirteenth or fourteenth for the makers of strife — ^these will invite 
on an Invitation day that is a fifteenth (day) ". 



17.2—7] MAHAVAGGAIV 231 

resident monks, having gathered together quickly, may invite ; 
and having invited, they should say (to the others) : ' We, your 
reverences, have invited ; let the venerable ones do what 
seems fitting.' || 2 || 

" If, monks, those monks who are makers of strife . . . 
makers of legal questions in the Order, arrive unexpectedly at 
that residence, those resident monks should make ready a seat, 
they should bring forward water for washing the feet, a foot- 
stool, a footstand, having gone to meet them they should 
receive their bowls and robes, they should offer them drinking 
water ; having looked after them, (then) having gone outside 
the boundary, they may invite ; having invited, they should 
say (to the others) : ' We, your reverences, have invited ; 
let the venerable ones do what seems fitting.' || 3 || 

" If they should thus manage this, it is good. But if they 
do not manage it, the resident monks should be informed by 
an experienced, competent resident monk, saying : ' Let the 
venerable ones who are residents listen to me. If it seems right 
to the venerables ones, we may now carry out the Observance, 
we may recite the Patimokkha, [175] we may invite on the 
next new-moon day^ '. If, monks, those monks who are 
makers of strife . . . makers of legal questions in the Order, 
should speak thus to these monks : ' All right, your reverences, 
but let us invite now at once ', they should be spoken to thus : 
' But you, your reverences, are not masters of our Invitation 
(-day), we will not invite yet '. || 4 || 

"If, monks, these monks who are makers of strife . . . 
makers of legal questions in the Order, should stay on until 
that new-moon day, then, monks, the resident monks should 
be informed by an experienced, competent resident monk . . . 
' ... let us invite on the next full-moon day^ ' ... {as in \\ 4 ||) 
' ... we will not invite yet '. || 5 || 

" If, monks, those monks who are makers of strife . . . 
should stay on until that full-moon day, then monks, these 
monks, each and every one, must invite on the next full-moon 
day of the komudt cdtumdsini,^ (even if) they are unwilling. || 6 H 

" If, monks, while these monks are themselves inviting, an 

1 kale. "^ 

• ju^ihe : cf, above, p 185. 

• See above, p. 205, n. 3. 



232 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

ill one suspends the invitation of one who is not ill, he should 
be spoken to thus : ' The venerable one is ill, and it is said by 
the Lord that one who is ill is not able to endure being ques- 
tioned. Wait, your reverence, until you are well, when you 
are well you can reprove him if you desire to do so.' If being 
spoken to thus, he (nevertheless) reproves him, in disrespect 
there is an offence of expiation.^ || 7 || 

" If, monks, while these monks are themselves inviting, 
one who is not ill suspends an ill one's invitation, he should be 
spoken to thus : ' Your reverence, this monk is ill, and it is 
said by the Lord that one who is ill is not able to endure being 
questioned. Wait, your reverence, until this monk is well ; 
when he is well you can reprove him if you desire to do so '. 
If being spoken to thus, he (nevertheless) reproves him, in 
disrespect there is an offence of expiation. || 8 || 

" If, monks, while these monks are themselves inviting, an 
ill one suspends an ill one's invitation, he should be spoken 
to thus : ' The venerable ones are ill . . . being questioned. 
Wait, your reverence, until you are (both) well ; when he is 
well you can reprove him if you desire to do so '. If, being 
spoken to thus, he (nevertheless) reproves him, in disrespect 
there is an offence of expiation. || 9 || 

" If, monks, while these monks are themselves inviting, one 
who is not ill suspends the invitation of (another) who is not 
ill, the Order having questioned both closely and cross- 
questioned them, having had them dealt with according to the 
rule, may invite." || 10 || 17 || 

Now at that time several monks, friends and companions, 
[176] entered on the rains in a certain residence in the Kosala 
country. While these were staying together on friendly terms 
and harmonious, a certain comfort was arrived at. Then it 
occurred to these monks : " While we are stajdng together 
. . . arrived at. But if we should invite now, it may be that 
(some) monks, having invited, may set forth on tour, and so 
we will come to lose^ this comfort. Now what line of conduct 
should be followed by us ? " They told this matter to the 
Lord. II I II 

1 Cf. also Pac. LIV. 

* paribahird, external to, outside ; as a noun, outsiders. 



18.2—5] MAHAVAGGAIV 233 

He said : " This is a case, monks, where several monks, 
friends and companions, enter on the rains in a certain residence. 
While these are staying together . . . arrived at. If it then 
occurs to these monks : ' While we are staying together . . . 
so we will come to lose this comfort '. I allow you, monks, 
to make a protection of an Invitation day.^ || 2 || 

" And thus, monks, should it be made : Each and every 
one should gather together in the same place ; when they have 
gathered together, the Order should be informed by an experi- 
enced competent monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order 
listen to me. While we were staying together ... so will we 
come to lose this comfort. If it seems right to the Order, the 
Order may make a protection of an Invitation day, it may 
carry out the Observance, it may recite the Patimokkha now ; 
the Order may invite on the next komudl cdtumdsint day. 
This is the motion. || 3 || 

" ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. While we 
were staying together ... so will we come to lose this comfort. 
The Order is making a protection of the Invitation day ; it 
will carry out the Observance, it will recite the Patimokkha 
now ; it will invite on the next komudl cdtumdsinl day. If 
the making a protection of the Invitation day (by the Order) 
is pleasing to the venerable ones (so that) it will carry out 
the Observance, will recite the Patimokkha now, and will 
invite on the next komudl cdtumdsinl day, you should be silent ; 
he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. A protection of 
the Invitation day is made by the Order, it will carry out the 
Observance, it wiU recite the Patimokkha now, cOid it will 
invite on the next komudl cdtumdsinl day. It is pleasing 
to the Order, therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand 
this.' II 4 II 

" If, monks, when these monks have made a protection of an 
Invitation day, any monk should speak thus : ' I want, your 
reverences, to set forth on a tour of the country, I have business 
to do in the country ', he should be spoken to thus : ' Very 

^ pavdrartdsamgaha. VA. 1080 says that "when the pavdrapdsatngaha 
has been given, there comes to be as it were an avoidance during the rains ; 
incoming monks can not take their (the resident ones') lodgings, nor should 
the rains be cut short by them, for, having invited, they get the chance 
to set out on tour even during (the rains) ". The monks protect their harmony 
by postponing the Invitation day to the end of the rainy season. 



234 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

well, your reverence, you can go when you have invited.' 
And [177] if, monks, that monk, while he is inviting, suspends 
another's invitation, he should be spoken to thus : ' You, 
your reverence, are not master of my Invitation day, I will 
not invite yet '. And if, monks, any monk suspends that 
monk's invitation while that monk is inviting, the Order, 
having questioned both closely and cross-questioned them, 
should have them dealt with according to the rule. || 5 || 

" If, monks, that monk, having concluded his business in 
the country, returns again to that residence before the komuM 
catumdsim day and if, monks, while those monks are inviting, 
ciny monk suspends that monk's invitation, he should be spoken 
to thus : ' You, your reverence, are not master of my Invitation 
day, I have invited (already) '. If, monks, while those monks 
are inviting, that monk suspends any monk's invitation, the 
Order, having questioned both closely and having cross- 
questioned them, and having had them dealt with according 
to the rule, may invite." || 6 || 18 || 

The Fourth Section : that on Invitation 

In this Section are forty-six items. This is its key : — 

Having kept the rains they went to see the teacher in Kosala, 
communion that was uncomfortable (and) like beasts, suitable 

in regard to one another. 
Inviting on a seat,^ and two, (formal) act, ill one, relations, 
kings, and thieves, and men of abandoned life, likewise monks 

who are enemies of monks. 
Five, four, three, two, one, fallen, he doubted, he remembered, 
the whole Order, being in doubt, greater, Hke, smaller (number). 
Resident monks, the fourteenth, the two communions by mark, 
should arrive, not in a seated (assembly), giving leave of 

absence, non-invitation. 
About savages, almost ended, great cloud, and an obstacle, 

invitation, 
they do not give (leave), ' in case our ', and not (duly) suspended, 

for a monk. 



^ pavdrentdpapd. I follow the reading pavdrent 'dsane of Cing. edn., and 
as suggested by Oldenberg at Vin. i. 379 (see 1| 2 ||). 



MAHAVAGGA IV 235 

' Or on what ? ', and which in regard to what is seen, heard, 

suspected, 
reproving and reproved, grave offence, matter, strife. 
And a protection of an Invitation day, not master, may 

invite. [178] 



236 



THE GREAT DIVISION (MAHAVAGGA) V 

At one time the awakened one, the Lord, was staying at 
Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak. Now at that time King 
Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha ruled with supreme authority 
over eighty thousand villages. Now at that time, at Campa, 
a merchant's son called Sona Kolivisa^ was delicately nurtured 
and down came to have grown on the soles of his feet. Then 
King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, having had those eighty 
thousand village overseers^ convened, sent a messenger to Sona 
Kolivisa on some business, saying : " Let Sona come, I want 
Sona to come." || i || 

Then Sona Kolivisa's parents spoke thus to Sona Kolivisa : 
" The king, dear Sona, wants to see your feet. Do not you, 
dear Sona, stretch out your feet towards the king ; sit down 
cross-legged in front of the king, and as you are sitting down 
the king wiU see your feet." Then they sent Sona Kolivisa 
away in a palanquin. Then Sona Kolivisa approached King 
Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, having approached, having 
greeted King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, he sat down 
cross-legged in front of the king. So King Seniya Bimbisara 
of Magadha saw the down that was growing on the soles of 
Sona Kolivisa's feet. || 2 || 

Then King Seniya Binbisara of Magadha, having instructed 
those eighty thousand village overseers in matters concerning 
this world, dismissed them, saying : " You, good sirs, are now 
instructed by me in matters concerning this world ; go along, 
pay homage to this Lord, and our Lord wiU instruct you in 
transcendental matters." Then those eighty thousand village 
overseers approached Mount Vulture Peak. || 3 || 

Now at that time the venerable Sagata^' was the Lord's 
attendant. Then those eighty thousand village overseers 

^ This Sona episode recurs, in a shorter form, at A . iii. 374-9. Sona's verses 
at Thag. 632-644. Legend of how he came to be called Sona (golden) given 
in Thag A . (see Pss. Breth. p. 275 f.), and AAA. 233 f. At ^ . i. 24 he is called 
foremost of those who put forth energy ; his clan name is there spelt Kolivisa. 

' VA. 1 08 1 speaks of these as sons of (respectable) families living in these 
villages. 

' Cf. Vin. iv. 108, where Sagata's behaviour gave rise to the offence of 
drinking strong drink. See B.D. ii. 382, n. 6. 



1.4—7] MAHAVAGGAV 237 

approached the venerable Sagata ; having approached, [179] 
they spoke thus to the venerable Sagata : " Honoured sir, 
these eighty thousand village overseers are approaching here 
to see the Lord. It were good, honoured sir, if we might have 
a chance to see the Lord." 

" Well, then, do you, venerable ones, remain^ here for a 
moment until I have let the Lord know." || 4 || 

Then the venerable Sagata, having stepped down^ from the 
moonstone (step)^ in front of the eighty thousand watching 
village overseers, having stepped up^ in front of the Lord, 
spoke thus to the Lord : " Lord, these eighty thousand village 
overseers are approaching here to see the Lord. Lord, does 
the Lord think it is now the right time for this ? " 

" Well, then, do you, Sagata, make a seat ready in the shade 
of the dwelling-place." || 5 || 

" Very well. Lord," and the venerable Sagata having 
answered the Lord in assent, having taken a chair, having 
stepped down from in front of the Lord, having stepped up 
on the moonstone (step) in front of the eighty thousand 
watching village overseers, made ready a seat in the shade of 
the dwelling-place. Then the Lord, having issued from the 
dwelling-place, sat down on the seat made ready in the shade 
of the dwelling-place. || 6 || 

Then those eighty thousand village overseers approached 
the Lord ; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they 
sat down at a respectful distance. Then those eighty thousand 
village overseers paid respect only to the venerable Sagata, 
not likewise to the Lord. Then the Lord, knowing by reasoning 
of mind the minds of those eighty thousand village overseers, 
addressed the venerable Sagata, saying : " Well then, do 
you, Sagata, abundantly show a state of further-men,* a 
wonder of psychic power." 



^ hotha. 

* nimujjitvd . . . ummujjitvd. These two verbs are often used of plunging 
into and emerging from water. Here they seem to mean getting off one step 
and on to another. 

' pdtikd, such as is (in the old cities of Ceylon) an architectural feature 
placed at the bottom of a short flight of steps leading up to a vihdra or a 
" temple ". See Mhvs. 31, 6i. Nowadays it is called " moonstone step ", 
although in shape it is half a circle. It is called " half-moon stone ", 
addhacandapdsdna, at VA. 1081. 

* uttarimanussadhanima. See B.D. L, Intr. p. xxiv £f. 



238 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Very well. Lord," and the venerable Sagata, having 
answered the Lord in assent, having risen above the ground,^ 
paced up and down in the air, in the atmosphere, and he stood, 
and he sat down, and he lay down, and he smoked^ and he 
blazed,^ and then he vanished. || 7 || 

Then the venerable Sagata, having shown in the air, in the 
atmosphere, various states of further-men and wonders of 
psychic power, having inclined his head towards the Lord's 
feet, spoke thus to the Lord : " Lord, the Lord is my teacher, 
I am a disciple ; Lord, the Lord is my teacher, I am a disciple ". 
Then those eighty thousand village overseers, saying : " Indeed 
it is marvellous, indeed, it is wonderful, that even a disciple 
can be of such great psychic power, of such great might. 
What must the teacher be ? " paid respect only to the Lord, 
not likewise to the venerable Sagata. || 8 || 

Then the Lord, knowing by reasoning of mind the minds 
of those eighty thousand village overseers, talked a pro- 
gressive talk,* that is to say talk on giving, talk on moral 
habit, [180] talk on heaven, he explained the peril, the vanity, 
the depravity of pleasures of the senses, the advantage in 
renouncing (them). When the Lord knew that their minds 
were ready, malleable, devoid of the hindrances, uplifted, 
pleased, then he explained to them that teaching on dhamma 
which the awakened ones have themselves discovered : ill, 
uprising, stopping, the way. And as a clean cloth without 
black specks will easily take dye, even so as those eighty 
thousand village overseers were (sitting) on that very seat, 
dhamma--v\sioii, dustless, stainless, arose : that, " whatever 
is of the nature to uprise, aU that is of the nature to stop." || 9 || 

These, having seen dhamma,^ attained dhamma, known 
dhamma, plunged into dhamma, having crossed over doubt, 
having put away uncertainty, having attained without another's 
help to full confidence in the teacher's instruction, spoke thus 
to the Lord: "Excellent, Lord, it is excellent, Lord. Just as. 



* See B.D. i. p. 79, n. 6. 

• dhup&yati. At Vin. iv. 109 a verb used to describe his activities 
is padhupdsi, he blew forth smoke. 

• He is also said to have blazed at Vin. iv. 109 

* Cf. Vin. i. 15-16. 
» Cf. Vin. i. 12. 



l.io— 13] MAHAVAGGAV 239 

Lord, one should set upright what has been upset or should 
uncover what is covered or should point out the way to one 
who is astray or should bring a lamp into the darkness so that 
those with eyes might see forms, even so is dhamma explained 
in many a figure by the Lord. We, Lord, are those going to 
the Lord for refuge, to dhamma and to the Order of monks. 
May the Lord receive us as layfollowers gone for refuge on this 
day for as long as life lasts." || 10 || 

Then it occurred to Sona Kolivisa : " In so far as I under- 
stand dhamma taught by the Lord it is not easy for those 
who live in a house to lead the Brahma-faring that is wholly 
complete, wholly pure, and polished like a conch-shell. What 
now if I, having cut off hair and beard, having donned yellow 
robes, should go forth from home into homelessness ? " Then 
those eighty thousand village overseers, delighted with the 
Lord's speech, having given thanks for it, having risen from 
the seat, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping their 
right sides towards him. || 11 || 

Then Sona Kolivisa, soon after those eighty thousand 
village overseers had departed, approached the Lord ; having 
approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respect- 
ful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, 
Sona Kolivisa spoke thus to the Lord : " In so far as I, Lord, 
understand dhamma taught by the Lord it is not easy for those 
who live in a house to lead the Brahma-faring that is whoUy 
complete, whoUy pure and polished like a conch-sheU. I want. 
Lord, having cut off hair and beard, having donned yellow 
robes, to go forth from home into homelessness. Lord, may 
the Lord let me go forth." So Sona Kolivisa received the 
going forth in the Lord's presence, he received ordination. 
And soon after he was ordained [181] the venerable Sona stayed 
in the Cool Grove. || 12 || 

Because of his great output of energy in pacing up and down 
his feet broke, the place for pacing up and down in became 
stained with blood as though there had been slaughter of cattle. 
Then as the venerable Sona was meditating in private a 
reasoning arose in his mind thus : " Those who are the Lord's 
disciples dwell putting forth energy ; I am one of these, yet 
my mind is not freed from the cankers with no grasping, and 
moreover there are my family's possessions. It might be 



240 BOO KOF DISCIPLINE 

possible to enjoy the possessions and to do good. Suppose 
that I, having returned to the low life, should enjoy the 
possessions and should do good ? " I| 13 || 

Then the Lord, knowing by mind the venerable Sona's 
reasoning of mind, as a strong man might stretch out his bent 
arm, or might bend back his outstretched arm, so did he, 
vanishing from Mount Vulture Peak, appear in the Cool 
Grove.i Then the Lord, touring the lodgings together with 
several monks, approached the venerable Sona's place for 
pacing up and down in. The Lord saw that the venerable 
Sona's place for pacing up and down in was stained with 
blood, and seeing (this), he addressed the monks, saying : 

" Now why, monks, is this place for pacing up and down in 
stained with blood as though there has been slaughter of 
cattle ? " 

" Lord, because of the venerable Sona's great energy in 
pacing up and down his feet broke, and this place for pacing 
up and down in is stained with his blood as though there had 
been slaughter of cattle." || 14 || 

Then the Lord approached the venerable Sona's dwelling- 
place, and having approached he sat down on an appointed 
seat. And the venerable Sona, having greeted the Lord, sat 
down at a respectful distance. The Lord spoke thus to the 
venerable Sona as he was sitting at a respectful distance : 

" Sona, as you were meditating in private did not a reasoning 
arise in your mind like this : ' Those who are the Lord's 
disciples dwell putting forth energy . . . {as in \\ 13 ||) . . . 
Suppose that I, having returned to the low Hfe, should enjoy 
the possessions and should do good ' ? " 

" Yes, Lord." 

" What do you think about this, Sona ? Were you clever 
at the lute's stringed music when formerly you were a house- 
holder ? " 

" Yes, Lord." 

" What do you think about this, Sona ? When the strings 
of your lute were too taut, was your lute at that time tuneful 
and fit for playing ? " 

" No, indeed, Lord." || 15 || 

* ^, iii. 374 adds, after Cool Grove, " in front of the venerable Soi^ia ". 
This would balance end of || 17 |i below. 



I.x6— 18] MAHAVAGGAV 241 

What do you think about this, Sona ? When the strings 
of your lute were too slack, was your lute at that time tuneful 
and fit for playing ? " 

" No, indeed. Lord." 

" What do you think about this, Sona ? When the strings 
of your lute were neither too taut nor too slack, but were keyed 
to an even pitch^, was your lute at that time tuneful and fit 
for playing ? " 

" Yes, Lord." 

" Even so, Sona, does too much output of energy conduce 
to restlessness, [182] does too feeble energy conduce to sloth- 
fulness. II 16 II 

" Therefore do you, Sona, determine upon evenness^ in 
energy and pierce the evenness of the faculties^ and reflect 
upon it.* " 

" Yes, Lord," the venerable Sona answered the Lord in 
assent. Then the Lord, having exhorted the venerable Sona 
with this exhortation,* as a strong man might stretch out his 
bent arm or might bend back his outstretched arm, so did he, 
vanishing from in front of the venerable Sona in the Cool 
Grove, appear on Mount Vulture Peak. || 17 || 

After that^ the venerable Sona determined upon evenness 
in energy and he pierced the evenness of the faculties and 
reflected upon it. Then the venerable Sona, dwelling alone, 
aloof, earnest, ardent, self-resolute, having soon realised here 
and now by his own super-knowledge that supreme goal of the 
Brahma-faring for the sake of which young men of family 
rightly go forth from home into homelessness, abided in it, and 
he understood : Destroyed is birth, lived is the Brahma-faring, 

^ same gune patitthitd. 

* On the readings samatam (as here) and samatham, see G.S. iii. 267, n. 3. 
The former is perhaps the more likely to be meant, and would carry out 
the idea of the " even pitch ". 

' indriyanam ca samatam pativijjha. VA. says: "pierce the evenness, 
the even nature of the faculty of faith and so on, the evenness of the faculties 
that are connected : so faith with wisdom and wisdom with faith, energy 
with contemplation and contemplation with energy." 

* tattha ca nimittam ganhahi. Nimittam ganhdti can mean to grasp a sign, 
a salient feature; or to reflect on a mental object. VA. 1081 says: 
mindfulness as to this evenness should arise ; seize on that characteristic 
of (or, reflect on) tranquillity, insight, the ways, the fruits, and practise these. 

' Referred to at AA. i. 237 as vinovdda, the exhortation on the lute ; cf. 
Pss. Breth. p. 276. 

* aparena samayena. 



242 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

done is what was to be done, there is no more of being such 
and such. And so the venerable Sona became one of the per- 
fected ones. II i8 II 

When the venerable Sona had attained perfection, it occurred 
to him : " Suppose I were to declare profound knowledge^ in 
the Lord's presence ? " Then the venerable Sona approached 
the Lord ; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he 
sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at 
a respectful distance, the venerable Sona spoke thus to the 
Lord: II 19 II 

" Lord, that monk who is one perfected, who has destroyed 
the cankers, lived the life, done what was to be done, shed the 
burden, won his own goal, destroyed utterly the fetter of 
becoming, and is wholly freed by profound knowledge, he 
comes to be intent upon^ six matters : he comes to be intent 
upon renunciation, he comes to be intent upon aloofness, he 
comes to be intent upon non-harming, he comes to be intent 
upon the destruction of grasping, he comes to be intent upon 
the destruction of craving; he comes to be intent upon non- 
confusion. II 20 II 

" Perhaps, Lord, one of the venerable ones here might think : 
* Could it be that this venerable one is intent upon renunciation 
depending upon mere faith alone ? ' But this, Lord, is not 
to be regarded thus. Lord, the monk who has destroyed the 
cankers, has lived the life, done what was to be done, not seeing 
aught in himself to be done or to be added to what has been 
done, being passionless comes to be intent on renunciation 
because of the destruction of passion, being without hatred 
comes to be intent on renunciation because of the destruction 
of hatred, being without confusion comes to be intent on 
renunciation because of the destruction of confusion. || 21 || 

" Perhaps, Lord, one of the venerable ones here might 
think : ' Could it be that this venerable one [183] is intent on 
aloofness while hankering after gains, honour, fame ? ' But 
this, Lord, is not to be regarded thus. Lord, the monk who 
has destroyed the cankers ... or to be added to what has been 
done, being passionless comes to be intent on aloofness because 



^ a^aa, gnosis. 

* adhimtUta, striving for. 



1.22—25] MAHAVAGGAV 243 

of the destruction of passion, being without hatred . . . being 
without confusion comes to be intent on aloofness because 
of the destruction of confusion. || 22 || 

" Perhaps, Lord, one of the venerable ones here might think : 
' Could it be that this venerable one is intent on non-harming, 
is backshding from the essence to the contagion of habit and 
custom^ ? ' But this, Lord, is not to be regarded thus. Lord, 
the monk who has destroyed the cankers ... or to be added to 
what has been done, being passionless comes to be intent on 
non-harming because of the destruction of passion, being 
without hatred . . . being without confusion comes to be intent 
on non-harming because of the destruction of confusion. || 23 || 

" Being passionless he comes to be intent on the destruction 
of grasping because of the destruction of passion, being without 
hatred he comes to be intent on the destruction of grasping 
because of the destruction of hatred, being without confusion 
he comes to be intent on the destruction of grasping because 
of the destruction of confusion ; being passionless he comes 
to be intent on the destruction .of craving because of the 
destruction of passion, being without hatred he comes to be 
intent on the destruction of craving because of the destruction 
of hatred, being without confusion he comes to be intent on 
the destruction of craving because of the destruction of con- 
fusion ; being passionless he comes to be intent on non- 
confusion because of the destruction of passion, being without 
hatred he comes to be intent on non-confusion because of the 
destruction of hatred, being without confusion he comes to be 
intent on non-confusion because of the destruction of con- 
fusion. II 24 II 

" Thus, Lord, even if ^ shapes cognisable by the eye come 
very strongly into the field of vision of a monk whose mind is 
wholly freed, they do not obsess his mind for his mind comes 
to be undefiled,^ firm, won to composure, and he notes its 



^ sllabbataparamasa. VA. 1082 explains: stlan ca vatan ca paramasitva 
gahitam gahanamattam, " the mere holding on to what is held to, having 
rubbed up against (come into contact with) moral habit (or, good works) 
and custom " (as though this were enough). 

* As also at A . iv. 404. 

' amissikata. VA. 1082 explains this to mean unmixed with (or, undefiled 
by) the kilesas (obstructions). 



244 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

passing hence.^ If sounds cognisable by the ear ... if scents 
cognisable by the nose ... if tastes cognisable by the tongue 
... if touches cognisable by the body ... if mental objects' 
cognisable by the mind' come very strongly into the field of 
thought of a monk whose mind is wholly freed, they do not 
obsess his mind for his mind comes to be undefiled, firm, won 
to composure, and he notes its passing hence. |1 25 || 

" It is as if, Lord, there were a rocky mountain slope without 
a cleft, without a hollow, of one mass, and as if wild wind and 
rain should come very strongly from the eastern quarter — 
it would neither tremble nor quake nor shake violently ; and 
as if wild wind and rain should come very strongly from the 
western quarter . . . from the northern quarter . . . from the 
southern quarter — it would neither tremble nor quake nor 
shake violently. Even so, Lord, if shapes cognisable by the 
eye come very strongly into the field of \dsion of a monk 
whose mind is wholly freed ... if mental objects cognisable 
by the mind come very strongly into the field of thought of a 
monk whose mind is wholly freed, they do not obsess his mind, 
for his mind comes to be undefiled, firm, won to composure, 
and he notes. its passing hence." || 26 || 
If one is intent upon renunciation and mind's aloofness*, 
If one is intent upon non-harming and destruction of 

grasping, [184] 
If one is intent upon destruction of craving and mind's 

non-confusion. 
Having seen sensations' rise, his mind is wholly freed. 
For that monk whose mind is calmed and wholly freed 
There is nothing to add to what has been done, there is 

naught to be done. 
As a rock of one mass by wind is never moved,* 
So shapes, tastes, sounds, scents, touches and all 

• VA. 1083 says this means: "he sees the arising and passing away 
of that mind ", tassa cittassa uppadam pi vayam pi passati. 

• dhamma. 

• mano. 

• These lines, to the end, form the conclusion of the verses ascribed to 
So9a Kolivfea at Ttuig. 640-644. They also occur at A. iii. 378 f. Metrical 
translations are at Pss. Breth. 277 and G.S. iii. 269 f. Version above, and that 
at Vin. Texts ii. 12 are rather more literal in places ; but none of the others 
recognises that dhamma means mental objects (last line but one), and already 
referred to by So^a (as the sixth " sense-datam "). 

» This line occurs at Dh. 81. 



1.27—30] MAHAVAGGAV 245 

Pleasant and unpleasant mental objects^ stir not a man like 
this. 

His mind is firm, well freed, ^ and he notes its passing hence. 
II 27 II 

Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying : " Thus, monks, 
do young men of family declare profound knowledge. The 
goal is spoken of but the self is not obtruded. But then it 
seems to me that there are some foolish men here who declare 
profound knowledge for fun ; these afterwards come to 
disaster." 3 || 28 || 

Then the Lord addressed the venerable Sona, saying : 
" You, Sona, have been delicately nurtured. I allow for you, 
Sona, sandals with one lining." 

" But I, Lord, gave up eighty cartloads of gold* when I 
went forth from home into homelessness, and a herd of seven 
elephants.^ Because of this there will be speakers against 
me, saying : ' Sona Kolivisa gave up eighty cartloads of gold 
when he went forth from home into homelessness, and a herd 
of seveii elephants ; and now this very (person) is clinging on 
to' sandals with one lining.' || 29 || 

" If the Lord will allow them to the Order of monks, I too 
will make use of them, but if the Lord will not allow them to the 
Order of monks, neither will I make use of them." Then the 
Lord on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed 
the monks, saying : 

" Monks, I allow sandals with one lining. Monks, doubly 
lined' sandals should not be worn, trebly lined' sandals should 



^ See note at MV I. 11. 2 (above) for further references. 
' Thag. 644 reads visannuttam instead of vippamuttam (as above and at 
^.iii. 379). 

• This paragraph occurs at A. iii. 359. Cf. A. i. 218 ; G.S. i, 198, n. 2 ; 
Miln. 396. VA. 1083 explains " the goal is spoken of " by saying " if he is 
called an arahant, that is the goal spoken of. But properly [eva) it should 
be taken as ' the meaning of a sutta from the explanation of a suttanta ' " 
{attha means both goal and meaning). It explains " the self is not obtruded " 
as " if (the profound knowledge) is declared thus, ' I am an arahant ', the self 
is not obtruded " (or mentioned or brought forward, na upanlta). 

• Misprint at Vin. i. 185 has been corrected at Vin. Texts ii. 13, n, 3 to 
asltisakatavahe hir annum. 

• VA. 1083 says that here this herd (retinue, array, anlka) is called six 
cow-elephants and one bull-elephant. 

• satto (with instrumental), or ' is enamoured of '. 
' diguna . . . tiguna. 



246 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

not be worn, sandals with many linings^ should not be worn. 
Whoever should wear (any of these), there is an offence of 
wrong-doing." || 30 || 1 1| 

Now at that time the group of six monks wore sandals that 
were entirely dark green^ . . . that were entirely yellow . . . 
that were entirely red . . . that were entirely crimson . . that 
were entirely black . . . that were dyed entirely orange^ . . 
that were dyed entirely multi-coloured.* People looked down 
upon, criticised, spread it about, saying : " Like householders 
who enjoy pleasures of the senses." They told this matter to 
the Lord. He said : 

'* Monks, sandals that are entirely dark green are not to be 
worn . . . sandals that are dyed entirely multi-coloured are not 
to be worn. Whoever should wear (any of these), there is an 
offence of wrong-doing." |1 1 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks [185] wore sandals 
with dark green straps^ . . . with yeUow straps . . . with red 
straps . . . with crimson straps . . . with black straps , . . with 
dyed orange straps . . . with dyed multi-coloured straps. People 
. . . spread it about, saying : " Like householders who enjoy 
pleasures of the senses ". They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : 

" Monks, sandals with dark green straps . . . sandals with 
dyed multi-coloured straps are not to be worn. Whoever should 
wear (any of these), there is an offence of wrong-doing." |1 2 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks wore sandals with 
heel-coverings' . . . sandals that were knee-boots^ . . . sandals 



^ ganamganupahana : VA. 1083 says "sandals with upwards of four 
linings ". 

* nllika. See B.D. ii. 407, n. 2, 408, n. i, 2. 

• mahdrangaratta. VA. 1083, " the colour of a centipede's back ". 

* mahandmaratta. VA. 1083 says, " it is when the colours are mixed, 
the colours of pale foliage, but the Kurundiya calls it the colours of the 
^adwma-lotus flowers ". These could be red or white. Mahdndtna may be 
the name of a plant, howevei. 

' vattikd. VA. 1084 reads va4dhikd, and explains by vaddha. 

• khallakabaddha. Cf. PvA. 127. See note at Vin. Texts ii. 15 on doubtful 
meaning of the nature of all these forms of foot-covering, so curiously called 
updhana, sandals or slippers. 

' pufabaddha. VA. 1084 says "it is called a Greek {yonaka) sandal; 
it covers the whole foot as far as the knee ". 



2.3—3.1] MAHAVAGGAV 247 

that were top-boots^ . . . sandals that were filled with cotton ^ 
. . . sandals of (many hues like) partridges' wings^ . . . sandals 
pointed with rams' horns . . . sandals pointed with goats' 
horns . . . sandals (ornamented) with scorpions' tails . . . sandals 
sewn round with peacocks' tail feathers . . . embroidered* 
sandals. People looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, 
saying : " Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the 
senses ". They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, sandals with heel-coverings should not be worn . . . 
embroidered sandals should not be worn. Whoever should 
wear (any of these), there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 3 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks wore sandals 
decorated with lion-skins ^ . . . with tiger-skins . . . with panther- 
skins . . . with black antelope-skins . . . with otters-skins . . . 
with cat-skins . . . with squirrel-skins . . . with owl-skins'. 
People . . . spread it about, saying : " Like householders who 
enjoy pleasures of the senses." They told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : 

" Monks, sandals decorated with lion-skins , . . with owl- 
skins are not to be worn. Whoever should wear (any of these) 
there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 4 1| 2 !| 

Then the Lord, having dressed in the morning, taking his 
bowl and robe, entered Rajagaha for almsfood with a certain 
monk as his attendant. Then that monk went limping along 
behind the Lord. A certain lay follower, having put on sandals 
with many linings, saw the Lord coming from alar ; seeing 
him, having taken off his sandals, he approached the Lord ; 



* paligunthima. These covered the upper pdda, foot or leg, but not the 
knee, VA. 1084. 

' tulapunfiika. On the three kinds of cotton, ttUa, see B.D. iii. 92, and 
n. 2 there. 

' tittirapattika. VA. 1084 explains by tittirapattasadisd vicittavaddhd, 
which is followed in above translation, although " dyed multi-coloured " 
has already been dealt with. 

* dtra ; often means variously coloured or gaily coloured. Cf. citriXpdhana 
at D. i. 7. 

' VA. 1084 "they are made having joined the lion-skin to the edges, 
as to a seam of a robe ". 

* udda. Meaning uncertain, see Vin. Texts ii. 16, n. 5. Both 
Coomaraswamy, Some Pali Words, HJAS, Vol. IV, no. 2, p, 133, and DPPN 
sub. art. Dabbapuppha Jataka, take udda as otter. Cf. uddapota at Cp. I. 

X. 2. 

' VA. 1084 explains uluka, owl, by pakkhibifdla, flying fox. 



248 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

having approached, having greeted the Lord, he approached 
that monk ; having approached, having greeted that monk, 
he spoke thus : || 1 1| 

" Why, honoured sir, does the master limp ? " 

" My feet are split, sir." 

" See, honoured sir, here are sandals." [186] 

" No, sir, sandals with many linings are objected to^ by 
the Lord." 

"Take these sandals, monk."^ Then the Lord in this 
connection having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, 
saying : 

" I allow you, monks, sandals with many linings that have 
been cast off. Monks, new sandals with many linings are 
not to be worn. Whoever should wear (these), there is an 
offence of wrong-doing." Il 2 1| 3 |I 

Now at that time the Lotd was pacing up and down without 
sandals in the open air. Monks who were elders, thinking : 
" The teacher is pacing up and down without sandals ", also 
paced up and down without sandals. The group of six monks, 
while the teacher was pacing up and down without sandals 
and while monks who were elders were pacing up and down 
without sandals, paced up and down with sandals on. Those 
who were modest monks . . . spread it about, syaing : " How 
can this group of six monks, while the teacher is pacing up 
and down without sandals, and while monks who are elders 
are pacing up and down without sandals, pace up and down 
with sandals on ? " || i || 

Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks, 
while the teacher . . . with sandals on ? " 

" It is true, Lord." The awakened one, the Lord, rebuked 
them, saying : 

" How monks, can these foolish men, while the teacher was 
pacing up and down without sandals, and while monks who 
are elders were pacing up and down without sandals, pace up 



^ pafikkhitta. Note that he does not say " not allowed ". 

■ As pointed out at Vin. Texts ii. 17, n. i, this must be understood as 
spoken by Gotama. A layman did not address a monk as " monk ", but 
Gotama is constantly recorded to do so. 



4.2—5.2] MAHAVAGGA V 249 

and down with sandals on ? For, monks, even these white- 
frocked householders, on account of procuring a craft for their 
livelihood, will be respectful, deferential, courteous^ towards 
their teachers. || 2 || 

" Herein, monks, let your light shine forth so that you who 
have thus gone forth in this dhamma and discipline which are 
well taught may be^ respectful, deferential, courteous towards 
teachers,' grades of teachers,* preceptors, grades of preceptors, ^ 
It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) 
pleased ..." and having rebuked them, having given reasoned 
talk, he addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, you should not pace up and down with sandals 
on while teachers, grades of teachers, preceptors, grades of 
preceptors are pacing up and down without sandals. Whoever 
should (so) pace up and down, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. And, monks, you should not wear sandals within a 
monastery. Whoever should wear them (there), there is an 
offence of wrong-doing." || 3 || 4 || 

Now at that time a certain monk came to have an affliction 
of corns on his feet.' Having taken hold of that monk, they 
made him go out to relieve himself. As the Lord was touring 
the lodgings he saw those monks who, having taken hold of that 
monk, [187] were making him go out to relieve himself, and 
seeing (this), he approached those monks, having approached, 
he spoke thus to those monks : || i || 

" What, monks, is this monk's disease ? " 

" Lord, this venerable one has an affliction of corns on the 
feet, and having taken hold of him, we are making him go 

* These three words also at Vin. i. 45 ; A. iii. 15. 
» Cf. MV. X. 2. 20. 

' The four teachers meant here, according to VA. 1085, are those for 
the going forth, for ordination, for the resources, for the recitation (of the 
Patimokkha). Cf. Vism. 94. 

* dcariyamatta. VA. 1085 says that one of six years' standing is for one 
(i.e. to teach one) of no (full) year's standing ; so one of seven years' standing 
will be for one of one year's standing, one of eight for one of two, one of nine 
for one of three, one of ten for one of four years' standing. 

' upajjhdyamatta. VA. 1085 : these are monks who are friends and 
companions of a preceptor, or of any who axe ten years one's senior (in the 
Order). 

* padakhildhddha. Khlla may here mean an eruption. VA. 1085 : the 
flesh comes to have stood out from (or left, nikkhanta) the foot, like a stake 
(reading khila ; cf. Jd. v. 204 khildni, v. 1. khildni, meaning " sharp stakes "). 



250 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

out to relieve himself." Then the Lord in this connection 
having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying : 

" I allow, monks, he whose feet are painful or he whose 
feet are split or he who has an affliction of corns on the feet, 
to wear sandals." || 2 |1 5 || 

Now at that time monks got up on to couches and chairs 
with unwashed feet, and robes and lodgings were soiled.^ They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow you, monks, when you think : ' I will get up now 
on to a couch or a chair ', to wear sandals." || i || 

Now at that time, monks, going to an Observance-hut^ and 
to a meeting-place at night, in the dark trod upon stumps of 
trees and on thorns, and their feet became painful. They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow you, monks, to use sandals within a monastery, 
a torch, a light, a staff.' " || 2 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks, getting up in the 
night towards dawn, having put on wooden shoes,* paced up 
and down in the open air talking in high, loud, rasping^ tones 
a variety of worldly talk,' that is to say talk of kings, talk of 
thieves, talk of great ministers, talk of armies, talk of dangers, 
talk of battles, talk of food, talk of drink, talk of clothes, 
talk of beds, talk of garlands, talk of scents, talk of relations, 
talk of vehicles, talk of villages, talk of little towns, talk of 
towns, talk of the country, talk of women, talk of heroes,' 
talk of streets, talk of wells, talk of those departed before, 
talk of diversity, speculation about the world, speculation 
about the sea, talk on becoming and not becoming thus or 
thus ; and they both killed insects, having trodden on them, 
and also made monks fall away from contemplation.® || 3 || 

Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticized, 



• Cf. Vin. ii. 174. 

• uposathagga ; cf. Vin. iii. 66. There is also uposathdgdra, translated 
above, e.g. II. 9. i as " Observance-hall ". 

» kattaradan4a : cf. Vin. ii. 76, 217. iii. 160. The last part of the rule 
of II 4 II 3 II appears to be nullified by this rule at 6. 2. 

• katthapdduka. 

' khatakhatasaddd, sounds of clearing the throat. 

• tiracchdnakathd ; cf. B.D. iii. 82 for notes. 
' sUrakathd here ; see B.D. iii. 82, n. 5. 

• Cf. A. iiL 343, iv. 343. 



6.4—7.2] MAHAVAGGA V 251 

spread it about, saying : " How can this group of six monks, 
getting up in the night towards dawn, having put on wooden 
shoes, pace up and down in the open air talking in high, loud, 
rasping tones a variety of worldly talk . . . and both kill insects, 
having trodden on them, and also make monks fall away from 
contemplation ? " Then these monks told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : 

" Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks, 
getting up in the night towards dawn . . . and made monks 
fall away from contemplation ? " [188] 

" It is true. Lord." Having rebuked them, having given 
reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying : 

" ]Monks, wooden shoes are not to be worn. Whoever should 
wear (them), there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 4 |1 6 || 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Rajagaha for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Benares. In due course, 
walking on tour, he arrived at Benares. The Lord stayed 
there near Benares at Isipatana in the deer-park. Now at 
that time the group of six monks, thinking, " Wooden shoes 
are objected to by the Lord ", having had young palmyra 
palms^ cut, wore shoes of palmyra palm leaves ; those young 
palmyra palms which were cut, withered. People . . . spread it 
about, saying : " How can these recluses, sons of theSakyans, 
having bad young palmyra palms cut, wear shoes of palm5n:a 
palm leaves ? These young palmyra palms which were cut, 
are withering. These recluses, sons of the Sakyans, are harming 
life that is one-facultied^ ". || i |I 

Monks heard these people who looked down upon, criticised, 
spread it about. Then these monks told this matter to the 
Lord. He said : 

"Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks, 
having had young palm5n-a palms cut, wear shoes of palmyra 
palm leaves, and that those young palmyra palms which were 
cut are withering ? " 



* talaiaruna, possibly meaning the shoots of the palm trees ; but I think 
not, for it was probably the young trees themselves that withered once 
the monks had had some of their leaves cut off, and not just the cut leaves 
or sprouts or shoots. 

* Cf. B.D. ii. 223, 226, iii. 320. 



252 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

"It is true, Lord." The awakened one, the Lord rebuked 
them, saying : 

" How, monks, can these foolish men, having had young 
palmjn^a pahns cut, wear shoes of palmyra palm leaves (so 
that) the young palmyra palms wither ? For, monks, people 
think that there are living things in a tree. ^ It is not, monks, 
for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased ..." and having 
rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the 
monks, saying : 

" Monks, you should not wear shoes of palmjn-a palm leaves. 
Whoever should wear (them), there is an offence of wrong- 
doing." II 2 II ^ 

Now at that time the group of six monks, thinking : " Shoes 
of palmyra palm leaves are objected to by the Lord ", having 
had young bamboos cut, wore shoes of bamboo leaves ; those 
yoimg bamboos that were cut withered . . . (as *'« || i, 2 I]. 
Read bamboo instead of palmyra palm) ..."... Monks, you 
should not wear shoes of bamboo leaves. Whoever should 
wear (them), there is an offence of wrong-doing." 1| 3 || 7 || 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Benares for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Bhaddiya. In due course, 
walking on tour, he arrived at Bhaddiya. The Lord stayed 
there at Bhaddiya in the Jatiya Grove.^ [189] Now at that 
time the monks of Bhaddiya were addicted to the practice of 
ornamenting their shoes in a variety of ways. They made 
^wa-grass shoes and had them made . . . ww«/a-grass shoes 
and had them made . . . shoes of reeds and had them made 
. . . marshy date-palm ^ shoes and had them made . . . kamala- 
grass* shoes and had them made, they made woollen shoes 
and had them made ; they neglected the recitation, the 



* Cf. B.D. ii. 223, 227 (omitted by mistake : insert before " It is not, 
foolish men . . ."). 

* Mentioned at Vin. i. 241, iii. 37 ; A. iii. 36. 

' hintdla. Monier Williams gives : " the marshy date tree, a species of 
palm. Phoenix or Elate Paludosa." VA. 1085 says they are shoes made of 
the leaves of khajjuri (not in P.E.D., but Childers gives " the wild date 
palm tree. Phoenix Sylvestris "), but not the leaves of the hintdla itself. 

* kamala seems not to be " lotus " here. VA. 1085 says, there is a grass 
(^t'tta) called kamalavap^a (Aamo/a-coloured, with v.l. of -tiiia for -vapna), 
therefore they call the made-up shoes khus-khus shoes. For khus-khus, uslra, 
see B.D, ii. 228, n. i. 



8.1—3] MAHAVAGGAV 253 

interrogation, the higher morality, the higher thought, the 
higher wisdom.^ || i || 

Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, 
spread it about, saying : " How can these monks of Bhaddiya 
be addicted to the practice of ornamenting shoes in a variety 
of ways, and make /m<^-grass shoes and have them made . . , 
and neglect the recitation, the interrogation, the higher 
morality, the higher thought, the higher wisdom ? " Then 
these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

"Is it true, as is said, monks, that the monks of Bhaddiya 
are addicted to the practice of . . . and neglect the recitation 
. . . the higher wisdom ? " 

" It is true. Lord." The awakened one, the Lord rebuked 
them saying : 

" How, monks, can these foolish men be addicted to the 
practice of ornamenting shoes . . . and neglect the recitation 
. . . the higher wisdom ? It is not, monks, for pleasing those 
who are not (yet) pleased ..." || 2 || 

Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he 
addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, tina-gTSiSS shoes should not be worn, munja-grass 
shoes . . . shoes of reeds . . . marshy date-palm shoes . . . 
kamala-gTSiSs shoes . . . woollen shoes should not be worn, shoes 
made with gold . . . shoes made with silver . . . shoes made 
with gems^ . . . shoes made with lapis lazuli ^ . . . shoes made 
with crystal* . . . with bronze . . . with glass ^ . . . with tin' 
. . . with lead' . . . shoes made with copper should not be worn. 
Whoever should wear (any of these), there is an offence of 



1 Cf. B.D. ii. 94. 

' At Z). i. 7 it is said that Gotama abstains from using mapi, gems or 
precious stones. Sometimes meaning crystal. At Vin. ii. 112 bowls made 
of any of these materials are not allowed. 

' veluriya, or beryl. See Vin. Texts iii, 82, n. i. Jd. iv. 141 speaks of 
veluriya as vamsardga, and VbhA. 64 as vamsavannamani, a jewel the colour 
of bamboo. A word-play on veluriya and velu (bamboo) is probably the origin 
of such definitions. 

* phalika, or quartz. 

' kdca. See Vin. Texts iii. 82, n. 2. 

• tipu. At Vin. ii. 112 tin and lead supports for bowls are allowed. At S. 
V. 92 tin and lead are among the five corruptions (alloys) of gold, jdtarupa. 
VbhA. 63 classifies gold {suvanna as above), tin, lead, and the next, copper 
{tambuloha) under jdtiloha, (seven) natural metals. It calls tipu white tipu, 
and sisa dark tipu. 

' sisa. 



254 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

wrong-doing. And ciny shoes, monks, that can be handed 
on* should not be worn. Whoever should wear (any of these), 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, three 
(kinds of) shoes that are in fixed places and that cannot be 
handed on :* privy shoes, urinal shoes, rinsing shoes.* " || 3 || 8 || 

Then the Lord, having stayed in Bhaddiya for as long as 
he found suiting, set out on tour for Savatthi. In due course, 
walking on tour, he arrived at Savatthi. The Lord stayed 
there in Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's 
monastery. Now at that time the group of [190] six monks 
caught hold of cows, which were crossing the river Aciravati, 
by their horns, and they caught hold of them by their ears, 
and they caught hold of them by their dewlaps, and they 
caught hold of them by their tails, and they mounted on their 
backs, and they touched their privy parts with lustful thoughts, 
and having ducked young calves, they killed them. || i || 

People . . . spread it about, sajdng : " How can these 
recluses, sons of the Sakyans, catch hold of cows, which are 
crossing the river Aciravati, by their horns . . . like householders 
who enjoy pleasures of the senses ? " Monks heard these 
people who . . . spread it about. Then these monks told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks 
caught hold of cows . . . and having ducked young calves, 
killed them ? " 

" It is true. Lord." || 2 1| 

Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he 
addressed the monks, sa5dng : 

" Monks, you should not catch hold of cows by their horns, 
nor should you catch hold of them by their ears, nor should 
you catch hold of them by their dewlaps, nor should you catch 
hold of them by their tails, nor should you mount on their 
backs. Whoever should (so) mount, there is an offence of 
wrong-doing. Nor should you touch their privy parts with 
lustful thoughts. Whoever should (so) touch them, there is 



* kaci samkamanlya pddukd. 

■ VA . 1085 says : well fixed to the ground, immovable, not to be folded up 
(or put away, collected, gathered up, asamhdriya). 

• For further references, see Vin. Texts ii. 24, n. 3. 



9.3—10.3] MAHAVAGGAV 255 

a grave offence. Nor should you kill young calves. Whoever 
should kill them should be dealt with according to the 
rule.i" lisll ^ 

Now at that time^ the group of six monks went in a vehicle, 
and there was a buU in the middle yoked with cows and there 
was a cow in the middle yoked with bulls. ^ People . . . spread 
it about, saying : " As at the festival of the Ganges and 
Mahi* ". They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, you should not go in a vehicle. Whoever should 
(so) go, there is an offence of wrong-doing.^ " || 4 |I 9 || 

Now at that time a certain monk, going through the Kosala 
country to Savatthi in order to see the Lord, became ill on the 
way. Then that monk, stepping aside from the road, sat down 
at the root of a certain tree. People, seeing that monk, spoke 
thus : " Where, honoured sir, will the master go ? " 

" I will go to Savatthi, sirs, in order to see the Lord." || i || 

" Come, honoured sir, we will go along." 

" I am not able to, sirs, I am iU." 

" Come, honoured sir, get into a vehicle." 

" No, sirs, a vehicle is objected to by the Lord," and being 
scrupulous, he did not get into a vehicle. Then that monk, 
having arrived at Savatthi, told this matter to the monks. 
The monks told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow, monks, a vehicle to one who is ill." || 2 || 

Then it occurred to these monks : " Now, should (the vehicle 
be) yoked with cows or yoked with buUs* ? " They told this 
matter to the Lord. [191] He said : 



» Pac. LXI. 

• From here to end of || 10 || 3 || cj. Vin. ii. 276, which refers to the group 
of six nuns. 

• As Vin. Texts ii. 25, n. 2 remaxks : " Bu. explains this passage in a 
different way." He says, VA. 1085 : itthiyuttend ti dhenuyuttena (yoked with 
milch cows) ; purisantarend ti purisasdrathind (with a male charioteer 
or driver) ; purisayuttend ti gonayuttena (yoked with oxen) ; itthantarend 
ti itthlsdrathind (with a female charioteer). 

* Gangd-mahiydya. Vin. Texts ii. 25, n. 3 says that by Mahi is piobably 
meant "the well-known affluent of the Ganges". VA. 1085 explains by 
Gangd-Mahikllikd {v.l. kllikdya). 

' At Vin. iv. 339 (B.D. iii. 403) any nun who was not ill fell into an offence 
of expiation if ^e went in a vehicle. " Vehicle " is defined e.g. at Vin. iii. 
49, iv. 201. 

* itthiyuttatft nu kho purisayuttam nu kho. 



256 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" I allow you, monks, a handcart yoked with a bull.^ " 
Now at that time a certain monk became extremely uncom- 
fortable owing to the j olting of a vehicle. They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow, monks, a palanquin,^ a sedan-chair^" || 3 || 
Now at that time the group of six monks used high and 
broad things to recline upon,* that is to say : a sofa^, a divan,* 
a long-haired coverlet,' a many-coloured coverlet*, a white 
coverlet", a wool coverlet besprent with flowers^", a cotton 
quilt^^, a wool coverlet decorated with animals' forms, ^^^ ^ 
wool covering with hair on the upper side^^, a wool covering 
with hair at one side^*, a silken sheet studded with jewels^*, a 
sheet made with silk threads and studded with jewels^*, a 



* purisayuttam hatthavattakam. VA. 1085 says: heie yoked with men 
(or a man or bulls or a bull, purisa), a woman (itthi) or a man {purisa) may be 
the driver. For a handcart rolls along whether itthiyo or purisa move it. 

' sivikd. VA. 1085 : pitaka-sivika, basket palanquin. 
' pdfankl. VA. 1085 : a woven cloth (? patapoUcdika, v. I. -pataJika) made 
up having hung it out on bamboos ; perhaps what in S. India is called a dooly. 

* uccdsayanamahdsayana. List recurs at Fzn. ii. 163, D. i. 7, A. i. 181 ; 
some of the items only at M. i. 76 = ^. i. 137. Cf. also MA. ii. 39. VA. 
1086 says " uccdsayana is a couch exceeding the (right) measure " (the height 
of the legs of a couch is given as eight finger-breadths at Vin. iv. 168), and 
" mahdsayana is a sheet (pacccUtharana) that is not (made) allowable ". 

* dsandl, see B.D. iii. 326, n. i. Dial. i. 11, n. 4. The use of this and of 
a divan is forbidden to nuns at Vin. iv. 299 (B.D. iii. 326 f.). 

* pallanka. see B.D. in. 271, n. 3, Dial. i. 11, n. 5. 

' gonaka (also spelled gonaka). VA. 1086 says a long-haired wide kojava 
(fleecy counterpane or cover with long hair). On kojava, see below, p. 397, 
n. 5. 

* cittaka, VA. 1086 says a coverlet (attharaka) made of wool of various 
colours {citta) (embroidered with) wild beasts (vdla, v. I. vdna ; DA . 86 reads 
vdna, with v.ll. cdna, vdta). 

* patikd. VA. 1086 : a white (seta) coverlet made of wool. 

^" patalikd. I follow Woodward's trandation at G.S. i. 164. VA. 1086 
gives the meaning as " a covering made of wool, a mass of flowers ", and 
further calls it a "cloth of the Greeks {Yonaka) and Tamils", with v.l. 
(as at yl^. ii. 293) yo dmalakapatto ti pi vuccati. Perhaps a better reading 
for dtnalaka (emblic myrobalan) occurs at DA. i. 87 : dmildka (" a woollen 
cover into which a floral pattern is woven," P.E.D.). 

^^ tulikd. VA. 1086 says " just an ordinary tulikd ", while DA. 87 and 
AA. ii. 293 say " a tulikd stuffed with a certain one of the three kinds of 
cotton ". These three kinds are given at Vin. ii. 150, iv. 170 as cotton from 
trees, from creepers and from the potaki-grass ; see B.D. iii. 93, n. 2. 

^* vikatikd. VA. 1086 says, " a covering made of wool, ornamented {vicitta) 
with forms of lions, tigers, etc. ". 

" Vin. i. 192 and VA. 1086 both read uddha- (upper) lomin as against udda- 
(both) of D. i. 7, A. i. 181. 

** ekantalomin. 

" kaithissa. Comys. say " a .sheet (paccattharafia) maae of katfhissa (?; 
and silk and sewn round with {parisibbita) jewels (ratana) ". 

*• koseyya. I take above rendering from VA. io86. 



10.4—7] MAHAVAGGA V 257 

dancer's carpet^, an elephant rug, a horse rug, a chariot rug, 
rugs of black antelope skins, a splendid sheeting of the hide 
of the kadali- deer,^ a sheet with an awning above', a couch 
with a red cushion at either end.* People, engaged in touring 
the dwelling-places, having seen (all this), looked down upon, 
criticised, spread it about, saying : " Like householders who 
enjoy pleasures of the senses." They told this matter to 
the Lord. || 4 || 

He said : " Monks, high and broad things to recline upon 
should not be used, that is to say : a sofa ... a couch with a 
red cushion at either end. Whoever should use (any of these) 
there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 5 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks thinking, " High 
and broad things to recline upon are objected to by the Lord ", 
used large hides : a lion's hide, a tiger's hide, a panther's 
hide. These were cut to the measurement of a couch and they 
were cut to the measurement of a chair, and they were laid 
inside the couches and they were laid outside the couches 
and they were laid inside the chairs and they were laid outside 
the chairs. People, touring the dwelling-places, having seen 
(this), looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying : 
" Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses ". They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, large hides should not be used : a lion's hide, 
a tiger's hide, a panther's hide. Whoever should use (any 
of these), there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 6 || 

Now at that time the group of six monks, thinking : " Large 
hides are objected to by the Lord ", used cow-hides. These 
were cut to the measurement of a couch . . . {as in \\6 \\ above) 
. . . and they were laid outside the chairs. A certain depraved 
monk came to be dependent upon a certain depraved lay- 
follower. Then that depraved monk, having dressed in the 



^ VA. 1086, "a sheet made of wool suitable for the dances of sixteen 
dancing girls ". 

» kadalimigapavarapaccattharana. VA. 1086, " it is called the hide of 
the kadali-deer ; a splendid (pavara) sheet is made from this. It means 
the best (uttama) kind of sheet. They say they make it having spread out 
the deerhide and sewn it above white hangings " {vattha, also meaning clothes). 

» sauttaracchada. VA. 1086-7 explains as " together with a dyed (or red, 
ratta) awning attached above ", and mentions sheet (paccattharana) in this 
connection. 

* ubhatolohitak^padkana. VA . 1087 explains as above. 



258 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

morning, taking his bowl and robe, approached the dwelling 
of that depraved layfollower; having approached, he sat 
down on the appointed seat. Then [192] that depraved 
la5^ollower approached that depraved monk ; having 
approached, having greeted that depraved monk, he sat down 
at a respectful distance. |! 7 || 

Now at that time that depraved layfollower had a yotmg 
calf, beautiful, good to look upon, charming ; it was marked^ 
like a panther cub. Then that depraved monk gazed longingly 
at and thought about^ that calf. Then that depraved lay- 
follower spoke thus to that depraved monk : " Why, honoured 
sir, does the master gaze longingly at and think about this 
calf ? " 

" Sir, this calf's hide is of use to me." Then that depraved 
layfollower, having slaughtered that calf, having skinned it, 
bestowed the hide upon that depraved monk. Then that 
depraved monk, having hidden the hide in his outer cloak, 
went away. |1 8 || 

Then that cow, longing for her calf, followed close after that 
depraved monk. Monks spoke thus : " Why, your reverence, 
is this cow following close after you ? " 

" I don't know, your reverences, why this cow is following 
close after me." 

Now at that time this depraved monk's outer cloak became 
stained with blood. Monks spoke thus : " But this outer 
cloak of yours, your reverence — ^what has happened to it ? " 
Then that depraved monk told this matter to the monks. 
They said : 

" But did you, your reverence, incite (someone) to onslaught 
on creatures ? " 

" Yes, your reverences." Those who were modest monks 
. . . spread it about, saying : " How can this monk incite 
(someone) to onslaught on creatures ? Is not onslaught on 
creatures condemned in many a figure by the Lord, restraint 
from onslaught on creatures extolled ? " Then these monks 
told this matter to the Lord. || 9 |I 

Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having 



* citra. variegated, beautiful. 

* Cf. B.D. ii. 30 and n. 3 there. 
' vacchagiddhint, cf. S. iv. 181. 



lO.io— ll.i] MAHAVAGGAV 259 

had the Order of monks convened, questioned that depraved 
monk, saying : 

"Is it true, as is said, that you, monk, incited (someone) 
to onslaught on creatures ? " 

" It is true. Lord." 

" How can you, foolish man, incite (someone) to onslaught 
on creatures ? Foolish man, has not onslaught on creatures 
been condemned by me in many a figure, restraint from on- 
slaught on creatures extolled ? It is not, foolish man, for 
pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased ..." Having rebuked 
him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, 
saying : 

" Monks, there should be no inciting (anyone) to onslaught 
on creatures. Whoever should (so) incite, should be dealt 
with according to the rule.^ Nor, monks, should a cow-hide 
be used. Whoever should use one, there is an offence of wrong- 
doing. Nor, monks, should any hide be used. Whoever 
should use one, there is an offence of wrongdoing." |1 10 |1 10 || 
[193] 

Now at that time people's couches and chairs came to be 
covered up^ with hides, covered over^ with hides. Monks 
being scrupulous, did not sit down on them. They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow you, monks, to sit down on what is displayed by 
householders^, but not to lie down on it." 

Now at that time dwelling-places were lashed together* with 
thongs of hide. Monks, being scrupulous, did not sit down 
(in them). They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 



^ Par. I, where it is as bad to incite someone to cause the death of a human 
being as oneself to murder one. Cj. also Pac. 11, 61, 62. 

* onaddha . . . vinaddha. Cf. Vin. ii. 150 where onaddhamanca and 
onaddhapltha are allowed. Cf. also Vin. ii. 270 ; and tulonaddha at Vin. ii. 163. 

' gihivikata. " To display " is one of the meanings of vikartum given 
by Monier-Williams. Same " allowance " made at Vin. ii. 163. 

* ogumphiyanti. VA. 1087 (reading ogupphiyanti, a v.l. not noticed in 
FED) says bhittidandakddlsu vethetvd bandhanti, having twisted them (the 
thongs) round, they tie them to wall-posts, etc. A. K. Coomaraswamy, 
Early Indian Architecture, J AGS, Vol. 48, No. 3, p. 266, says " this would 
seem to have been natural in the case of the wattle and daub walls of the 
simple pannasdlas ; but we do also find early pillars decorated with designs 
of interlacing ropes or thongs which may be vestigial ornament. . . . Atharva 
Veda, IX. 3 refers to the parts of a house that are knotted and tied ". 



26o BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" I allow you, monks, to sit down against^ what is used only 
for lashing^ (things together)." || i || 11 |I 

Now at that time the group of six monks entered a village 
with their sandals on. People looked down upon, criticised 
spread it about, saying : " Like householders who enjoy 
pleasures of the senses." They told this matter to the Lord, 
He said : " Monks, you should not enter a village with your 
sandals on. Whoever should (so) enter it, there is an offence 
of wrongdoing." 

Now at that time a certain monk became ill ; he was not 
able to enter the village without his sandals. They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow, monks, a monk 
if he is ill to enter a village with his sandals on." || i|| 12 1| 

Now at that time' the venerable Kaccana the Great* was 
stajdng among the people of Avanti^ at Osprey's Haunt" on 
Steep Rock mountain slope.' Now at that time the lay- 
follower, Sona Kutikanna^, was a supporter of the venerable 
Kaccana the Great. Then the layfoUower, Sona Kutikanna, 
approached the venerable Kaccana the Great ; having 



^ VA. 1087, to sit leaning against. 

• bandhanamatta. Cf. Vin. i. 254. Word occurs also at Vin. ii. 135, 
but there seems to have a different meaning. See also its use at MV. VII. 
1. 5, " only by tacking ". 

» To end of V. 13. 10, cf. Ud. V. vi, DhA. iv. loi ff. 

• At y4. i. 23 called foremost of the expounders in full of what was spoken 
in brief. Verses at Thag. 494-501. One of the eleven or twelve leading 
theras ; cf. Vin. Texts, ii. 317, 359, B.D. ii. 295, G.S. iii. 215. See Gotama 
the Man, 113. 

» See N. Dutt, Early Hist, of the Spread of Buddhism, Vol. I, p. 187 fF. 
He points out that Avanti " under the guidance of Mahakaccayana helped 
by So9a Kutikanna .... became an important centre of Buddhism " 
(p. 189). On Avanti see also B. C. Law, Geog. of Early Buddhism, p. 3, n. I, 
22 f., 61. 

• Kuraraghara, the name of a town {nagara) or village where Kacc&na 
went for alms {gocaragama) , VA. 1087. 

' He is recorded to stay here also at S. iii. 9, 12, iv. 115, A. v. 46, Ud. 57. 
Our text reads papdte pabbate ; the others pavaite (with v.ll.) pabbate. At 
VA. 1087, papdta is said to be the name of a mountain slope. Cf. however 
SA. ii. 258, which recognises the two readings, papdte and pavatte, and says 
of papdte pabbate that " it was steep (or had a precipice) on one side : it was 
as though one flank had been hewn off ". 

• Chief of those of clear utterance, A. i. 24. Verses at Thag. 365-9. VA. 
1087, A A. I. 237 say he wore ornaments worth a crore (koti) in his ears, and 
also give the reading kotikappa, which can mean equally " Crore-eared " 
or " Pointed-eared, Prick-eared " ; see Vin. Texts ii 32, n. 3, Pss. Breth. 
p. 202, G.S. i. 18, n. 4, Verses of Uplift, p. 68. 



13.1—2] MAHAVAGGAV 261 

approached, having greeted the venerable Kaccana the Great, 
he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down 
at a respectful distance, the layfollower, Sona Kutikanna, 
spoke thus to the venerable Kaccana the Great : 

" Tn so far as I, honoured sir, understand dhamma taught 
by the master, Kaccana the Great, it is no easy matter for one 
living in a house to lead the Brahma-faring which is utterly 
complete, utterly pure and polished like a conch-shell. I want, 
honoured sir, having cut off hair and beard, having donned 
yellow robes, to go forth from home into homelessness. 
Honoured sir, may the master Kaccana the Great let me go 
forth." II I 11 

He said : " Difficult, Sona, for as long as life lasts are the 
solitary sleeping-place^, the one meal (a day), the Brahma- 
faring. Please do you, Sona, being a householder as before, ^ 
practise the instruction of the awakened ones for a short time^ : 
the solitary sleeping-place, the one meal (a day), the Brahma- 
faring." 

Then that abated which had been the lay follower Sona 
Kutikanna's strong aspiration for the going forth.* But a 
second time did the lay follower Sona [194] Kutikanna . . . 
But a third time did the lay follower Sona Kutikanna approach 
the venerable Kaccana the Great , . , (as m || i jj) " . . . Honoured 
sir, may the master Kaccana the Great let me go forth." 
Then the venerable Kaccana the Gteat let the layfollower 
Sona Kutikanna go forth. Now at that time the southern 
region of Avanti^ came to be short of monks. Then did the 



• ekaseyyd, exact significance obscure. At B.D. ii. 196 a monk is allowed 
to lie down in a sleeping place for two or three nights with one who is not 
ordained. It seems as if he might also do so with an ordained monk, for 
on this occasion there is no offence if he thinks a person is ordained and he is. 
At B.D. ii. 201 there is an offence if a monk so lies down with a woman. 

• tatth' eva. 

• kalayuUa. This is to show how difficult these things are. Kdlayutta 
could also signify connected with the right time (for doing things), and would 
then emphasise that now is not a right time for Sona to go forth, being not 
sufficiently ready spiritually to do so. 

• pabbajjdbhisankhdra. Cf. gamikdbhisankhara at Vin. i. 233. 

• Avantidakkhinapatha, as at Vin. ii. 298, Jd. iii. 463. See DPPN under 
Dakkhinapatha, Rhys Davids, Bud. India, p. 30, and B. C, Law, Geography 
of Early Buddhism, p. 22. At the time of the Council of Vesall, 
about eighty-eight monks of Avantidakkhinapatha, some of them followers 
of ascetic practices, dhutanga, are said to have collected on the Ahoganga 
mountain slope, Vin. ii. 299. 



262 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

venerable Kaccana the Great at the end of three years, with 
difficulty, with trouble, having had convened from here and 
there an Order of monks consisting of ten^, ordain the venerable 
Sona. II 2 II 

Then as the venerable Sona was keeping the rains and 
meditating in seclusion, a reasoning arose in his mind thus : 
" I have only heard that this Lord is such and such a one, 
but I have not seen him face to face. I would go and see this 
Lord, the perfected, the all-awakened one, if a preceptor 
would allow me." Then the venerable Sona, emerging from 
seclusion towards the evening, approached the venerable 
Kaccana the Great ; having approached, having greeted the 
venerable Kaccana the Great, he sat down at a respectful 
distance. As he was sitting down at a resjjectful distance, the ven- 
erable Sona spoke thus to the venerable Kaccana the Great : || 3 1| 

" Now, as I, honoured sir, was meditating in seclusion, a 
reasoning arose in my mind thus : ' I have only heard that 
this Lord is such and such a one, but I have not seen him 
face to face. I would go to see this Lord, the perfected, the 
all-awakened one, if a preceptor would allow me.' I, honoured 
sir, would go to see this Lord, the perfected, the all-awakened 
one, if the preceptor allows me." 

" Good, it is good, Sona. Do you, Sona, go to see this Lord, 
the perfected, the all-awakened one. || 4 || 

" You, Sona, will see this Lord, who is pleasant and inspires 
one to be pleased,^ who is calmed in his sense-organs, calmed 
in mind, who has attained the uttermost taming and peace, 
the hero^ tamed, guarded, controlled in his sense-organs. Well 
then, do you, Sona, in my name salute the Lord's feet with 
your head, saying : ' Lord, my preceptor, the venerable 
Kaccana the Great, salutes the Lord's feet with his head ',* 
and then speak thus : ' Lord, the southern region of Avanti 

^ Vin. i. 319 says that an Order may consist of four, five, ten, twenty 
or more than twenty monks, and that various maximum numbers are required 
for carrying out various specific formal acts, ten monks being able to perform 
them all, except rehabilitation ; but five monks were not able to ordain 
in the Middle Districts. 

• pasadaniya, i.e. to be pleased with his teaching. 

• ndga, explained at VA. 1087 as " empty of guilt {dgu), empty of the 
obstructions {kilesa) ". Cf. Sn. 522 : dgu na karoti . . . ndgo, and Nd. II. 337. 

• Uddna version omits from here to end of || 7 || and then proceeds much 
as Vin. version to end of 11 10 11. 



13.5—7] MAHAVAGGA V 263 

is short of monks. At the end of three years (he) , with difficulty, 
with trouble, having had convened for me from here and there 
an Order of monks consisting of ten, I received ordination. 
Perhaps the Lord would allow ordination by a smaller group 
in the southern region of Avanti. || 5 || 

" ' Lord, in the southern region of Avanti the surface-soil 
is dark, hard, trampled by the hooves of cattle.^ Perhaps 
the Lord [195] would allow sandals with many linings in 
the southern region of Avanti. Lord, in the southern region 
of Avanti people attach importance to bathiiig, to purification 
by water. 2 Perhaps the Lord would allow constant bathing^ 
in the southern region of Avanti. Lord, in the southern region 
of Avanti hides (are used as) coverings : sheep-hide, goat-hide, 
deer-hide. As, Lord, in the middle districts,* eragu, moragu, 
majjhdru, jantu^ (are used), so. Lord, in the southern region 
of Avanti hides (are used as) coverings. Perhaps the Lord 
would allow hides (to be used as) coverings in the southern 
region of Avanti : sheep-hide, goat-hide, deer-hide. || 6 || 

" * At present, Lord, people give robe-material to monks 
who have gone outside the boundaries, saying : " We are 
giving this robe-material for so and so." When these have 
come back (the others) announce : " Your reverences, robe- 
material was given for you by the people so and so ". But 
these, being scrupulous, do not consent to it, thinking : " Let 
there not be an offence involving forfeiture for us. "^ Perhaps the 
Lord would explain the procedure 'in regard to robe-material.' " 

" Yes, honoured sir ", and the venerable Sona having spoken 
in assent to the venerable Kaccana the Great, rising from his 

• khara gokantakahata ; cf. A. i. 136. 

• udakasuddhika. Cf. S. i. 182 {K.S. i. 231) ; also Vin. iv. 262, where 
however " purification by water " is not a rite, but a necessary ablution. 

' Cf. Pac. LVII, where it is an offence for a monk to batiie at intervals 
of less than a fortnight except " at a right time ", specified. 

• Not Majjhimadesa here, but majjhimesu janapadesu. 

• VA. 1088 says these are four kinds of grasses, tiria, from which are made 
katasdraka (?, part of a monk's lodging or bedding, see VA. 1088 under 
sendsanam panndpesi) and straw mats. Eragu is also called erakatipa and 
is coarse. Moragu is copper coloured at the head, fine, pliable and pleasant 
to touch, and straw mats are made from it. They make upper cloaks from 
majjhdru (VA. 1088 reading majjdru). The colour of jantu is like pearls. 

• Cf. Nis. I., where if a monk's kathina privileges have been removed 
he may use an extra robe for ten days. One of the grounds for removal 
of the privileges depends on a monk's having gone outside the boundary, 
Vin. L 255. 

' Pariydya. 



264 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

seat, having greeted the venerable Kaccana the Great, having 
kept his right side towards him, having packed away his 
lodging, taking his bowl and robe, set out for Savatthi. || 7 || 

In due course he approached Savatthi, the Jeta Grove, 
Anathapindika's monastery, the Lord; having approached, 
having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. 
Then the Lord addressed the venerable Ananda, sa5dng : 
"Ananda, make ready a lodging for this incoming monk ". 
Then the venerable Ananda thought : 

" The Lord desires to stay in the same dwelling-place 
together with this monk, the Lord desires to stay in the same 
dwelling-place together with the venerable Sona ; it is he in 
regard to whom the Lord enjoined me, sa5dng : ' Ananda, 
make ready a lodging for this incoming monk '," and he made 
ready a lodging for the venerable Sona in that dwelling-place 
where the Lord was staying. || 8 || 

Then the Lord, having spent a great part of that night in 
the open air, entered the dwelling-place. The venerable Sona 
also, having spent a great part of that night in the open air, 
entered the dwelling-place. Then the Lord, getting up in the 
night towards dawn, requested the venerable Sona, saying : 

" May (some) dhamma occur to you to speak, monk."^ 

" Very well, Lord ", and the venerable Sona, having replied 
in assent to the Lord, spoke from memory everything belonging 
to the Divisions in the Eights. ^ Then the Lord at the end 

* patibhdtu tain bhikkhu dhammo bhdsitum, as at UdA. 312, A A. i. 241. 
Woodward, Verses of Uplift, p. 71, n. i, would translate this as " let dhamma 
arise in your mind for recital ". He notes that patibhdtu is " let it occur 
to you, placeat ", but owing to dhamma being in the nominative the sentence 
cannot mean " let it occur to you to speak dhamma ". VA. 1088 says, " may 
there be (or become, bhavatu) an inclination {abhimukha) to speak of 
knowledge, of what is called understanding". UdA. 312 says "Monk, 
may dhamma to speak arise in you, let it come to the forefront of knowledge, 
recite dhamma as you have heard it, as you have learnt it ". Cf. Vin. ii. 200, 
Ud. 59, 5, i. 155. 

N.B. The Lord addresses Sona as " monk " and not by his name. 

" Atthakavaggikani. Atthakavagga is the name of the fourth Vagga in 
the Sn. Cited at S. iii. 12, Ud. 59. This latter (and also DhA. iv. 101-2) 
bave the " specific amplification that Sona recited (or ' intoned ') ' all the 
sixteen ' Atthakavaggika Suttas ", as Chalmers remarks, Buddha's Teachings, 
p. xvi, n. I ; and UdA. 312 the still further amplification that the sixteen 
Suttas begin with the Kamasutta. A A. i. 241 reads Atthakavaggiyani, one 
MS. adding suttdni. See JPTS. 1895, p. 93 on identification of Divy's (p. 20) 
arthavadgiyani (recited by Sona) with the " sixteen poems", atthakavaggikani, 
of the Atthakavagga. The work is also mentioned at Divy. 35. For references 
to Chinese versions see Anesaki, JPTS. 1906-7, p. 50 ; and Et. Lamotte, 
Lt Traiti de fa Grande Vertu de Sagesse, Vol. I, p. 39, n. 2. 



18.9— II] MAHAVAGGA V 265 

of the venerable Sona's recital^ expressed his approbation, 
saying : 

" Good, it is good, monk, that by you, monk, the Divisions 
in the Eights are well learnt, [196] well attended to, well 
reflected upon, and that you are endowed with lovely speech, 
distinct, without hoarseness, so as to make the meaning clear.* 
Of how many years' standing are you, monk ? "' 

" I, Lord, am of one year's standing." || 9 1| 

" But what have you, monk, done thus long ? " 

"For long. Lord, I have seen peril in pleasures of the senses, 
but household lives are crowded,* there is much to be done, 
much business." Then the Lord, having understood this 
matter, at that time uttered this utterance : 

"Having seen peril in the world, having known dhamma 
without attachment, / 
the noble one delights not in evil, the pure one delights in 
instruction." 5 || 10 I| 

Then the venerable Sona, thinking : " The Lord is much 
pleased with me, this is the time for that for which the preceptor 
prepared^ me," rising from his seat, having arranged his upper 
robe over one shoulder, having inclined his head to the Lord's 
feet, spoke thus : 

" Lord, my preceptor, the venerable Kaccana the Great, 
salutes the Lord's feet with his head, and speaks thus : * The 
southern region of Avanti, Lord . . . {as in || 5, 6 |1) . . . 
perhaps the Lord would explain the procedure in regard to 
robe-material '." Then the Lord, on this occasion, in this 
connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, 
saying: 

" Monks, the southern region of Avanti is short of monks. 

• sarabhaniia. P.E.D. calls this " intoning, a particular mode of reciting '*. 
Cf. Vin. ii. 108, where the Lord " allows" sarabhaniia, but not the singing 
oif dhamma in a singing voice. Oldenberg quotes VA. at Vin. ii. 316: 
sarabhaniian ii sarena bhananant, which means " sarabhaniia is called repeating 
(or reciting) by intonation {s'ara) ". There is perhaps in the text a play 
upon the word sara, which also means remembering. 

• Stock as at D. i. 114, S. i. 189, ii. 280, A. ii. 51, iii. 114. 

• I.e. how many years since his ordination. Cf. above, p. 76f . 

« sambadhd ghardvasa. Ud. 59, S. ii. 219, v. 350, D. i. 63, 250 read sambSdho 
ghardvaso. 

• sdsane ramati sucl ; Ud. 59 reading p&pe na ramati sucl. 

• paridassi. VA. 1088, " this should be the time for that which the 
preceptor made known to me, saying ; ' You should say this and that ' ; 
come, I will give the message now ". 



266 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

I allow, monks, in all border districts ordination by a groups 
with, as fifth, an expert on discipline. || ii || 

" For this purpose^, these are the border districts' : the little 
town* called Kajangala^ is in the eastern direction, beyond 
it is Mahasala^, further than that are border districts, on this 
side are the middle (districts). The river called Sallavati' is 
in the south-eastern direction, further than that are border 
districts, on this side are the middle (districts). The little town 
called Setakannika is in the southern direction, further than 
that are border districts, on this side are the middle (districts). 
The brahmin village called Thiina^ is in the western direction, 
further than that are border districts, on this side are the 
middle (distncts). The mountain slope called Usiraddhaja' is 
in the northern direction, further than that are border districts, 
on this side are the middle (districts). I allow, monks, in such 
border districts as these, ordination by a group with, as fifth, 
an expert on discipline. || 12 || 

" In the southern region of Avanti, monks, the surface-soil 
is dark, hard, trampled by the hooves of cattle. I allow, monks, 
in all border districts, sandals with many linings. In the 
southern region of Avanti, monks, people attach importance 
to bathing, to purification by water. I allow, monks, in all 
border districts, constant bathing. In the southern region of 
Avanti, monks, hides (are used as) coverings : sheep-hide, 

^ Usually two to four monks. 

• tatra. 

• This passage is quoted at Ja. i. 49, DA. 173, KhA. 132, MA. ii. 200, 
A A. i. 97 in order to define the boundaries of Majjhima(pa)desa, the Middle 
Country, i.e. the middle of Jambudipa (India). See B. C. Law Geog. of Early 
Buddhism, p. 2, for some of the place-names mentioned below. 

• nigama, see B.D. ii. 63, n. 2. 

• Occurring bX A. v. 54, M. iii. 298, DA. 429. Also Ja iii. 226-7, iv. 310. 
The scholiast tells us {Jd. iv. 311) that it was a town where materials were 
easily got, dabbasambhdrd sulabkd, not where they " were hard to be got " 
[Jd. transln. iv, 195, n. 1). 

• Called Mahdsdla at Jd. i. 49. 

' Spelled SalalavatI at Jd. i. 49, DA. 173, KhA. 132, SalalavatI at MA. 
ii. 200 (with v.ll.) and in D.P.P.N. See v.ll. at DA. 173 ; these do not include 
Sallavatti as at A A. i. 97. 

» Mentioned at Ud. 78, UdA. 377 as belonging to the Mallas ; also at Jd. 
vi. 62 (with v.l. Dhunna). B. C. Law, India as described in Early Texts of 
Buddhism and Jainism, p. 21, n. i says " Consult Cunningham, Ancient 
Geography of India, Intr. xliii, n. 2 as to the identification of Thuna with 
Sthanesvaxa ". 

• According to B. C. Law, India as described in Early Texts, p. 21, n. 2 
" it may be said to be identical with Usiragiri, a mountain to the north 
of Ka&khal, I.A., 1905, 179 ". 



18.13] MAHAVAGGAV 267 

[197] goat-hide, deer-hide. As, monks, in the middle districts, 
eragu, moragu, majjhdra, jantu (are used), so, monks, in the 
southern region of Avanti hides (are used as) coverings : 
sheep-hide, goat-hide, deer-hide.^ I allow, monks, in all border 
districts, hides (to be used as) coverings : sheep-hide, goat-hide, 
deer-hide. And moreover, monks, people give robe-material 
for monks who have gone outside the boundaries, saying : 
' We are giving this robe-material for so and so '. I allow you, 
monks, to consent (to it). That reckoning is not necessary 
until it reaches the hand. 2" || 13 |1 13 |1 

The Fifth Section : that on Hides 

In this Section there are sixty-three items. This is its key : 
The King of Magadha, Sona, and eighty-thousand chieftains, 
Sagata showed much that was further on Vulture Peak, / 
They were broken by his output (of energy) on going forth, 

the lute, with one lining, 
dark green, yellow, red, crimson, and indeed black, / 
Orange, multi-coloured, and he objected to edgings, 
heels, knee-boots, top-boots, cotton, partridges, rams, goats, / 
Scorpions, peacocks, and embroidered, decorated with lions, 

tigers and panthers, 
antelopes, beavers and cats, squirrels, owls, / 
Sandals for split (feet), corns, unwashed, tree-stumps, rasping, 
palm, bamboo, and indeed grass, munja, babbaja, marshy 

date-palm, / 
Kamala, woollen, golden, silver, gems, lapis lazuli, 
crystal, bronze, and glass, and tin, lead, copper, / 

^ VA. 1088 here gives a list of six kinds of deer, and says their hides may 
be used, but not the hides of other kinds of deer, miga, including the 
kadallmiga, nor (with a play on words) the hides of beasts of prey, valamiga, 
which it defines as lions, tigers, panthers, bears and hyenas. Skins of cows, 
buffaloes, hares and cats may not be used either. 

• na tava tarn gananiipagant ydva na hattham gacchati. This refers to Nis. I, 
where an extra robe may be worn for at most ten days. The above phrase 
means that a monk need not begin to count these ten days until he has 
actually received the robe-material. VA. 1089 says, " So long as having 
conveyed but not given, or (so long as) having sent but not announced that 
' This robe-material has accrued for you, honoured sirs' ; he does not begin 
the reckoning (gananam na upeti), it (i.e. the robe-material) is not allotted, 
one does not begin to take up what is not allotted. But when, having conveyed 
it it is given, or when having sent it it is announced, or when having heard 
that it has accrued, from then on there is occasion for attention to the ten 
days ". On ttpaga, see B.D. ii. 7, n. 4 ; and on anadhitthita, " not allotted "' 
see ibid., n. i. 



268 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Cows, a vehicle and ill, yoked with bulls, a palanquin, 

things to recline on, large hides, and the depraved one with 

a cowhide, / 
On what belongs to householders, with thongs of hide, they 

enter, on one being ill^, 
Kaccayana the Great, Sona (recites) from memory what belongs 

to the Divisions in the Eights, / 
A group of five for ordination, many linings, constant bathing,' 
he allowed hides (to be used as) coverings, reckomng not 

necessary until : 
The leader gave these five boons to the Elder Sona. [198] 



^ gildyano ; Cing. ed. gildnakd. 

' Cing. edn. upasampadatjt paHcahi gapatjtgaf^S dhuvasinSyani. 



269 



THE GREAT DIVISION (MAHAVAGGA) VI 

At that time the Lord was staying at Savatthi in the Jeta 
Grove in Anathapindika's monastery. Now at that time 
monks, afflicted by an affection occurring in the autumn, 
brought up the conjey they had drunk and brought up the rice 
they had eaten ; because of this they became lean, wretched, 
of a bad colour, yellowish, the veins standing out on their 
limbs. The Lord saw these monks who were lean . . . standing 
out on their limbs ; seeing them, he addressed the venerable 
Ananda, saying : " Now, how is it Ananda, that at present 
monks are lean . . . standing out on their limbs ? " 

"At present. Lord, monks, afflicted by an affection occurring 
in the autiunn, bring up the conjey they have drunk and 
bring up the rice they have eaten ; because of this they are 
lean . . . standing out on their limbs." || 1 || 

Then as the Lord was meditating in seclusion, a reasoning 
arose in his mind thus : "At present monks, afflicted by an 
affection occurring in the autumn, bring up . . . standing out 
on their limbs. What now if I should allow medicine for monks 
— ^whatever is medicine as well as what may be agreed upon 
as medicine — ^and although it may serve as nutriment for 
people^ yet could not be reckoned as substantial food ? " 
Then it occurred to the Lord : " These five medicines, that is 
to say ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey, molasses, are medicines' 
and are also agreed upon as medicines, and although they serve 
as nutriment for people yet they cannot be reckoned as 
substantial food. What now if I should allow monks to make 
use of these five medicines at the right time, if they have 
accepted them at a right time ? " \\2 || 

Then the Lord, having emerged from seclusion towards the 
evening, having given reasoned talk on this occasion, addressed 
the monks, saying : 

^ lokassa. 

» Cf. Nissag. XXIII, where a monk, having accepted these five medicines 
may keep them in store for at most seven days. They are defined at Vin. 
iii. 251. 



270 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Now, monks, as I was meditating in seclusion ...'... 
yet could not be reckoned as substantial food '. Monks, 
concerning this, it occurred to me : ' These five medicines, 
that is to say [199] . . . Suppose I were to allow monks to 
make use of these five medicines at the right time, if they have 
accepted them at a right time ? ' I allow you, monks, to make 
use of these five medicines at the right time, if you have 
accepted them at a right time." I| 3 || 

Now at that time monks, having accepted these five medicines 
at a right time, made use of them at the right time. But even 
with these they did not digest ordinary coarse meals, much 
less greasy ones. And because of this they were afflicted by 
the affection occurring in the autumn, and in consequence 
there was also a loss of appetite, and as a result of both these 
(factors) they became increasingly lean, wretched, of a bad 
colour, yellowish, with the veins stcinding out on their Umbs. 
The Lord saw these monks who were increasingly lean . . . 
standing out on their limbs ; seeing them, he addressed the 
venerable Ananda, saying : 

"Now, why is it, Ananda, that at present monks are 
increasingly lean . . . standing out on their limbs ? " || 4 || 

"At present, Lord, monks, having accepted those five 
medicines at a right time, make use of them at the right time 
. . . and as a result of both of these (factors) they are 
increasingly lean . . . standing out on their limbs." 

Then the Lord, having given reasoned talk on this occasion, 
addressed the monks, saying : 

" I allow you, monks, having accepted these five medicines*, 
to make use of them both at the right time and also at the 
wrong time."2 || 5 II 1 II 

Now at that time ill monks had need of tallows as medicines. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, to make use of tallows as medicines by using them 



* N.B. " at a right time " does not occur here. 

• This must refer to the right time and the wrong time for eating solid 
foods and soft foods. When " sohd food " is defined at Virt, iv. 83 by excluding 
" food that may be eaten during a watch of the night, during seven days, 
during life ", there is reason to suppose that these expressions refer 
to medicines, see B.D. ii. 330, n. i. 2, 3. 



2.1—3.2] MAHAVAGGAVI 271 

with oil : tallow from bears, tallow from fish, tallow from 
alligators, tallow from swine, tallow from donkeys,* (if each) 
is accepted at a right time, cooked at a right time, mixed 
at a right time.^ || i || 

" If, monks, one should make use of that which is accepted 
at a wrong time, cooked at a wrong time, mixed at a wrong 
time, there is an offence of three wrong-doings. If, monks, 
one should make use of that which is accepted at a right time, 
cooked at a wrong time, mixed at a wrong time, there is an 
offence of two wrong-doings. If, monks, one should make use 
of that which is accepted at a right time, cooked at a right 
time, mixed at a wrong time, there is an offence of wrong-doing. 
If, monks, one should make use of that which is accepted 
at a right time, cooked at a right time, mixed at a right time, 
there is no offence.''^ || 2 || 2 || 

Now at that time ill monks had need of roots as medicines. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : [200] " I allow 
you, monks, it there is a reason, to make use of roots as 
medicines : turmeric,* ginger, orris root, white orris root, 
garlic, black hellebore, khus-khus, nut-grass, or whatever other 
roots there are that are medicines, if they do not serve, among 
solid foods, as a solid food, if they do not serve, among soft 
foods, as a soft food ; and having accepted them, to preserve^ 
them for as long as life lasts.® If there is no reason, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing for one who makes use of (any of 
these medicines)." || 1 1| 

Now at that time ill monks had need, as medicines, of what 
was pounded off roots. They told this matter to the Lord. 



^ Quoted at VA. 714. This passage explains that tallow from the flesh 
of all animals which it is allowable to eat is allowed, and also, with 
the exception of human tallow, the tallow of the ten animals which it is 
not allowable to eat. These ten are prohibited at Vin. i. 218 ff. 

" Quoted at VA. 714, which, in reference to tallow, regards " the right 
time " as before a meal, " the wrong time " as after. 

' Quoted at VA. 714. 

* This list of roots also given at Vin. iv. 35. For notes, see B.D. ii. 
227 f. Cf. also VA. 833. 

" pariharitum. 

• Passage quoted at VA. 833. See B.D. ii. 330, n. 3, on this expression, 
" as long as life lasts ". The medicines mentioned in Nissag. XXIII may, 
unlike the root medicines which may be stored for life, be stored for at most 
seven days. 



272 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

He said : "I allow you, monks, a (lower) grindstone, a (small) 
grindstone.i " || 2 || 3 || 

Now at that time ill monks had need of astringent decoctions 
as medicines. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 
" I allow you, monks, if there is a reason, to make use of 
astringent decoctions as medicines : astringent decoctions from 
the nimb-tree, astringent decoctions from the kuiaja^, astringent 
decoctions from the pakkava,^ astringent decoctions from the 
nattamdla,^ or whatever other astringent decoctions there are 
that are medicines if they do not serve, among solid foods, 
as a solid food, if they do not serve, among soft foods, as a 
soft food ; and having accepted them, to preserve them for 
as long as life lasts. If there is no reason, there is an offence 
of wrong-doing for any one who makes use of (any of 
these medicines) ". 1| 1 1| 4 || 

Now at that time ill monks had need of leaves as medicines. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, if there is a reason, to make use of leaves as medicines : 
nimb-leaves, kutaja-le^.ve'?,, cucumberMeaves, basil Meaves, 
cotton-tree leaves, or whatever other leaves there are that are 
medicines if they do not serve . , . (any of these medicines)."' 
Ili||5|| 

Now at that time ill monks had need of fruits as medicines. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow you, 
monks, if there is a reason to make use of fruits as medicines : 
vilanga,^ pepper," black pepper,^" yellow myrobalan,^^ beleric 

1 nisada nisadapota. VA. 1090 says pimsanasila ca pimsanapotako ca, 
a stone for grinding and a small (thing) for grinding. This latter must be 
a pounder to use in the hand on the larger grindstone. 

■ Wrightia antidysenterica or Nericum antidysentericum {P.E.D.), 
Holarrhena antidysenterica (Watt's Commercial Products of India). 

' A creeper, VA. 1090 (reading paggava as at J a. ii. 105, where it is called 
vaill, a creeping plant). 

* At VA. 1090 called karanja which, according to P.E.D., is the tree 
Pongamia glabra. 

* patola, a kind of cucumber, Trichosanthes Dioeca. 

• stiiasl ; cf. Skrt. surasf, given by Bohtlingk-Roth as " basilienkraut ". 
The word translated as " basil " at B.i). ii. 228 is ajjuka. 

» Quoted at VA. 835. 

• Erycibe paniculata. 

» pippala, see Vin. Texts u. 46, n. 6. 
*• marica. 
»» haritaka, cf. B.D. iii. 245, n. 4 {Vin. iv. 259). 



6.1— 9.1] MAHAVAGGA VI 273 

myrobalan*, emblic mjnrobalan, gotha-fmit^ or whatever other 
fruits there are that are medicines if they do not serve . . . 
(any of these medicines)." || i || 6 || 

Now at that time ill monks had need of resins as medicines. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, if there is a reason, to make use of resins as medicines : 
hingu,^ htngu-iesin, hingu-gum,* gum,^ gnm-paUi,^ [201] 
gum-panm,^ or whatever other resins there are that are 
medicines if they do not serve . . . (any of these medicines) ". ' 
II 1 117 II 

Now at that time ill monks had need of salts as medicines. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, if there is a reason, to make use of salts as medicines : 
sea(-salt), black salt,^ rock-salt,^ culinary-salt, red-salt^ ° or 
whatever other salts there are that are medicines if they do 
not serve, among solid foods, as a solid food, if they do not 
serve, among soft foods, as a soft food ; and having accepted 
them, to preserve them for as long as life lasts. If there is 
no reason, there is an offence of wrong-doing for one who makes 
use of (any of these medicines)." || i |j 8 || 

Now at that time^^the venerable Belatthaslsa,^^ the venerable 

^ vibhltaka, also at Jd. vi. 529. Watt, Commercial Products of India, under 
Terminalia belerica, says " it has various medicinal qualities ascribed to it ; 
and the oil expressed from the seed is used by the Natives ". Under 
Phyllanthus emblica Watt says " the fresh ripe fruits are largely employed 
as astringent and laxative medicines ". 

* gothaphala. P.E.D. says " medicinal seed ". Monier Williams, under 
gotravriksha compares to dhanvana. This he gives as the " plant Alhagi 
Maurorum which grows in a dry soil ". 

' Assafoetida. 

* hingu-sipdtikd. P.E.D. says that this is a sipdtikd (pod pericarp) yielding 
gum. Monier Williams says it is the same as varnsa-pattrl. This he calls 
a "particular kind of grass = nddi-hingu " . VA. 1090 says that hingu, 
hiiigu-jatu, hingu-sipdtikd are just kinds of hingu. 

' taka, a medicinal gum. 

* VA. 1090 says that taka and these two varieties are all of them kinds 
of lac or resin. 

' Quoted at VA. 835. 

* F/1. 1090 calls this common salt. 

* This is white in colour, VA. 1090. 

*" VA. 1090: cooked together with all kinds of ingredients, it is red in 
colour. 
^^ Opening part of this story = Vin. i. 295. 
»« SeeB.D. ii. 338, n. i. 



274 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Ananda's preceptor, had an affliction of thick scabs.^ Because 
of the discharge his robes stuck to his body. Monks, having 
repeatedly moistened these with water, loosened them. As 
the Lord was touring the lodgings he saw these monks loosening 
the robes, having repeatedly moistened them with water ; and 
seeing (this) he approached these monks ; having approached, 
he spoke thus to these monks : " What, monks, is this monk's 
affliction ? " 

" Lord, this venerable one has an affliction of thick scabs ; 
because of the discharge, his robes stick to his body ; having 
repeatedly moistened them with water, we are loosening them." 

ill II 

Then the Lord in this connection having given reasoned talk, 
addressed the monks, saying : " I allow, monks, for one who 
has itch^ or a small boil^ or a running sore* or an affliction 
of thick scabs* or for one whose body smells nasty, chunams 
as medicines ; for one who is not ill dung, clay, boiled colouring 
matter.' I allow you, monks, a pestle and mortar.* " I| 2 || 9 || 

Now at that time ill monks had need of sifted chunams as 
medicines. ..." I allow you, monks, a chunam-sifter.^ " 
They had need of very fine ones. " I allow you, monks, a 
cloth sifter." || 1 1| 

Now at that time a certain monk had an non-human affliction. 
Teachers and preceptors, although nursing him, were unable 
to get him well. He, having gone to the swine's slaughter-place, 
ate raw flesh and drank raw blood, and his non-human affliction 
subsided. « They told this matter to the Lord. [202] He 
said : " I allow, monks, when one has a non-human affliction, 
raw flesh and raw blood." || 2 || 10 |I 

» Cf. Pac. xc. 2. 

• At Vin. iv. 172 {B.D. iii. 97) " itch-cloth " is defined as : for covering 
anyone who has any of these afflictions. 

» raj ana-nip akka. VA. 1090 says rajana-kasata, acrid colouring matter 
or dye-stuff. But kasata can also mean dregs or leavings, and this sense 
is more likely here. VA. 1090 explains : " having ground ordinary chunam, 
having moistened it with water, one may wash (or bathe with it)." These 
three things were for applying to the body and not for taking as a medicine. 

• udukkhala musala, different from the grinding stones of 3. 2. 

• cuzinacdlant. 

• There seems at VA. 1090 the idea that a non-human being " possessed " 
the monk. For it explains that it was not the monk who ate and drank 
the raw things, but the non-human being ; on its departing, his (the monk's) 
non-human affliction is said to h9,ve subsided. 



ll.i— 12.1] MAHAVAGGAVI 275 

Now at that time a certain monk came to have an iUness 
affecting his eyes. Having taken hold of that monk, they 
made him go out to ease himself. As the Lord was touring 
the lodgings, he saw those monks who, having taken hold of 
that monk, were making him go out to ease himself ; seeing 
(this) he approached those monks ; having approached, he 
spoke thus to those monks : 

" What, monks, is this monk's affliction ? " || 1 1| 

" Lord, this venerable one has an illness affecting his eyes ; 
we, having taken hold of him, are making him go out to ease 
himself." Then the Lord in this connection having given 
reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying : 

" I allow, monks, these ointments^ : black coUyrium,^ 
rasa-ointment,^ so^fl-ointment,* yellow-ochre,^ lamp-black."* 
They had need of ointment-powders.' ..." I allow, monks, 
the use of sandal-wood, rosebay, black gum,^ tdlisa,^ nut- 
grass."io II 2 II 11 II 

Now at that time monks used to place pulverised ointments 
in small bowls and saucers. They were littered with powdered 
grass and dust. ..." I allow, monks, an ointment-box."" 
Now at that time the group of six monks used various kinds 
of ointment-boxes, made of gold, made of silver. People 
looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying : " Like 
householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses ". They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, various kinds of ointment-boxes should not be 
used. Whoever should use (one), there is an offence of 



1 anjana is here a generic term, as is clear from the first three to be specified : 
kalanjana rasaiijana sot anjana. VA. 1090 also says of anjana, " comprising 
all ". 

* VA. 1090 says " one kind of anjana, cooked with all ingredients ". 

* VA. 1090 says " made from a variety of ingredients ". Bohtlingk-Roth 
say it is made with vitriol. 

* VA. 1090-91 says "an ointment originating in rivers and streams". 
Bohtlingk-Roth say it is made with antimony. 

* geruka, or red chalk. 

* kapalla taken from the flame of a lamp, VA. 1091. P.E.D. says kapalla 
is here in error for kajjala. 

' anjanupapisana, as at Vin. ii. 112. 

* See G.S. v. 17, n. i. 

* Flacourtia cataphracta. 

1" As in MV. VI. 3. i. and Vin. iv. 35, See B.D. ii. 228, n. 2. 
1* anjant. See B.D. iii. 89, n. 2. Allowed also at Vin. ii. 135. 



276 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

wrong-doing. I allow (them), monks, (to be) made of bone,* 
made of ivory,* made of horn,* made of reed, made of bamboo, 
made of a piece of stick, made of lac, made of crystal, ^ made 
of copper, made of the centre of a conch-sheU." || 1 1| 

Now at that time ointment-boxes were not covered. They 
were Uttered with powdered grass and dust. ..." I allow, 
monks, a lid."^ A lid fell off. ..." I allow you, monks, 
having tied it with thread, to tie it to the ointment- box.'* 
An ointment-box split open.* ..." I allow you, monks, 
to sew it round with thread." || 2 |1 

Now at that time monks put on ointment with (their) fingers. 
(Their) eyes became painful. ... "I allow, monks, an 
ointment-stick."^ Now at that time the group of six monks 
used various kinds of ointment-sticks, made of gold, made of 
silver. [203] People looked down upon, criticised, spread it 
about, saying : " Like householders who enjoy pleasures of 
the senses." ..." Monks, various kinds of ointment-sticks 
should not be used.* Whoever should use one, there is an 
offence of wrong-doing. I allow (them), monks, (to be) made 
of bone . . . made of the centre of a conch-shell." || 3 || 

Now at that time an ointment-stick, falling to the ground, 
became rough. ..." I allow, monks, a case for the sticks."' 
Now at that time monks carried about ointment-boxes and 
ointment-sticks in their hands ..." I allow, monks, a bag 
for the ointment-box." There was no strap at the edge* . . . 



^ At Vin. iv. 1 67 these three materials are allowed for making needle-cases. 
" Bone " is there defined as whatever is bone. But VA. 1091 says " made 
of bone " means of every kind of bone with the exception of human bone. 
This list recurs at Vin. ii. 117. 

2 P.E.D. suggests that phcUamaya " stands in all probability for phalika- 
maya ". 

• Allowed also at Vin. ii. 122 for a well. 

• Reading phalati with Cing. edn. instead of Oldenberg's nipatati. 

• Allowed again, with ointment-box, at Vin. ii. 135. At Vin. iv. 168 
there is " no offence " if an ointment-stick is used as a needle-case. 

• Cf. above VI. 12. i. 

' VA. 1 09 1 says, " because they put down the sticks, I allow a piece 
of hollow wood or a bag for them ". 

• amsa-bandhaka (v. II. vadhaka, vaddhaka). VA. 1091 says this is for 
(or, on) the ointment-bag. The same thing allowed at Vin. ii. 114 for a bowl. 
At MV. VI. 18. 2 there is a similar " allowance " for a bag for tubes for steam. 
Thus the monks had different bags for different portable articles. It would 
seem as if each bag had a strap attached to its edge, rather than that monks 
carried the bags by means of straps going over the shoulder (also called afjtsa). 



12.4—13.2] MAHAVAGGAVI 277 

" I allow, monks, a strap at the edge, a thread for tying^/' 

1141112 II 

Now at that time the venerable Pilindavaccha^ had a head- 
ache' ..." I allow, monks, a small quantity of oil for the 
head." He did not get better ..." I allow, monks, (medical) 
treatment through the nose ".* His nose ran ..." I allow, 
monks, a nose-spoon."" Now at that time the group of six 
monks used various kinds of nose-spoons, made of gold, made 
of silver. People . . . spread it about, saying : " Like 
householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses." . . . "Monks, 
various kinds of nose-spoons should not be used. Whoever 
should use one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow 
(them), monks, (to be) made of bone . . . made of the centre 
of a conch-shell." || i || 

They poured it up the nose in imeven quantities. « ..." I 
allow, monks, a double nose-spoon."' He did not get better 
. . . " I allow you, monks, to inhale steam. "8 So they inhaled 
it after they had lit a wick.' It burnt their throats. . . . 
" I allow you, monks, a tube for the steam.^" Now at that 
time the group of six monks used all kinds of tubes for the 
steam . . . (as in |1 1 ||). "I allow (them), monks, (to be) 
made of bone . . . made of the centre of a conch-shell." Now 
at that time tubes for the steam were not covered, and small 
creatures got in. "I allow, monks, a lid." Now at that time 

1 bandhana-suttaka, probably for tying the box to the strap. Cf. Vin. ii. 
114. 

* See B.D. i, 112, n. 2. 

' A " certain monk " had this, slsdbhitdpa, at Vin. iii. 83 {B.D. i. 143). 

* natthukamma. Cf. natthum adamsu at Vin. iii. 83 (see B.D. i. 143, n. 2). 
Mentioned also at M. i. 511. 

* natthu-karanl. I translate as at Vin. Texts ii. 54. PED. gives " pocket- 
handkerchief ", but next sentence makes this unlikely. 

* natthum visamam asincanti. In pouring the medicament up the nose, 
monks probably poured more up one nostril than the other. The spoon, 
therefore, was not to catch the discharge from the nose but was to hold 
it up " so that the medicinal oil does not run out " {Vin. Texts ii. 54, n. i) ; 
it was an instrument with which to pour up the medicinal oil itself. 

^ I.e. one giving an equal stream in respect of its two measures, VA. logi. 

* dhumam pdtum, lit. to drink steam, or smoke. Below, MV. VI, 14. 5, 
cf. dhumam kdtum. Cf. " drinking " (not smoking) a huqqa, by reason 
of the water in it. 

* Cf. Vin. Texts ii. 54, n. 3, which states that they smeared a wick with 
the drugs and then burnt them. 

1 " dhumanetta. Also at Jd. iv. 363 ; transld. Jd. Transln., iv. 229 
as " smoking-pipe ". 

U 



278 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

monks carried about tubes for the steam in their hands. " I 
allow, monks, a bag for the tubes for the steam." They got 
rubbed together. ..." I allow, monks, a double bag." 
There was no strap at the edge.^ ..." I allow, monks, a 
strap at the edge, a thread for tying." |1 2 || 13 || 

Now at that time the venerable Pilindavaccha [204] had an 
affliction of wind. Physicians spoke thus : "Oil must be 
boiled." ..." I allow, monks, a decoction of oil." Now 
strong drink had to be mixed in that decoction of oil. " I 
allow you, monks, to mix strong drink in a decoction of oil." 
Now at that time the group of six monks boiled oils mixed 
with too much strong drink. Having drunk these, they were 
intoxicated.^ " Monks, oil mixed with too much strong drink 
should not be drunk. Whoever should (so) drink should be 
dealt with according to the rule.' I allow you, monks, if 
neither the colour nor the smell nor the taste of strong drink* 
appears in any decoction of oil, to drink oil mixed with strong 
drink if it is like this." || i |1 

Now at that time monks came to have much boiled oil mixed 
with too much strong drink. Then it occurred to these monks : 
" Now what course of conduct should be followed when there 
is oH mixed with too much strong drink ? " . . . "I allow 
you, monks, tq employ it as an unguent. "^ Now at that time 
the venerable Pilindavaccha came to have a quantity of boiled 
oil, but there was no receptacle for oil. " I allow you, monks, 
three kinds of vessels : a copper vessel, a wooden vessel, a 
vessel (made of) fruit." || 2 || 

Now at that time the venerable Pilindavaccha had rheuma- 
tism in the limbs. " I allow, monks, the sweating-treatment."" 
He got no better. ..." I allow, monks, sweating by the use 
of ail kinds of herbs."' He got no better. " I allow, monks, 

1 As in VI. 12. 4. 

* majjanti, or " were elated ". 
» Pac. LI. 

« Cf. PSc. LI. 2. 3- 

' abbhaHjana, an oiling. Cf. the same word in the " key " at Vin. iii. 79, 
used in referring to abbhakjitnsu, they oiled or rubbed (an ill monk), on p. 83. 

• sedakamma. 

' sambharaseda. VA. 1091, " sweating by the use of hemp and a variety 
of leaves ". 



14.3—5] MAHAVAGGA VI 279 

the great sweating. "* He got no better. " I allow, monks, 
(the use of) hemp-water. "^ He got no better. I allow, 
monks, (the use of) a water-vat."' || 3 |I 

Now at that time the venerable Pilindavaccha had rheumatism 
in the joints. " I allow you, monks, to let blood."* He got 
no better. " I allow you, monks, having let blood, to cup 
with a horn. ' ' ^ Now at that time the venerable Pilindavaccha's 
feet came to be split. " I allow you, monks, an unguent for 
the feet." He got no better. " I allow you, monks, to prepare 
a foot-salve."* Now at that time a certain monk came to 
have boils. " I allow, monks, treatment with a lancet."' 
There was need of astringent water. " I allow, monks, 
astringent water." Ihere was need of sesamum paste. " I 
allow, monks, sesamum paste." || 4 || 

There was need of a compress.* " I allow, monks, a com- 
press." There was need of a piece of cloth for tying over 
the sore. " I allow, monks, a piece of cloth for tying over 
the sore." The sore itched. " I allow you, monks, to sprinkle 
it with mustard-powder."'' The sore festered. [205] " I 
allow you, monks, to make a fumigation. "i° The flesh of the 
sore^^ stood up. " I allow you, monks, to cut it off with a 
piece of salt-crystal." The sore did not heal. " I allow, 
monks, oil for the sore." The oil ran. They told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : "I allow, monks, a linen bandage^' 
(and) every treatment for curing a sore." || 5 |1 

1 mahdseda. VA. 1091 explains that they heap charcoal into a pit the size 
of a man, cover it with dust, sand and leaves, and the patient lies down 
there with his limbs smeared with oil and sweats by rolling round. 

• bhattgodaka, i.e. hemp leaves boiled in water. The patient should sweat 
by repeatedly sprinkling himself with this preparation, VA. 1091. See Vin. 
Texts ii. 57, n. i. 

' udakakotthaka. " I allow the application of the sweating treatment 
{sedakammakarana), having got into a vessel or vat filled with hot water," 
VA. 1 09 1. Kotthaka is usually a store-room. 

• By using a knife (or lancet), VA. 1091. 

' See Vin. Texts ii. 57, n. 3, which, quoting Wise, says, " bad blood may 
be removed by means of cupping, which is performed by a horn ". 

• pajja, cf. D. ii. 240. 
' satthakamma. 

• kabalika. 

• sdsapakutta. Cf. Vin. ii. 151 sdsapaku^4^, as at VA. 1092, where 
explained as " ground (pittha) mustard ". 

10 dhumam kdtum. Cf. "MV. VI. 13. 2. 

*^ vanamamsa, VA. 1092 reading va4dhamamsa, and saying that the upper 
or covering (adhika) flesh stood up like a peg. 
*• vikastka ; VA. 1092, " a piece of clotii for covering up ths sore ". 



28o BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Now at that time a certain monk was bitten by a snake.^ 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, to give the four great irregular things^ : (a decoction 
of) dung, urine, ashes, clay."^ Then it occurred to the monks : 
" (May they be used) even if they are not (formally) received, 
or should they be (formally) received ? "* They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, to make 
use of them if someone to make them allowable "^ is there 
(formally) to offer* them to you ; having taken them your- 
selves, if there is no one to make them allowable." 

Now at that time a certain monk came to have drunk poison. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, to make him drink (a concoction of) dung." Then 
it occurred to the monks : " (May it be drunk) even if it is 
not (formally) received, or should it be (formally) offered? "' 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow, 
monks, that if he receives (formally) that which (someone) is 
making allowable,^ when he has once (formally) received it 
that it need not be (formally) offered again." || 6 || 

Now at that time a certain monk had an affliction resulting 
from drinking something poisonous.' "I allow you, monks, 
to make him drink (a decoction of) mud turned up by the 
plough."! » 

Now at that time a certain monk was constipated. " I 
allow you, monks, to make him drink raw lye." 

Now at that time a certain monk had jaundice. " I allow 
you, monks, to make him drink (a compound of cow's") urine 
and yellow myrobalan."!* 

1 Cf. Vin. iv, 1 66. 

• mahdvikatdni. Mentioned at Vin. iv. 90, where a monk may himself 
take these even if there is no one to make them " allowable ", for they do 
not count as " nutriment ". Also at M. i. 79, D. i. 167. 

• These things are, or are by Indians, regarded as great purifiers. 

• patiggahetabbdni. Oldenberg proposes to read patiggahdpetabbdni, Vin. 
i. 382. * 

• Cf. B.D. ii. 346, n. I, 2. 

• patiggahdpetum. 

' patiggahdpetabbo ; see B.D. ii. 122. 
' yam karonto patiggaphdti. 

• VA. 1092 takes tiiis to mean he was suffering from the results of sorcery, 
i.e. from a disease arising from drinking under the mastery of another, 

^" sltdloli, explained at VA. 1092 as " I allow you to make him drink, 
mixed with water, the clay clinging to the ploughshare when tilling with 
a plough ". 

»i So VA. 1092. 

*• Cf. Vin. i. 276 where Jivaka gave ghee as a cure for jaundice. 



14.7—15.2] MAHAVAGGAVI 281 

Now at that time a certaiii monk had a skin disease. " I 
allow you, monks, to make a perfume-paste." 

Now at that time a certain monk's body came to be full 
of (bad) humours. 1 " I allow him, monks, to drink a purga- 
tive." There was need of clarified conjey. " I allow, monks, 
clarified conjey." There was need of unprepared broth. ^ " I 
allow, monks, unprepared broth." There was need of prepared 
and unprepared.' " I allow, monks, prepared and unprepared." 
There was need of meat-broth.* " I allow, monks, meat- 
broth." II 7 II 14 II 

Now at that time the venerable Pilindavaccha,^ desiring to 
make a cave, had a (mountain) slope cleared near Rajagaha. 
Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha approached the 
venerable Pilindavaccha ; having approached, [206] having 
greeted the venerable Pilindavaccha, he sat down at a respectful 
distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, 
King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha spoke thus to the venerable 
Pilindavaccha : " What, honoiured sir, is the elder having 
made ? " 

" Sire, desiring to make a cave, I am having a (mountain) 
slope cleared." 

" Honoured sir, does the master require an attendant for 
a monastery ? " 

" Sire, an attendant for a monastery is not allowed by the 
Lord." 

" Well, honoured sir, having inquired of the Lord, you should 
tell him of me." 

" Very well, sire," the venerable Pilindavaccha answered 
King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha in assent. || i || 

Then the venerable Pilindavaccha gladdened, roused, 
rejoiced, delighted King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha with 
talk on dhamma. Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, 

* abhisannakdya. Cf. Vin. ii. iig, also MV. VIII. 1. 30, kdya dosdbhisanna. 
' akatayusa. VA. 1092 says "a beverage cooked with beans but not 

oily ". 

» katdkata. VA. 1092 reads so 'va thokam (v.l. dhota) siniddho, this is only 
a little oily. 

* paticchddaniya. Cf. below, MV. VI. 23. 3. VA. 1092 explains 
by mamsarasa, flavour of meat. 

» From here towards end of 15. 10 = Vin. iii. 248-251. See B.D. ii. 
126 fF. for notes. 



282 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

gladdened . . . delighted by the venerable Pilindavaccha's 
talk on dhamma, rising from his seat, having greeted the 
venerable Pilindavaccha, departed keeping his right side 
towards him. Then the venerable Pilindavaccha sent a 
messenger to the Lord to say : " Lord, King Seniya Bimbisara 
of Magadha desires to present an attendant for a monastery. 
Now, Lord, what line of conduct is to be followed ? " Then 
the Lord on this occasion having given reasoned talk, addressed 
the monks saying : 

" I allow, monks, a monastery attendant." || 2 || 

And a second time did King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha 
approach the venerable Pilindavaccha; having approached, 
having greeted the venerable Pilindavaccha, he sat down at 
a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful 
distance King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha spoke thus to 
the venerable Pilindavaccha : 

" Honoured sir, has the Lord allowed a monastery attendant? " 

"Yes, sire." 

" Well then, honoured sir, I will give the master a monastery 
attendant." 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, having promised 
the venerable Pilindavaccha a monastery attendant, (but) 
having forgotten, having recalled it after a time, addressed a 
chief minister who was concerned with all the affairs, saying : 
" My good sir, has that monastery-attendant whom I promised 
to the master been given ? " 

" Your majesty, a monastery attendcint has not been given 
to the master." 

" My good sir, how long is it since it was considered ? " |1 3 H 

Then that chief minister, having counted up the days, spoke 
thus to King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha : " It is five 
hundred days, yom: majesty.' 

" Well then, give five himdred monastery attendants to the 
master." 

" Yes, your majesty," and the chief minister having answered 
King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha in assent, bestowed five 
hundred monastery attendants on the venerable Pilindavaccha, 
and a distinct village established itself. They called it " The 
Village of the Monastery Attendants " [207] and they also 
called it " Pilinda Village ". Now at that time the venerable 



15.4—6] MAHAVAGGAVI 283 

Pilindavaccha frequented families in that village. Then the 
venerable Pilindavaccha, having dressed in the morning, taking 
his bowl and robe, entered Pilinda Village for almsfood. || 4 |1 

Now at that time there came to be a festival in this village ; 
young girls wearing ornaments, adorned with garlands, were 
celebrating it. Then the venerable Pilindavaccha as he was 
walking for almsfood on unbroken round^ in Pilinda Village, 
approached the dwelling of a certain monastery attendant ; 
having approached, he sat down on the appointed seat. Now 
at that time the daughter of the monastery attendant's wife, 
having seen other little girls wearing ornaments, adorned with 
garlands, cried and said : " Give me a garland, give me an 
ornament." 

Then the venerable Pilindavaccha said to that monastery 
attendant's wife : " Why is this little girl crying ? " 

" Honoured sir, this little girl is crying because, having seen 
other httle girls wearing ornaments, adorned with garlands, 
she says : ' Give me a garland, give me an ornament.' Whence 
is there a garland for us who are poor, whence an ornament ? " 

115 II 

Then the venerable PiUndavaccha, having taken a roll of 
grass, spoke thus to that monastery attendant's wite : " Now 
set this roll of grass on this little girl's head." Then that 
monastery attendant's wife, having taken that roll of grass, 
set it on that little girl's head. It became a golden chaplet, 
beautiful, good to look upon, charming ; there was no golden 
chaplet like it even in the king's women's quarters. People 
spoke thus to King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha : 

" Your majesty, in the house of a certain monastery attend- 
ant there is a golden chaplet, beautiful, good to look upon, 
charming ; there is no golden chaplet like it even in your 
majesty's women's quarters. As he is poor, where (could he 
have got it) from ? Undoubtedly it was taken by theft." 
Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha had that monastery 
attendant's family imprisoned, jj 6 jj 

* sapaddnam, derivation uncertain. Enjoined at Sekhiya 33. Explanations 
given at VA. 893 (cited B.D. iii. 129, n. 3) ; SA. i. 205 : the houses reached, 
one walking to them successively (in succession, in order) ; SnA. 118 : one 
who walks successively, not having rejected (departed from) the order 
(succession) of the houses, entering a rich household and a poor household 
without interruption (without a break, " just as it comes "), for almsfood. 



284 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

And a second time did the venerable Pilindavaccha, having 
dressed in the morning, taking his bowl and robe, enter Pilinda 
Village for almsfood. As he was walking in Pilinda Village 
on unbroken round for almsfood he approached the dwelling 
of that monastery attendant ; having approached, he asked 
the neighbours : " Where has this monastery attendant's 
family gone ? " 

" Honoured sir, they have been imprisoned by the king on 
account of that golden chaplet." 

Then the venerable Pilindavaccha approached the residence 
of King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha ; having approached 
he sat down on the appointed seat. Then King Seniya 
Bimbisara of Magadha approached the venerable Pilindavaccha; 
having approached, having greeted the venerable Pilindavaccha 
he sat down at a respectful distance. [208] The venerable 
Pilindavaccha spoke thus to King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha 
as he was sitting down at a respectful distance : || 7 || 

" How is it, sire, that the monastery attendant's family is 
imprisoned ? " 

" Honoured sir, in that monastery attendant's house there 
was a golden chaplet, beautiful, good to look upon, charming ; 
there is no golden chaplet like it even in our women's quarters. 
Where (could he have got it) from, as he is poor ? Undoubtedly 
it was obtained by theft." 

Then the venerable Pilindavaccha exercised volitional force, 
and said : " The palace of King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha 
is golden," and it became made all of gold. He said : " Now, 
sire, from where have you got so much gold ? " 

Saying : " I understand, honoured sir, this is the master's 
majesty of psychic power," he set free the monastery attend- 
ant's family. || 8 || 

People, delighted, full of satisfaction because they heard 
that a state of further men, a wonder of psychic power 
had been shown by master Pilindavaccha to the king and his 
retinue, presented the five (kinds of) medicine to the venerable 
Pilindavaccha, that is to say ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey and 
molasses. Now the venerable Pilindavaccha was customarily 
a receiver, so whenever he received the five (kinds of) medicine 
he gave them away among his company. And his company 
came to live in abundance ; whatever they received, filling pots 



15.9—16.1] MAHAVAGGAVI 285 

and pitchers, they put them away, and filling water strainers 
and bags, they hung them up in the windows. These (pots, 
etc.) leaked, and the dwelling-places became beset and overrun 
by rats. People, having seen (this) as they were touring the 
dwelling-places, looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, 
sajong : " These recluses, sons of the Sakyans, are storing up 
goods indoors, like King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha." 

119 II 
Monks heard these people who were . . . spreading it about. 

Those who were modest monks . . . spread it about, saying : 

" How can these monks strive after abundance Uke this ? " 

Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Is it true, as is said, monks, that monks are striving after 
abundance such as this ? " 

" It is true, Lord." Having rebuked them,i having given 
reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying : 

" Those medicines which may be partaken of by ill monks, 
that is to say ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey, molasses — having 
accepted these, they may be used as a store for at most seven 
days. He who exceeds that (period) should be dealt with 
according to the rule."^ || 10 || 15 || 

The First Portion for Repeating : that on Medicines 
that are AUowed. 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Savatthi for as long as he 
found suiting, [209] set out on tour for Rajagaha. And on 
the way the venerable Revata the Doubter^ saw a sugar-factory; 
having stepped aside, (he saw the men) putting flour and syrup* 

^ Vin. iii. 251 {B.D. ii. 131) reads : The lord rebuked them saying : ". . . 
this rule of training should be set forth. ..." 

« Nissag. XXIII. 

' Kankharevata. At ^. i. 24 called " chief of musers " ; verses at Thag. 
3, Ap. ii. 491. Mentioned at Ud. V. 7. M. i. 212, 462. He was scrupulous 
about and doubted what was allowable, kappiya. Cf. Thag A. 37, UdA. 314, 
A A. i. 230, MA. ii. 247, G.S. i. 18, n. 2. 

* chdrikatn cannot here be ashes, which is its most usual meaning. But 
cf. Skrt. ksdra, treacle, molasses. Perhaps some confused reference back to 
the " four irregular things " of 14. 6 is intended here. The allowability of 
the first two has been emphasised in specific cases (in 14. 6 and 7), and 
" mud turned up by the plough " (of 14. 7) is probably intended as an 
example of the fourth irregular thing, namely clay. Here occurs the same 
word as is used for the third irregular thing, chdrika, there translated " ashes " 
where syrup or treacle would hardly fit ; but here translated " syrup ", as 
people would not put ashes into sugar to stiffen it, nor would ashes be 
called " food ", dmisa. 



286 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

into the sugar ; seeing this and thinking : " Sugar with food^ 
is unallowable ; it is not allowable to make use of sugar at 
a wrong time," being scrupulous,^ he and his company did not 
make use of the sugar, neither did those make use of the sugar 
who deemed that he should be Hstened to. They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " Why, monks, did they put 
flour and S3Tup into the sugar ? " 

" So as to make it firm. Lord." 

" If, monks, they put flour and syrup into the sugar so as 
to make it firm, and if it is still called ' sugar ', I allow you, 
monks, to make use of as much sugar as you like."' !| 1 1| 

Then on the way the venerable Revata the Doubter saw 
a kidney-bean growing on a dunghill ; having seen it and 
thinking : " Kidney-beans are not allowable, for ripe kidney- 
beans are also growing,"* being scrupulous he and his company 
did not make use of the kidney-bean, neither did those who 
deemed that he should be listened to make use of the kidney- 
bean. They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " Monks, 
even if ripe kidney-beans are growing, 1 allow you to make use 
of kidney-beans as much as you like." || 2 || 

Now at that time a certain monk had an afiiiction of wind 
in the stomach. He drank salted sour gruel. ^ Because of this 
his afiiiction of wind in the stomach subsided. They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : " I allow, monks, salted sour 
gruel for one who is iU ; when one is not iU to make use of it 
by using it as a beverage mixed with water." |1 3 || 16 i| 

Then the Lord, walking on tour, in due course arrived at 
Rajagaha. The Lord stayed there in Rajagaha in the Bamboo 
Grove at the squirrels' feeding place. Now at that time the 
Lord came to have an afiiiction of wind in the stomach. Then 
the venerable Ananda, thinking : " On a former occasion the 
Lord's afiiiction of wind in the stomach was eased by conjey 



* sdmisa ; cf. Vin. iv. 198. 

• kukkuccayanta. A A. i. 230, in explanation of Kafikharevata's name, 
says " doubting means, having scruples ; the meaning is being scrupulous ". 

» ycUhdsukhatft. 

* Meaning of this passage is not clear. VA . 1092 says, " if ripe kidney-beans 
are also growing they may be used as much as you Uke, for these are allowable 
just because they are ripe ". On ntugga see B.D. i. 83, n. 4. 

• lovasovtraka. At Vin. iii. 86 it is called suviraka. See B.D. i. 149, n. 3. 



17.1—4] MAHAVAGGAVI 287 

containing the three pungent ingredients,"^ having himself 
prepared sesamum and rice-grain and kidney-bean, having 
cured* them indoors, having himself cooked them indoors, 
brought them to the Lord, saying : " Lord, drink the conjey 
containing the three pungent ingredients." || i || 

Now Truth-finders (sometimes) ask knowing,' and knowing 
(sometimes) do not ask ; they ask knowing the right time 
(to ask), and they do not ask knowing the right time (when 
not to ask). Truth-finders ask about what belongs to the goal, 
not about what does not belong to the goal ; bridge-breaking 
for Truth-finders is among what does not belong to the goal. 
Awakened ones, Lords question monks concerning two matters : 
either, " Shall we teach dhamma ? " or " Shall we lay down 
a rule of training for disciples ? " Then the Lord [210] 
addressed the venerable Ananda, sa5dng : " Where does this 
conjey come from, Ananda? " Then the venerable Ananda 
told this matter to the Lord. || 2 || 

The awakened one, the Lord rebuked him, saying : " It is 
not becoming, Ananda, it is not fitting, it is not suitable, it is 
not worthy of a recluse, it is not allowable, it is not to be done. 
And how can you, Ananda, strain after abundance such as 
this ? Moreover, Ananda, that which is cured indoors is 
unallowable, and that which is cooked indoors is also unallow- 
able, and that which is cooked by oneself is also unallowable. 
It is not, Ananda, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased. 
. . ." And having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, 
he addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, one should not make use of what is cured indoors, 
cooked indoors, cooked by oneself. Whoever should make use 
(of any of these things), there is an offence of wrong-doing. 

II 3 II 

If, monks, it is cured indoors, cooked indoors, cooked by 
oneself, and one should make use of it, there is an offence 
of three wrong-doings. If, monks, it is cured indoors, cooked 
indoors, (but) cooked by others, and one should make use of 
it, there is an offence of two wrong-doings. If, monks, it is 

* tekcUulaydgu. See B.D. i. iii, n. i. 

■ vasetvd. I follow P.E.D. (under vaseti ') rather than the " kept " of Vin, 
Texts ii. 68. Monks are allowed to cure (or purify) clay at Vin. ii. 1 20. 

• Cf. B.D. i. 12, and see there n, 3 for further references. 



288 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

cured indoors, cooked out of doors, cooked by oneself, and 
one should make use of it, there is an offence of two wrong- 
doings. II 4 II ^ 

If, monks, it is cured out of doors, cooked indoors, cooked 
by oneself, and one should make use of it, there is an offence 
of two wrong-doings. If, monks, it is cured indoors, cooked 
out of doors, cooked by others, and one should make use of it, 
there is an offence of wrong-doing. If, monks, it is cured out 
of doors, cooked out of doors, (but) cooked by oneself, and one 
should make use of it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If, 
monks, it is cured out of doors, cooked out of doors, cooked 
by others, and one should make use of it, there is no offence." 

11511 

Now at that time, monks, thinking : " Cooking for oneself^ 
is objected to by the Lord," were doubtful about^ a second 
cooking.' They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I 
allow you, monks, to cook a second cooking." || 6 || 

Now at that time Rajagaha became short of food. People 
conveyed salt and oil and husked rice and solid food* to the 
monastery. The monks cured these out of doors, but vermin* 
ate them and also thieves carried them off." They told this 
matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, to cure 
indoors."' "When they had cured (the things) indoors, they 
cooked them out of doors, (but) those who live on the remains 
of food^ crowded round. The monks, not trusting them, made 
use of (the food). They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said : " I allow you, monks, to cook indoors." When food 
was short those who made it allowable carried away the larger 
(portion) and gave the monks the lesser (portion). [211] 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, 
monks, yourselves to cook. I allow you, monks, what is ctu^ed 

• sdmampdka. 

• kukkuccdyanti. 

» punapdka, i.e. a reheating of food already cooked once. 

• These four items are mentioned also at Vin. i. 220, 238, 243, 249. 

» ukkapixi4aka. VA. 1093 explains as cats, mice, lizards, mongeese (? 
mafigttsa). 

• As at Vin. i, 239. 

' This, and subsequent allowances, refer only to times of scarcity, and 
were all rescinded for times of plenty, see MV. VI. 82. i, 2. 

• Here called damaka. VA. 1093 explains by vighdsdda, a word which 
occurs at e.g. MV. VI. 24. i below, and Vin. iv. 91. See B.D. ii. Intr. xliii 
and p. 347, n. 3. 



17.7—18.1] MAHAVAGGA VI 289 

indoors, what is cooked indoors, what is cooked by yourselves." 

117 II 
Now at that time several monks, having spent the rains in 

Kasi, going to Rajagaha to see the Lord, did not obtain on 

the way sufficient mediocre or fine meals, as much as they 

needed. Yet there was much solid food that was fruit,^ but 

there was no one to make it allowable. ^ So these monks, 

weary in body, approached Rajagaha, the Bamboo Grove, the 

squirrels' feeding place, the Lord ; having approached, having 

greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. Now 

it is the custom for awakened ones, for Lords, to exchange 

friendly greetings with incoming monks. So the Lord spoke 

thus to these monks : "I hope, monks, things are going well 

with you, I hope you are keeping going, I hope you have come 

here with but little fatigue on the jomney ? And where, 

monks, do you come from ? " || 8 |I 

" Things are going well with us. Lord, but we. Lord, having 
spent the rains in Kasi, coming to Rajagaha to see the Lord 
... no one to make it allowable ; thus we have come on the 
journey weary in body." 

Then the Lord on this occasion having given reasoned talk, 
addressed the monks, sa5dng : 

" I allow you, monks, if one anywhere sees solid food that 
is fruit, but if there is no one to make it allowable, having 
taken' it oneself, having carried it away, having seen someone 
to make it allowable, having laid it down on the ground, to 
make use of it, (he) having (formally) offered* it to you. I 
allow you, monks, to receive (formally) what you have picked 
up."*^ (19 1117 II 

Now at that time fresh sesamum and fresh honey had accrued 
to a certain brahmin. Then it occurred to that brahmin : 
" Suppose I were to give the fresh sesamum and fresh honey 
to the Order of monks with the awakened one at its head ? " 

* phalakhddaniya. See note on pitthakhddaniya at MV. VI. 36. 6 below. 

• kappiyakdraka. These make things allowable by offering them. See 
MV. VI. 21. I ; 38. I. 

• gahetva. 

* PatiggahapeivS. Cf. n. on patta-gahdpaka at B.D. ii. 122, and above, 
p. 280. 

» uggahitam. This is an " allowance " only for a time of scarcity. See 
the much simpler " allowance " at VI. 21. for more normal times. 



290 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Then that brahmin approached the Lord ; having approached, 
he exchanged friendly greetings with the Lord. Having 
exchanged greetings of friendliness and courtesy he stood at 
a respectful distance ; and standing at a respectful distance, 
that brahmin spoke thus to the Lord : 

" Lord, may the revered^ Gotama together with the Order 
of monks consent to a meal with me to-morrow." The Lord 
consented [212] by becoming silent. Then that brahmin 
departed, having understood the Lord's consent. |1 1 || 

Then that brahmin having had, towards the end of that 
night, sumptuous solid food and soft food prepared, had the 
time announced to the Lord, saying : " It is time, good Gotama, 
the meal is ready". Then the Lord, having dressed in the 
morning, taking his bowl and robe, approached that brahmin's 
dwelling ; having approached, he sat down together with the 
Order of monks on the appointed seat. Then that brahmin, 
having with his own hand served and satisfied with sumptuous 
solid food and soft food the Order of monks with the awakened 
one at its head, sat down at a respectful distance when the 
Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from his bowl. 
While that brahmin was sitting down at a respectful distance 
the Lord, having gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted him 
with talk on dhamma, rising from his seat, departed. 

i|2|| 

Then it occurred to that brahmin soon after the Lord had 
departed : "I forgot to give those things for the sake of 
which I invited the Order of monks with the awakened one at 
its head, thinking : ' I will give fresh sesammn and fresh honey.' 
Suppose I were to have the fresh sesamum and the fresh honey 
conveyed to the monastery in pots and pitchers ? " Then that 
brahmin, having had the fresh sesamum and the fresh honey 
conveyed to the monastery in pots and pitchers, approached 
the Lord ; having approached, he stood at a respectful distance ; 
and as he was standing at a respectful distance this brahmin 
spoke thus to the Lord : || 3 || 

" I forgot to give those things, good Gotama, for the sake 
of which I invited the Order of monks with the awakened one 
at its head, thinking : ' I will give fresh sesamum and fresh 

^ bhavatft, as at Vin. iii. 2. 



18.4—19.2] MAHAVAGGAVI 291 

honey'. May the revered Gotama accept from me fresh 

sesamum and fresh honey ? " 

" Well, then, brahmin, give them to the monks." 

Now at that time because food was scarce^ and they offered 

them only a little, monks considerately refused. But a whole 

Order was offered (food) ; the monks, being scrupulous, did 

not accept it.^ (The Lord said :) 

"Accept (the food), monks, make use of it. I allow you, 

monks, having eaten and being satisfied,^ to make use of food 

that is not left over,* if it was taken back from there ".* 

II 4 II 18 II 

Now at that time the family who supported the venerable 
Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, sent solid food for the 
Order,' sajdng : " Having pointed it out as for master 
Upananda, it should be given to the Order." Now at that 
time the venerable Upananda, [213] the son of the Sakyans, 
had entered the village for almsfood. Then these people, 
having gone to the monastery, asked the monks : " Where, 
honoured sirs, is master Upananda ? " 

" Sirs, this venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, 
has entered the village for almsfood." 

" Honoured sirs, having pointed out this solid food as for 
master Upananda, it should be given to the Order." 

They told this matter to the Lord.' He said : " Well, then, 
monks, having accepted it, put it aside until Upananda comes 
back." II I II 

Then the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, 
having visited the families before the meal, came back during 



1 dubbhikkhd means scarcity of food and of (in consequence) almsfood. 

* See Pac. 32 and its definition of " great scajcity ", and its saying that 
at such a time a " group-meal " may be eaten (B.D. ii. 312). 

' See B.D. ii. 326, n. 2 and definitions at B.D. ii. 328. 

* See Pac. 35, to which the above allowance is an exception made in 
a time of scarcity. See B.D. ii. 328, n. 4, and definition of " what is not 
left over " at B.D. ii. 329. 

' tato nlhatam, i.e. having taken the food to the monastery from the place 
where it was received. Cf. tato ntharitvd at Vin. iv. 80 and its " definition " 
at Vin. iv. 81. 

* As at Vin. iv. 98-99 {B.D. ii. 363 f.). 

' Here Vin. iv. 99 inserts : " Then the Lord on that occasion, in 
that connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying : 
"Well then. ..." 



292 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

the day.^ Now at that time because food was scarce and they 
offered them only a little, monks considerately refused ; but 
a whole Order was offered (food) ; the monks, being scrupulous, 
did not accept. (The Lord said :) 

"Accept (the food), monks, make use of it. I allow you, 
monks, having eaten and being satisfied, to make use of (food) 
that is not left over if it was accepted before a meal." || 2 1| 19 || 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Rajagaha for as long as 
he found suiting, set out on a tour for Savatthi. In due course, 
walking on tour, he arrived at Savatthi. Then the Lord 
stayed there at Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's 
monastery. Now at that time the venerable Sariputta had 
fever. Then the venerable Moggallana the Great approached 
the venerable Sariputta ; having approached, he spoke thus 
to the venerable Sariputta : 

" When you, reverend Sariputta, previously had fever, by 
what means was it eased ? " 

" I had lotus fibres and stalks, your reverence." 

Then the venerable Moggallana the Great, as a strong man 
might stretch out his" bent arm or might bend back his out- 
stretched arm, even so did he, vanishing from the Jeta Grove 
appear on the hanks of the Mandakini lotus-tank.^ || i |j 

A certain elephant* saw the venerable Moggallana the Great 
coming in the distance ; seeing him he spoke thus to the 
venerable Moggallana the Great : 

" Honoured sir, let master Moggallana the Great come ; 
there is a welcome, honoured sir, for master Moggallana the 
Great. What, honoured sir, does the master need ? What 
can I give him ? " 

" I need lotus fibres and stalks, friend." Then that elephant 
commanded another elephant, saying : 



* At Vin. iv. 99 Upananda is represented as thinking it to be forbidden 
by the Lord to call upon families before a meal, so having visited them after 
a meal he returned during the day. " Before a meal," " after a meal " are 
defined at Vin. iv. 100, and differently at Vin. iv. 272, 273. Nuns' Pac. 
XV, XVI seem to take it for granted that nuns approach famihes before 
and after meals. 

* One of the seven great lakes of the Himalayas, part of it being covered 
with white lotuses. See D.P.P.N. 

* nSga, elephant, rather than serpent here ; the sott4^, trunk, is mentioned 
a little later. 



20.2— 21.1] MAHAVAGGA VI 293 

" Well now, good fellow, give the master as many lotus fibres 
and stalks as he needs." Then that elephant, having plmiged 
into the Mandakini lotus-tank, having with his trunk pulled 
lotus fibres and stalks, [214] having washed them clean,^ 
having tied them into a bundle, approached the venerable 
Moggallana the Great. || 2 || 

Then the venerable Moggallana the Great, as a strong man 
might stretch out his bent arm or might bend back his out- 
stretched arm, even so did he, vanishing from the bank of 
the ]\Iandakini lotus-tank, appear in the Jeta Grove. And 
that elephant too, vanishing from the bank of the Mandakini 
lotus-tank, appeared in the Jeta Grove. Then that elephant, 
having offered the venerable Moggallana the Great the lotus 
fibres and stalks, vanishing from the Jeta Grove, appeared on 
the bank of the Mandakini lotus-tank. Then the venerable 
Moggallana the Great brought the lotus fibres and stalks to 
the venerable Sariputta. Then as the venerable Sariputta 
was making use of the lotus fibres and stalks, his fever abated. 
Many lotus fibres and stalks came to be left over. || 3 || 

Now at that time because food was scarce and they offered 
them only a little,^ monks considerately refused ; but a whole 
Order was offered (food). The monks, being scrupulous, did 
not accept. (The Lord said :) 

"Accept (the food), monks, make use of it. I allow you, 
monks, having eaten and being satisfied, to make use of (food) 
that is not left over if it grows in a wood, if it grows in a 
lotus-tank."» Il4||20|| 

Now at that time there was a great quantity of solid food 
that was fruit* at Savatthi, but there was no one to make 
it allowable. The monks, being scrupulous, did not make 
use of the fruit. They told this matter to the Lord. He 
said: 

" I allow you, monks, to make use of fruit that is without 



* Cf. Vin. ii. 201, S. ii. 269. 

« As above, VI. 18. 4 and VI. 19. 2. 

» This therefore seems an exception to Pac. XI, which makes the destruction 
of vegetable growth an offence. 

* Cf. above VI. 17. 8 ; below VI. 88. i, and note on pitthakhadaniya at 
VI. 86. 6. 



294 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

seed (or) whose seed is discharged,^ (even if) it is not made 
aUowable." |1 1 11 21 1| 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Savatthi for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Rajagaha. In due course, 
walking on tour, he arrived at Rajagaha. And the Lord stayed 
there at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels' 
feeding place. Now at that time a certain monk was afflicted 
by an ulcer.^ The surgeon, Akasagotta,^ lanced it. Then the 
Lord, as he was touring the lodgings, approached this monk's 
dwelling-place. [| 1 1| 

The surgeon, Akasagotta, saw the Lord coming in the 
distance ; seeing him, he spoke thus to the Lord : " Let the 
revered Gotama come, let him see this monk's orifice ; it is 
like a lizard's [215] mouth." Then the Lord, thinking, " This 
foolish man is making fun of me ", becoming silent, having 
turned back, having had the Order of monks convened, on 
this occasion, in this connection, questioned the monks, saying : 
" Is there, as is said, monks, an ill monk in such and such 
a dweUing-place ? " 

" There is. Lord." 

" What, monks, is this monk's affliction ? " 

" Lord, the venerable one's affliction is an ulcer. The 
surgeon, Akasagotta, lanced it." || 2 1| 

The awakened one, the Lord rebuked them, saying : 

" It is not becoming, monks, in this foolish man, it is not 
suitable, it is not fitting, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is 
not allowable, it should not be done. How, monks, can this 
foolish man let a lancing be done on the private parts ? The 
skin, monks, is tender at the private parts, a wound is hard 
to heal, a knife hard to guide. It is not, monks, for pleasing 
those who are not (yet) pleased. . . ." Having rebuked them, 
having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, one should not let a lancing be done on the private 
parts. Whoever should let it be done (there), there is a grave 
offence." || 3 || 

^ nibbattabija. VA. 1093 says bijam nibbatetvd (v. I. nippattetva) apanetva, 
having got rid of the seed, having discharged it. The idea seems to be that 
monks must not eat the seeds of fruits. At VI. 88. i all solid food that is fruit 
is allowed. 

* Cf. Vin. {.'272. 

' Mentioned, I think, nowhere but here. 



22.4—25.2] MAHAVAGGAVI 295 

Now at that time the group of six monks, thinking : 
" Lancing is objected to by the Lord ", let a clyster be used. 
Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, 
spread it about, saying : " How can this group of six monks 
let a clyster be used ? " Then these monks told this matter 
to the Lord. He said : 

" Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks 
let a clyster be used ? " 

"It is true. Lord." Having rebuked them, having given 
reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, sa5dng : 

" Monks, one should not have lancing done within a distance 
of two finger-breadths of the private parts nor a clyster- 
treatment. Whoever should have (either of these things) 
done, there is a grave offence." !| 4 || 22 || 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Rajagaha for as long as 
he found suiting, set out on tour for Benares. In due course, 
walking on tour, he arrived at Benares. The Lord stayed there 
near Benares at Isipatana in the deer-park. Now at that time 
in Benares the layfoUower, Suppiya, and the woman lay- 
follower, Suppiya,^ were both pleased^ ; they were benefactors, 
servitors,^ supporters of the Order. Then the woman lay- 
foUower, Suppiya, having gone to the monastery, having 
approached dwelling-place after dwelling-place, cell after cell, 
asked the monks : " Who, honoured sirs, is ill ? What may 
be conveyed for whom ? " || i || 

Now at that time a certain monk [216] had drunk a purgative. 
Then that monk spoke to the woman layfoUower, Suppiya, 
thus : 

" I have drunk a purgative, sister. I need meat-broth."* 
She said : 

" Very weU, master, it shaU be conveyed (to you)," and 
having gone to her house, she enjoined a servant,^ sa)dng : 

* Suppiya is at ^4. i. 26 called chief of the laywomen disciples who tend 
the sick, a position she had resolved to achieve during a life in the time of 
Padumuttara Buddha, AA. i. 453-4. Her name occurs in a list of eminent 
women at A. iv. 348. At Miln. 115 she is mentioned with seven other persons 
as experiencing ease (sukka) here and now. 

* I.e. with the teaching. 
' kdrakd, lit. doers. 

* AUowed at VI. 14. 7. 

« antevasin. Cf. Pac. LXXXIV {Vin. iv. 162) where Anathapindika 
enjoins his antevasin to prepare rice for the monks, 



296 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Go, good fellow, find meat that is to hand."^ 

" Yes, lady," but that man, having answered the woman 
layfollower Suppiya in assent, touring the whole of Benares, 
saw no meat that was to hand. Then that man approached 
the woman layfollower Suppiya ; having approached the 
woman lajrfollower Suppiya, he spoke thus : " There is no 
meat, lady, that is ready to hand ; to-day is a non-slaughter 
(day)."^^ II 2 II 

Then it occurred to the woman layfollower, Suppiya : " If 
that ill monk is unable to obtain meat-broth his affliction will 
greatly increase or he will pass away. It is not fitting in me, 
that I, having answered him in assent, should not have meat- 
broth conveyed ", and having taken a butcher's knife, ^ having 
cut flesh from her thigh, she gave it to a slave-woman, saying : 

" Come now, having prepared* this meat — in such and such 
a dwelling-place there is an ill monk, you may give it to him, 
and if anyone asks for me, let it be known that I am ill," 
and having wrapped her upper robe round her thigh, having 
entered an inner room, she lay down on a couch. || 3 || 

Then the laj^ollower, Suppiya, having gone to the house, 
asked the slave-woman, saying : " Where is Suppiya ? " 

" She, master, is lying down in an inner room." Then the 
layfollower Suppiya, approached the woman layfollower 
Suppiya, and having approached he spoke thus to the woman 
la57follower Suppiya : 

" Why are you lying down ? " 

" I am ill," she said. 

" What is your affliction ? " Then the woman la5^ollower 
Suppiya told this matter to the layfollower Suppiya. Then 
the lajrfoUower Suppiya, thinking : " Indeed, it is marvellous, 
indeed, it is wonderful, that this Suppiya is so faithful and 
believing that she gives up even her own flesh. What other 



1 pavattamamsa, i.e. already killed, and not to be killed on purpose for 
the monk. For monks might eat no fish or meat which they saw, heard 
or suspected had been specially killed for them, Vin. iii. 1 72. 

* maghdta. Cf. Jd. iii. 428, 434 ; also Asoka's Pillar Edict V, where " on 
fifty-six days in the year the capture and sale of fish was prohibited, and 
on the same days, even in game-preserves, animals might not be destroyed " 
(Vincent Smith, Asoka, 3rd edn., p. 57). VA. 1094 says "on this day it 
is not possible for anyone to deprive anj4hing of life ". 

» potthanika. At VA. 1094 it is called " a knife for cutting meat ". 

* sampadetva, as at Vin. iii. 208. 



23.4—7] MAHAVAGGAVI 297 

thing could there be that she would not give ? " and joyful, 
elated, he approached the Lord ; having approached, having 
greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. || 4 || 

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance the layf ollower 
Suppiya spoke thus to the Lord : " Lord, may the lord consent 
to a meal with me on the morrow together with the Order 
of monks ". The Lord consented by becoming silent. Then 
the la5^ollower Suppiya, having understood the Lord's consent, 
rising from his seat, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping 
his right side towards him. Then the layfollower Suppiya, 
towards the end of that night, having had sumptuous solid 
foods, soft foods, prepared, had the time announced to the 
Lord, saying : " It is time. Lord, the meal is ready ". Then 
the Lord, dressing in the morning, taking his bowl and robe, 
[217] approached the dwelling of the layfollower Suppiya ; 
halving approached, he sat down together with the Order of 
monks on the appointed seat. || 5 |1 

Then the layfoUower Suppiya approached the lord ; having 
approached, having greeted the Lord, he stood at a respectful 
distance. As the layfollower Suppiya was standing at a 
respectful distance, the Lord spoke thus to him : 

" How is Suppiya ? " 

" She is iU, Lord." 

" Well then, let her come." 

" She is not able to do so. Lord." 

" Well then, having taken hold of her, bring her along." 
Then the layfoUower Suppiya, having taken hold of the woman 
layfollower Suppiya, brought her along. When the Lord saw 
her, even that great wound became healed, the skin was (made) 
good with (small) hairs growing on it. || 6 || 

Then the layfoUower Suppiya and the woman layfoUower 
Suppiya, saying : " Wonderful indeed, marveUous indeed are 
the great psychic power and the great potency of the Truth- 
finder, inasmuch as when the Lord sees (someone) even a great 
wound wiU be healed, the skin (made) good with (smaU) hairs 
growing on it," and joyful, elated, having with their own hands 
served and satisfied the Order of monks with the enlightened 
one at its head with sumptuous foods, solid and soft, when 
the Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from the bowl, 
they sat down at a respectful distance. Then the Lord having 



298 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted the layfollower Suppiya 
and the woman layfollower Suppiya with talk on dhamma, 
rising from his seat, departed. || 7 || 

Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having 
had the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks, 
saying : " Who, monks, asked the woman layfollower Suppiya 
for meat ? " When he had spoken thus, that monk spoke thus 
to the Lord : 

" I, Lord, asked the woman layfollower Suppiya for meat." 

" Has it been conveyed (to you), monk ? " 

" It has been conveyed, Lord." 

" Did you, monk, make use of it ? " 

" I, Lord, made use of it." 

" Did you, monk, inquire about^ it ? " 

" I, Lord, did not inquire about it." || 8 || 

The enlightened one, the Lord rebuked him, saying : " How 
an you, foolish man, make use of meat without having inquired 
about it ? Foolish man, human flesh has been made use of 
by you. It is not, foolish man, for pleasing those who are 
not (yet) pleased. . . ." And having rebuked him, having 
given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying : 

" There are, monks, people who are faithful and believing ; 
even their own flesh is given up by these. Monks, you should 
not make use of human flesh. Whoever should make use of 
it, there is a grave offence. Nor, monks, should you make use 
of flesh without inquiring about it. Whoever should (so) 
make use of it, there is an offence of wrong-doing." || 9 || 

Now at that time a king's elephant died. [218] Because 
food was scarce people made use of elephant-flesh ; they gave 
elephant-flesh to monks who were walking for almsfood, and 
the monks made use of the elephant-flesh. The people looked 
down upon,^ criticised, spread it about, saying : 

^ pativekkhi, which VA. 1094 explains by vlmamsi, examined, considered, 
and by patipucchi, questioned. It explains appativekkhitvd by appatipucchitva 
not having questioned. 

• From this passage it would appear that the people did not as a rule 
eat elephants' flesh ; and it is to my mind not clear whether any did so even 
in a time of scarcity, but merely used it for offering to monks. Those who 
criticised monks could hardly have eaten it themselves. The same applies 
to the cases following. 

Above 23. 9, a monk is blamed for accepting uncritically what was offered 
him. In the case of robes, on the contrary, monks might put forward no 
suggestions (see Nissag VIII, IX, XXVII). 



23.10—13] MAHAVAGGAVI 299 

" How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans make use 
of elephant-flesh ? Elephants are a king's emblem ; if the 
king should find out, not for these would be his favour." 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, you should not make use of elephant-flesh. Who- 
ever should make use of it, there is an offence of wrong-doing." 

II 10 II 

Now at that time a king's horses died . . . {same as \\ 10 || 
reading horses, horse-flesh for elephants, elephant-flesh) "... 
offence of wrong-doing." || 11 || 

Now at that time, because food was scarce people made use 
of dog-flesh ; they gave dog-flesh to monks who were walking 
for almsfood, and the monks made use of the dog-flesh. The 
people looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying : 

" How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans make use 
of dog-flesh ? A dog is loathsome, disgusting." They told 
this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, dog-flesh should not be made use of.^ Whoever 
should make use of it, there is an offence of wrong-doing." 

II 12 II 

Now at that time, because food was scarce people made use 
of snake-flesh ; they gave snake-flesh to monks who were 
walking for almsfood, and the monks made use of the snake- 
flesh. The people . . . spread it about, saying : 

" How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans make use 
of snake-flesh ? A snake is loathsome, disgusting." 

Then Supassa, the serpent-king, approached the Lord ; 
having approached, having greeted the Lord, he stood at a 
respectful distance. As he was standing at a respectful distance 
Supassa, the serpent-king, spoke thus to the Lord : 

" There are. Lord, serpents who are without faith, un- 
believing, and these might do harm to monks even for a trifle. 
It were good. Lord, if the masters did not make use of snake- 
flesh." 

Then the Lord gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted Supassa, 
the serpent-king, with talk on dhamma ; and Supassa, the 
serpent-king, gladdened . . . delighted by the Lord with talk 
on dhamma, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping his 

* VA. 1094 says the flesh of jungle wolves may be used ; but the flesh 
of the offspring of a wolf and village dog may not be used. 



300 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

right side towards him. Then the Lord on this occasion [219] 
having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, snake-flesh should not be made use of. Whoever 
should make use of it, there is an offence of wrong-doing." 

11 13 II 

Now at that time hunters, having killed a lion, made use 
of its flesh ; they gave the lion's flesh to monks who were 
walking for almsfood. The monks, having made use of the 
lion's flesh, stayed in a jungle (but) lions attacked the monks 
because they smelt of lion's flesh. They told this matter to 
the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, Hon's flesh should not be made use of. Whoever 
should make use of it, there is an. offence of wrong-doing." 

11 14 II 

Now at that time hunters, having killed a tiger . . . having 
killed a panther . . . having killed a bear . . . having killed 
a hyena,^ made use of its flesh ; they gave the hyena's flesh 
to monks who were walking for almsfood. The monks, having 
made use of the hyena's flesh, stayed in a jungle (but) hyenas 
attacked the monks because they smelt of hyena's flesh. They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" Monks, hyena's flesh should not be made use of. Whoever 
should make use of it, there is an offence of wrong-doing." 

11 15 II 23 II 

Then the Lord, having stayed in Benares for as long as 
he found suiting, set out on tour for Andhakavinda^ together 
with the large Order of monks, with the twelve hundred and 
fifty monks. Now at that time the country people, having 
loaded much salt and oil and husked rice and solid food into 
wagons, followed close after the Order of monks with the 
awakened one at its head, saying : 

" When we get our turn, then we will make a meal (for 
them)," 3 and there were at least five hundred of those who 
eat the remains of food. Then the Lord, walking on tour, 
in due course arrived at Andhakavinda. || i || 

* Names of wild animals occur in this order at Vin. iii. 151, A. iii. loi. 
Cf. Vin. iii. 58 where " bears " drop out and " wolves " follow hyenas. There 
is a longer list at Miln. 267 = Ja. v. 416. 

• A village in the Magadha country. 
» CJ. MV. VI. 33. I. 



24.2—4] MAHAVAGGAVI 301 

Then it occurred to a certain brahmin who did not receive 
his turn : " For the last two months I have been following 
the Order of monks with the awakened one at its head, 
thinking : ' When I get my turn, I will make a meal (for 
them),' but I do not get my turn. I am alone, and many 
of my household affairs are going to ruin Suppose I were 
to look into the refectory^ and prepare that which I do not 
see in the refectory ? " Then that brahmin, looking into the 
refectory, did not see two things : conjey and honey-lumps.* 

II 2 II 

Then that brahmin approached the venerable Ananda ; 
having approached, he spoke thus to the venerable Ananda : 
" Now, it occurred to me, good Ananda, as I did not get a 
turn : ' For [220] the last two months. . . . Suppose I were 
to look into the refectory and prepare that which I do not see 
in the refectory ? ' So I, good Ananda, looking into the 
refectory, did not see two things : conjey and honey-lumps. 
If I, good Ananda, were to prepare conjey and honey-lumps, 
would the revered Gotama accept them from me ? " 

" Well then, brahmin, I will ask the Lord." || 3 I| 

Then the venerable Ananda told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " WeU then, Ananda, let him prepare them ". 
(Ananda) said : " WeU then, brahmin, prepare them ". Then 
that brahmin towards the end of that night, having had a 
quantity of conjey and honey-lumps prepared, brought them 
to the Lord saying : " May the revered Gotama accept conjey 
and honey-lumps from me." 

" Well then, brahmin, give them to the monks." The 
monks, being scrupulous, did not accept them. (The Lord 
said :) "Accept them, monks, make use of them." Then that 
brahmin, having with his own hand served and satisfied the 
Order of monks with the awakened one at its head with a 
quantity of conjey and honey-lumps, when the Lord had 
washed his hand^ and had withdrawn his hand from his bowl, 
sat down at a respectful distance. I| 4 || 

1 Cf. MV. VI. 36. 6-8. 

* madhugolaka, perhaps honey-combs. At Mhvs. 22. 42 ; 34. 52 we find 
madhuganda, translated by Geiger as " honey-combs ". 

' dhotahattha, an unusual expression occurring at MV. VI. 35. 4 ; 86. 8. 
Used in explanation of allapd'fti at PvA. 116. Technically AaWAa is the forearm 
from elbow to finger-tip, see B.D. ii. Intr. li. Perhaps pdifi is the hand itself. 



302 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Then as this brahmin was sitting down at a respectful 
distance, the Lord spoke thus to him : 

" Brahmin, there are these ten advantages from conjey. 
What ten ? In giving conjey one gives life, one gives beauty, 
one gives ease, one gives strength, one gives intelligence ; 
conjey when it is drunk checks hunger, keeps off thirst, regulates 
wind, cleanses the bladder, digests raw remnants of food.^ 
These, brahmin, are the ten advantages of conjey." || 5 || 

" To the discerning whoso gives conjey duly 

At the right time to one who lives on others' food. 

It confers ten things on him : 

Life and beauty, ease and strength ;* 

For him intelligence arises from it. 

It dispels hunger, thirst and wind. 

It cleanses the bladder, it digests food ; 

This medicine is praised by the well-farer. 

Therefore conjey should be given constantly 

By a man longing for ease. 

By those aspiring to deva-like jo5rs 

Or wanting human prosperity." || 6 I| [221] 

Then the Lord having given thanks to that brahmin in these 
verses, rising from his seat, departed. Then the Lord, having 
on this occasion given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, 
saying: 

" I allow, monks, conjey and honey-lumps." |I 7 || 24 1| 

The people heard : " It is said that conjey is allowed by 
the Lord and honey-lumps." These prepared eating-con jey' 
and honey-lumps early in the morning. The monks, (each) 
satisfied* in the early morning with eating-conjey and a 

* The last five advantages occur also at A . iii. 250. 

* Cf. A. ii. 64, where a similar verse occurs, but reading bhojana, food, 
instead of ydgu, conjey, and " four things " instead of " ten ". 

» bhojjaydgu, apparently as opposed to the more ordinary, and presumably 
more liquid, conjey which was drunk. Bhojja therefore here must be meant 
to stand for stiff, set, firm. 

* dhata, in the sense of having eaten their fill, rather than in the sense 
of having been offered, and therefore satisfied, as is the meaning conveyed 
by pavarita. 



25.1—4] MAHAVAGGAVI 303 

honey-lump, did not eat as much as expected in the refectory. 
Now at that time a certain chief minister, young in faith, 
came to have invited the Order of monks with the awakened 
one at its head for the morrow. Then it occurred to that 
chief minister, young in faith : " Suppose I were to prepare 
twelve hundred and fifty bowls of meat for the twelve hundred 
and fifty monks, and should take one bowl of meat up to 
each monk ? " i| i j] 

Then that chief minister, young in faith, towards the end 
of that night, having had sumptuous solid food, soft food, 
prepared and twelve hundred and fifty bowls of meat, had 
the time announced to the Lord, saying : " Lord, it is time, 
the meal is ready." Then the Lord, having dressed in the 
morning, taking his bowl and robe, approached the dwelling 
of that great minister, young in the faith ; having approached, 
he sat down on the appointed seat together with the Order 
of monks. || 2 || 

Then that chief minister, yoimg in faith, attended on the 
monks in the refectory. The monks spoke thus : " Give a 
little,^ sir, give a little, sir." (He said) " Do not you, honoured 
sirs, accept so very little thinking : ' This chief minister is young 
in faith.' Much solid food, soft food, and twelve hundred and 
fifty bowls of meat have been prepared by me, thinking : ' I 
will take one bowl of meat up to each monk '. Accept, honoured 
sirs, as much as you want." 

" Sir, it is not for this reason that we are accepting so very 
little, but we were (each) satisfied in the early morning with 
eating-conjey and a honey-lump ; that is why we are accepting 
so very little." || 3 || 

Then that chief minister, young in faith, looked down upon, 
criticised, spread it about, saying : " How can these revered 
sirs make use of someone else's^ eating-conjey ? It is not that 
I am not competent to give as much as they want "^ and angry, 
displeased, longing to insult the monks, he went round filling 
their bowls and saying : " Eat it or take it away ". Then that 
chief minister, yoimg in faith, having [222] with his own hand 



• C/. Vin. iii. 66, iv. 76, 81. 

• Here annasa, not anHatra, " elsewhere ", as in the cases cited in the 
previous note. 

• Reading here na cdham na patibalo ; see B.D. ii. 317, n. 2. 



304 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

served and satisfied the Order of monks with the awakened 
one at its head with sumptuous foods, solid and soft, sat down 
at a respectful distance when the Lord had eaten and had 
withdrawn his hand from the bowl. As this chief minister, 
young in faith, was sitting down dt a respectful distance, the 
Lord, having gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted him with 
talk on dhamma, rising from his seat, departed. || 4 || 

But soon after the Lord had departed, that chief minister, 
yoimg in faith, became remorseful and conscience-stricken and 
thought : " For me it is improfitable, for me it is not profitable, 
for me it is ill-gotten, for me it is not well-gotten, that I, angry, 
displeased, longing to insult the monks, went round filling their 
bowls and sa5dng : ' Eat it or take it away '. Now, is much 
merit produced for me or demerit ? " 

Then that chief minister, young in faith, approached the 
Lord ; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat 
down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at 
a respectful distance, that chief minister, yoimg in faith, 
spoke thus to the Lord : 

" Now I, Lord, soon after the Lord had departed, became 
remorseful and conscience-stricken, thinking : ' For me it is 
unprofitable. . . . Now, Lord, is much merit produced for me 
or demerit?" ||5|| 

*' From the time when, sir, the Order of monks with the 
awakened one at its head was invited by you for the morrow 
much merit was produced for you ; from the time when one 
of your lumps of boiled rice^ was accepted by each monk much 
merit was produced for you. Heaven worlds are assured for 
you." 

Then that chief minister, young in faith, thinking : " It is 
said that it was profitable for me, it is said that it was well- 
gotten by me, it is said that much merit was produced for me, 
it is said that heaven worlds are assured for me," jo5^ul, elated, 
rising up from his seat, having greeted the Lord, departed 
keeping his right side towards him. |1 6 || 

Then the Lord, on this occasion, in this connection, having 
had the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks, 
saj^g : "Is it true, as is said, monks, that monks, (although) 

* sittha, instead of, as before, mamsapati. Cf. sitthdni at Vin. ii. 165, 
and sa-$ittha-ka at Vin. ii. 214, and siithdvaharaka at Vin. n. 214, iv. 196. 



25.7—26.2] MAHAVAGGA VI 305 

invited elsewhere,^ made use of someone else's eating-conjey ? " 

" It is true. Lord." 

The awakened one, the Lord rebuked them, saying : 

" How, monks, can these foolish men, invited elsewhere, 
make use of someone else's eating-conjey ? It is not, monks, 
for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased. . . ." And 
having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed 
the monks, sajdng : [223] 

" Monks, if one is invited elsewhere, someone else's eating- 
conjey should not be made use of. Whoever should (so) make 
use of it should be dealt with according to the rule."^ || 7 || 25 || 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Andhakavinda for as long 
as he found suiting, set out on tour for Rajagaha together with 
the large order of monks, with twelve hundred and fifty monks. 
Now at that time Belattha Kaccana* was going along the 
highroad from Rajagaha to Andhakavinda with five hundred 
wagons all filled with jars of sugar. Then the Lord saw 
Belattha Kaccana from afar, and seeing him, he stepped aside 
from the road and sat down at the root of a certain tree. 

ill II 

Then Belattha Kaccana approached the Lord, having 
approached, having greeted the Lord, he stood at a respectful 
distance. As he was standing at a respectful distance, Belattha 
Kaccana spoke thus to the Lord : 

" I, Lord, want to give one jar of sugar to each monk." 
" Well then, do you, Kaccana, bring just one jar of sugar." 
" Yes, Lord," and Belattha Kaccana, having answered the 
Lord in assent, bringing just one jar of sugar approached the 
Lord ; having approached, he spoke thus to the Lord : " The 
jar of sugar is brought. Lord. What line of conduct do I 
follow. Lord ? " 

" Well then, do you, Kaccana, give the sugar to the monks." 
II2II 

^ annatra here. 

• VA. 1095 says " he should be dealt with for the ofifence of 
paramparabhojana," an out-of-turn meal, i.e. not taking the invitations in 
the order in which they were issued ; made an ofifence in Pac. XXXIII. 
See B.D. ii. 317, n. 3. 

' Mentioned, I think, nowhere but here. Bu. has no note. The absence 
of a descriptive epithet is unusual. D. P.P.N, calls him " a sugar-dealer ", 
which seems likely. 



3o6 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Yes, Lord," and Belattha Kaccana having answered the 
Lord in assent, having given the sugar to the monks, spoke 
thus to the Lord : 

" Lord, the sugar is given to the nionks, and I have much 
sugar over. What line of conduct do I follow. Lord ? " 

" Well then, Kaccana, give the monks as much sugar as 
they want." 

" Yes, Lord," and Belattha Kaccana having answered the 
Lord in assent, having given the monks as much sugar as 
they wanted, spoke thus to the Lord : 

" Lord, as much sugar as they wanted has been given to 
the monks, and I have much sugar over. What line of conduct 
do I follow. Lord ? " 

" WeU then, do you, Kaccana, serve the monks with sugar." 

" Yes, Lord," and Belattha Kaccana having answered the 
Lord in assent, served the monks with sugar. Some monks 
filled bowls and they filled water-strainers and bags. || 3 || 

Then Belattha Kaccana, having served the monks with sugar, 
spoke thus to the Lord : " Lord, the monks are served with 
sugar, and I have much sugar over. What line of conduct 
do I foUow, Lord ? " [224] 

" Well then, do you, Kaccana, give sugar to those who eat 
the remains of food."^ 

" Yes, Lord," and Belattha Kaccana having answered the 
Lord in assent, having given sugar to those who eat the remains 
of food, spoke thus to the Lord : 

" Lord, sugar has been given to those who eat the remains 
of food, and I have much sugar over. What line of conduct 
do I follow. Lord ? " 

" Well then, Kaccana, give those who eat the remains of 
food as much sugar as they want." |1 4 I| 

" Yes, Lord," and Belattha Kaccana, having answered the 
Lord in assent, having given those who eat the remains of food 
as much sugar as they wanted, spoke thus to the Lord : 

" Lord, as much sugar as they wanted has been given to 
those who eat the remains of food, and I have much sugar over. 
What line of conduct do I foUow, Lord ? " 

I . Mentioned above in VI. 24. i . It seems as if they had attached themselves 
to the company of monks, doing the journeys from Benares to Andhakavinda 
and from there to R&jagaha, 



26.5—8] MAHAVAGGA VI 307 

" Well then, Kaccana, do you serve with sugar those who 
eat the remains of food." 

" Yes, Lord," and Belattha Kaccana having answered the 
Lord in assent, served with sugar those who eat the remains 
of food. Some of those who eat the remains of food filled pots 
and pitchers and they filled baskets and (their) clothes.^ 1| 5 1| 

Then Belattha Kaccana, having served with sugar those 
who eat the remains of food, spoke thus to the Lord : 

" Lord, those who eat the remains of food have been served 
with sugar, and I have much sugar over. What line of conduct 
do r foUow, Lord ? " 

" I do not see anyone, ^ Kaccana, in the world with its devas, 
Maras, and Brahmas, nor in the race of recluses and brahmins, 
devas and men who having made use of that sugar could digest 
it properly except a Truth-finder or a Truth-finder's disciple. ^ 
Well then, Kaccana, throw away that sugar where there is 
but little green grass or drop it into water where there are 
no living creatures."* 

" Yes, lord ", and Belattha Kaccana having answered the 
Lord in assent, dropped that sugar into water where there 
were no living creatures. || 6 || 

Then that sugar, thus placed in the water, sizzled and hissed 
and sent forth steam and smoke. As a ploughshare heated 
the live-long day if placed in water sizzles and hisses and sends 
forth steam and smoke, so did this sugar when placed in the 
water sizzle and hiss and send forth steam and smoke. Then 
Belattha Kaccana, alarmed and with his hair standing on end, 
approached the Lord ; having approached, having greeted the 
Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. || 7 || 

As Belattha Kaccana was sitting down at a respectful 
distance, the Lord talked a progressive talk to him,^ that is 
to say, talk on giving, talk on moral habit, talk on heaven ; 
he explained the peril, the vanity, the depravity of pleasures 
of the senses, the advantage in renouncing (them). When the 

^ ucchanga, lap or hip. Here probably meaning that they knotted the 
sugar into the cloths they were wearing. This is still a customary way of 
carrying packages in India. At M. i. 366 the word appears to have the same 
meaning as above. 

* For following passage, cf. S. i. 168-9, Sn. p. 15. 

* For explanation of this "curious reply" see K.S. i. 211, n. ^■^ 

* Cf. MV. IV. 1. 3, where this sentence also occurs. 

' From here to end of || 8 || cf. above above, e.g. MV. I 7. 5-6. 



308 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Lord knew that the mind of Belattha Kaccana was ready, 
pliable, devoid of the hindrances, uplifted, pleased, then he 
explained to him that teaching on dhamma which the awakened 
ones have themselves discovered : ill, uprising, stopping, the 
Way. And as a clean cloth without black specks will easily 
take dye, even so [225] as he was (sitting) on that very seat 
dhamma-yision, dustless, stainless, arose to Belattha Kaccana, 
that " whatever is of the natmre to uprise, all that is of the 
nature to stop ". || 8 || 

Then Belattha Kaccana, as one who had seen dhamma} 
attained dhamma, known dhamma, plunged into dhamma, who 
had crossed over doubt, put away uncertainty, who had 
attained without another's help to full confidence in the 
teacher's instruction, spoke thus to the Lord : 

" Excellent, Lord ! Excellent, Lord ! Even, Lord, as one 
might set upright what had been upset . . . even so is dhamma 
explained by the Lord in many a figure. I myself. Lord, am 
going to the Lord for refuge, to dhamma and to the Order 
of monks. May the Lord accept me as a la5rfollower going 
for refuge from this day forth for as long as life lasts." 
Il9ll26|| 

Then the Lord, walking on tour, in due course arrived at 
Rajagaha. The Lord stayed there at Rajagaha in the Bamboo 
Grove at the squirrels' feeding place. At that time there was 
abimdant sugar in Rajagaha. Monks, thinking, " Sugar is 
allowed by the Lord only to one who is ill, not to one who 
is not ill ", being scrupulous, did not partake of sugar. They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : 

" I allow, monks, sugar for one who is ill, sugar-water for 
one who is not ill."* |1 1 1| 27 |1 

Then the Lord,' having stayed at Rajagaha for as long as 

* For this passage see Mhv. I. 6. 32, etc. 

■ Note that above, when the monks received a quantity of sagar from 
Belattha. the verb used was paribhuHjati, (to make use of). In the story 
of 27, it is said that they did not partake of, {na bhuHjanti,) any sugar. 

• " Chapters 28-30 are, with a few unimportant variations, word for 
word the same as the Maihaparinibbana Sutta I, 19-II, 3 ; II. 16-24. See 
Rh.D.'s Introduction to his translation of the Mah^arinibbJLna Sutta, 
pp. xxxiv seq., and his note tiiere at II. 16 ", thus Vin. Texts ii 97, n. Also 
from here to end of 28 is, again with a few minor variations, the same as 
Ud. 85-90. 



28.T— 3] MAHAVAGGAVI 309 

he found suiting, set out on tour for Pataligania^ together with 
the large Order of monks, with the twelve hundred and fifty 
monks. Then the Lord, walking on tour, in due course arrived 
at Pataligama. Layfollowers at Pataligama heard : " It is said 
that the Lord has reached Pataligama." Then the layfollowers 
of Pataligama approached the Lord ; having approached, 
having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. 
The Lord gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted the layfollowers 
of Pataligama with talk on dhamma as they were sitting down 
at a respectful distance. || i || 

Then the layfollowers of Pataligama, gladdened . . . delighted 
by the Lord with talk on dhamma, spoke thus to the Lord^ : 
" Lord, may the Lord consent (to come) to our rest-house^ 
together with the Order of monks." The Lord consented by 
becoming silent. Then the layfollowers of Pataligama, having 
understood the Lord's consent,* rising from their seats, having 
greeted the Lord, [226] having kept their right sides towards 
him, approached that rest-house ; having approached, having 
spread that rest-house so that a spreading was spread every- 
where,^ having made ready seats,* having had a water- jar set 
up,* having prepared an oil lamp,* approached the Lord; 
having approached, having greeted the Lord, they stood at a 
respectful distance. || 2 || 

As they were standing at a respectful distance, the lay- 
followers of Pataligama spoke thus to the Lord : " The rest- 
house is spread with a spreading everywhere, Lord, seats are 
made ready, a water- jar is set up, an oil lamp is prepared ; 
Lord, the Lord does that for which it is now the right time." 
Then the Lord, dressing in the morning, taking his bowl and 
robe, approached that rest-house together with the Order of 
monks ; having approached, having washed his feet, having 
entered the rest-house, he sat down leaning against a central 
pillar facing the east. The Order of monks too, having washed 
their feet, having entered the rest-house, sat down leaning 

^ The modem Patna. On pdtali, see below, p. 312, n 4. 

* This passage occurs also at D. ii. 84 flF. 

' dvasatkdgdra, as at Vin. iv. 17 ; see B.D. ii. 198 for Bu's interpretation. 

* For preamble to the discourse see also M. i. 354, 5. iv. 182. 

^ sabbasantharitn santhatam dvasathdgdram santharitvd. On santharati and 
santhata see B.D. ii. Intr., xxii £F. Ud. 86 omits santhatam. 

* All these processes are described at MA. iii. i8 f., UdA. 409 f. 



310 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 



against the western wall facing the east with the Lord in view. 
The layfollowers of Pataligama too, having washed their feet, 
having entered the rest-house, sat down leaning against the 
eastern wall, facing the west with the Lord in view. || 3 1| 

Then the Lord addressed the layfollowers of Pataligama, 
saying : " There are these five disadvantages,^ householders, 
to one of wrong moral habit, falling away from moral habit. 
What five ? Now, householders, one of wrong moral habit, 
falling away from moral habit, suffers great diminution of 
wealth owing to sloth ; this is the first disadvantage to one 
of wrong moral habit, falling away from moral habit. 

Then again, householders, an evil reputation is noised abroad 
of one of wrong moral habit, falling away from moral habit ; 
this is the second disadvantage. ... 

Then again, householders, if one of wrong moral habit, 
falling away from moral habit, approaches any company, 
whether a company of nobles, a company of brahmins, a com- 
pany of householders, a company of recluses, he approaches it 
diffidently, being ashamed ; this is the third disadvantage. . . . 

" Then again, householders, one of wrong moral habit, 
falling away from moral habit, passes away bewildered ; this 
is the fourth disadvantage. ... 

" Then again, householders, one of wrong moral habit, 
falling away from moral habit, at the breaking up of the body 
after dying arises in the waste, the Bad-bourn, the Downfall, 
Niraya Hell ; this is the fifth disadvantage to one of wrong 
moral habit, falling away from moral habit. These, house- 
holders, are the five disadvantages to one of wrong moral habit, 
falling away from moral habit. |1 4 |I 

" There are these five advantages, householders, to one of 
moral habit, accomplished in moral habit. [227] What five ? 
Now, householders, one of moral habit, accomplished in moral 
habit, acquires a great mass of wealth owing to zeal ; this is 
the first advantage to one of moral habit, accomplished in 
moral habit. 

"Then again, householders, a lovely reputation is noised 
abroad of one of moral habit, accomplished in moral habit ; 
this is the second advantage. . . . 



1 As at yi. iii. 252 f., D. ii. 85-6, iii. 236, Ud. 86. Noticed at Vism. 54. 



28.5—7] MAHAVAGGAVI 3" 

" Then again, householders, if one of moral habit, accom- 
plished in moral habit, approaches any company, whether a 
company of nobles, a company of brahmins, a company of 
householders, a company of recluses, he approaches it confi- 
dently, not being ashamed ; this is the third advantage. . . . 

" Then again, householders, one of moral habit, accomplished 
in moral habit, passes away imbewildered ; this is the fourth 
advantage, . . . 

" Then again, householders, one of moral habit, accomplished 
in moral habit, at the breaking up of the body after dying 
arises in the Happy-bourn, in a heaven-world ; this is the fifth 
advantage to one of moral habit, accomplished in moral habit. 
These, householders, are the five advantages to one of moral 
habit, accomplished in moral habit." H 5 || 

When the Lord had gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted 
the laj^ollowers of Pataligama far into the night with talk 
on dhamma, he dismissed them, saying : " The night is now 
far spent, householders ; now do that for whatever it is the 
right time." 

" Yes, Lord," and the layfoUowers of Pataligama, having 
answered the Lord in assent, rising from their seats, having 
greeted the Lord, departed keeping their right sides towards 
him. I|6|i 

Then the Lord, soon after the layfoUowers of Pataligama 
had departed, enteied into solitude.^ Now at that time 
Sunidha^ and Vassakara, chief ministers in Magadha, were 
building a (fortified) town^ at Pataligama for repelling the 
Vajjis. Then the Lord, getting up at the end of that night 
towards dawn, saw with deva-si^hi, pure and surpassing that 
of men, many* devatds occupying the sites at Pataligama. Now 
in whatever region powerful devatds occupy sites, they bend 
the minds of powerful kings and the kings' chief ministers to 
build dwellings there ; in whatever region devatds of middling 
(power) occupy sites, they bend the minds of kings of middling 
(power), and the kings' chief ministers to build dwellings 

^ sunndgdra, see above, p. 125, n. 5, and Minor Anthol. ii, p. 107, n. i. 

» Sunldha at D. ii. 86 and Ud. 87. 

' nagara, see B.D. ii. 63, n. 2. 

* sambahula, often in Vin. when used of monks being equivalent to gana, 
a gtoup of from two to four monks. D. ii. 87, Ud. 88 say sambahula devatdyo 
sahassassa, many devatas (in compaines) of a thousand. 



312 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

there ; in whatever region devatds of lowly (power) occupy sites, 
they bend the minds of kings of lowly (power) and the kings' 
chief ministers to build dwellings there. || 7 || 

Then the Lord addressed the venerable Ananda, saying: 
" Now, who, Ananda, are these who are building a (fortified) 
town at Pataligama ? " 

" Sunidha and [228] Vassakara, Lord, chief ministers in 
Magadha, ... for repelling the Vajjis." 

" As though, Ananda, having consulted together with 
the Devas of the Thirty, even so, Ananda, do Sunidha and 
Vassakara, chief ministers in Magadha, build a (fortified) town 
at Pataligama for repelling the Vajjis. Now I, Ananda, 
getting up at the end of this night towards dawn, saw with 
deva-sight ... in whatever region devatds of lowly (power) 
occupy sites, they bend the minds of kings of lowly (power) 
and the kings' chief ministers to build dwellings there. Ananda, 
as far as the ariyan region^ (extends), as far as there is trading,* 
this will be a leading town, Pataliputta,* (where there was) 
the breaking of the seed-boxes.* But, Ananda, there will be 
three dangers to Pataliputta : from fire or from water or from 
internal dissension."^ || 8 || 

Then Sunidha and Vassakara, chief ministers in Magadha, 
approached the Lord ; having approached they exchanged 
friendly greetings with the Lord ; having exchanged greetings 
of friendliness and courtesy, they stood at a respectful distance. 

* ariya dyatana. Cf. A. iii. 441. VA. 1095 says " as far as the place 
where ariyan people go to ". 

* vanippatha. 

' The modern Patna. The name is omitted at Ud. 88. 

* I follow P.E.D. (under puta) in thinking that the translation of puta- 
bhedana at Dial, ii. 92 is wrong : " centre for interchange of all kinds of 
wares ", although Pataliputta had a reputation as a trading centre, on 
which moreover the Comys. lay stress, VA. 1096 reading bhaiit4ciputabhedan- 
atthdnam, bhapdagan4ikdnant mocanatthdnam, a place for undoing goods 
and merchandise, a place for opening goods and wares ; DA. ii. 541, UdA. 
422 say much the same and add : "if people do not get goods in all Jam- 
budlpa they will get them here." But Pataligama was so called " because 
on the day of its foundation several pdtali-^oots sprouted forth from the 
ground " {D.P.P.N.). According to Waddell (E.R.E., art : Patna) the 
pdtali-tTee is the trumpet-flower tree (Bignonis suaveolens). Pataliputta 
is also called " the city of flowers ", Pupphapura {Mhvs. iv. 31, Dpvs. xi. 28), 
and Kusumapura (Mhbv. p. 153). Vin. Texts ii. 102 does not attempt a 
translation. Minor Anthol. ii. 108 has "the place where men shall open 
up their bales of merchandise." 

* On the event prophesied here, PStaliputta's becoming the capital of 
the Magadha empire, and the possibility of the notice of the event's late in- 
sertion into the text, see Vin. Texts ii. 102 n. and Dial. ii. 92. n. 3. 



28.9—12] MAHAVAGGAVI 313 

As they were standing at a respectful distance, Sunidha and 
Vassakara, chief ministers in Magadha, spoke thus to the Lord : 
" May the revered Gotama together with the Order of monks 
consent to a meal with us to-day." The Lord consented by 
becoming silent. Then Sunidha and Vassakara, chief ministers 
in Magadha, departed^ having imderstood the Lord's consent. 

"911 
Then Sunidha and Vassakara, chief ministers in Magadha, 

having had sumptuous solid food and soft food prepared, had 

the time announced to the Lord, saying : " It is time, good 

Gotama, the meal is ready." Then the Lord, having dressed 

in the morning, taking his bowl and robe, approached the food 

distribution* of Sunidha and Vassakara, chief ministers in 

Magadha ; having approached, he sat down together with the 

Order of monks on the appointed seat. Then Sunidha and 

Vassakara, chief ministers in Magadha, having with their own 

hands served and satisfied with sumptuous food, solid and soft, 

the Order of monks with the awakened one at its head, when 

the Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from his bowl, 

sat down at a respectful distance ; and as Sunidha and 

Vassakara, chief ministers in Magadha, were sitting down at 

a respectful distance, the Lord gave thanks in these verses : 

llioll 
" Wherever the prudent man shall take up his abode. 
Having offered food to those here of moral habit, good 

Brahma-farers, 
If he makes an offering to those^ devatds who may be 

there — 
These revered, do revere, honoured, do honour him. [229] 
Hence they sympathise with him, as a mother with her 

own child. 
The man with whom devatds sjonpathise, ever sees good 
luck." 
Then the Lord, having in these verses given thanks to 
Simidha and Vassakara, chief ministers in Magadha, rising 
from his seat, departed. || 11 || 
Then Sunidha and Vassakara, chief ministers in Magadha, 

* D. ii. 88, Ud. 89 say they went to their own residence, dvasatha. 

" parivesana; D. ii. 88, Ud. 89 read dvasatha. Cf. Sn. p. 13, S. i. 172. 

• Cf. Thig. 307, 211 ; Miln. 294. 



314 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

following close behind the Lord, thought : " By whichever gate 
the recluse Gotama goes out to-day, that shall be called Gotama's 
Gate ; by whichever ford he crosses the river Ganges, that 
shall be called Gotama's Ford." Accordingly the gate by 
which the Lord departed canie to be called Gotama's Gate. 
Then the Lord approached the river Ganges. Now at that 
time the river Ganges was fuU, level with the banks, so that 
a crow could drink^ (from it). Since they were desirous of 
going from the hither to the further (bank),^ some people 
looked about for a boat, some looked about for a float,' others 
put together a raft.* || 12 || 

The Lord saw these people, of whom some were looking 
about for a boat, some were looking about for a float, others 
were putting together a raft since they were desirous of going 
from the hither to the further (bank). Seeing them, as a 
strong man might stretch out his bent arm or might bend back 
his outstretched arm, even so did he, vanishing from the hither 
bank^ of the river Ganges, reappear' on the further bank 
together with the Order of monks. Then the Lord, having 
understood this matter, at that time uttered this solemn 
utterance : 

" Those cross the deeps, the rivers, ' making a bridge, spanning 
the swamps. 

See ! people tie their rafts — ^but crossed over^ are the 
wise.'" II 13 II 28 II 

Then the Lord approached Kotigama. The Lord stayed 
there at Kotigama. Then the Lord addressed the monks, 
saying : " Monks, it is by not understanding, not penetrating 

* As at M. i. 435 ; S. ii. 134 ; D. i. 244 ; A. iii. 27. 

* ora pdram ; D. apardparam ; Ud. apdra paratn, which Woodward 
{Min. Antk. ii. 109, n. 4) proposes to correct to D. reading. 

' ulumpa. This may be a wooden or a bamboo raft. VA. 1096 says 
that it is made, having knocked in pegs. 

* kulla. VA. 1096 says that it is made, having put together reeds and 
so on. 

* orimailre. 

* paccutthasi, instead of the more usual paturahosi. 
' sara, here a river, VA. 1096. 

* tipfta, a technical term frequent in the Suttas, meaning " crossed over " 
the four-fold flood of sense-pleasures, becoming, false view and ignorance, 
or over some other undesirable state, and so " crossed over" Mara's stream, 
a river of death. See my Man Perfected, Ch. VIII. 

* To here, from beginning of 28. i, the same as Ud. 85-90, with a few 
minor variations. 



29.1—30.2] MAHAVAGGAVI 315 

the four ariyan truths that there is this long long running-on 
and faring-on both for me and for you. What four ? Monks, 
it is through not understanding, not penetrating the ariyan 
truth of ill that there is this long long running-on and faring-on 
both for me and for you. Monks, it is through not under- 
standing, not penetrating the ariyan truth of the uprising of 
iU, the ariyan truth of the stopping of ill, the ariyan truth 
of the course leading to the stopping of ill that there is this 
long long running-on and faring-on both for me and for you. 

Ill II 
Therefore, monks, if the ariyan truth of ill [230] is imderstood, 

is penetrated, if the ariyan truth of the uprising of ill . . . 

if the ariyan truth of the stopping of ill . . .if the ariyan truth 

of the course leading to the stopping of ill is understood and 

penetrated, then cut off is the craving for becoming,^ destroyed 

is the conduit for becoming,^ there is not now again-becoming." 

Not seeing the four ariyan truths as they really are 

Long is the journey fared-on in birth after birth ; 

When these are seen, removed is the conduit for becoming. 

The root of ill cut off, there is not now again-becoming.' 

112 1129 II 

Then the courtesan Ambapali* heard ^ : " They say that the 
Lord has reached Kotigama ". Then the courtesan Ambapali, 
having had very magnificent vehicles harnessed, having 
mounted a magnificent vehicle, went off with the very magnifi- 
cent vehicles from Vesali to see the Lord. Having gone by 
vehicle as far as the ground was (suitable) for a vehicle, she 
alighted from the vehicle and approached the Lord on foot ; 
having approached, having greeted the Lord, she sat down 
at a respectful distance. 1| i 1| 

The Lord gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted the courtesan 
Ambapali with talk on dhamma as she was sitting down at a 

^ bhavatanhd. 

• bahvanetti. 

' To here from 28. i = D. ii. 84-91. 

* Her verses are at Tktg. 252-270. See also TklgA. 206-7, 213 ; Ap ii. 
613 ff. She was the mother of Vimala-Kondanna, while Bimbisara is said 
to have been his father, ThagA. 156. Mentioned below, p. 379. 

' From here to 80. 6 = £>. ii. 95-98. See Dial. ii. 102, n. for some remarks 
on the discrepancies shown by the two versions in their localisation of the 
incidents narrated. 



3i6 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

respectful distance. The courtesan Ambapali having been, 
gladdened . . . delighted with talk on dhamma by the Lord, 
spoke thus to the Lord : " Lord, may the Lord consent to 
a meal with me on the morrow together with the Order of 
monks." The Lord consented by becoming silent. The 
courtesan Ambapali, having understood the Lord's consent, 
rising from her seat, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping 
her right side towards him. || 2 || 

Then the Licchavis of Vesali heard : " They say that the 
Lord has reached Kotigama ". Then the Licchavis of Vesali, 
having had very magnificent vehicles harnessed, having (each) 
mounted a magnificent vehicle, went off with the very magnifi- 
cent vehicles from Vesali to see the Lord. Some Licchavis 
were dark green,^ dark green in colour, their clothes were dark 
green, their ornaments were dark green. Some Licchavis were 
yellow, yeUow in colour . . . their ornaments were yellow. 
Some Licchavis were red, red in colour . . . their ornaments 
were red. Some Licchavis were white, white in colour, their 
clothes were white, their ornaments were white. Then the 
courtesan Ambapali drove up against the many young Licch- 
avis, pole to pole, yoke to yoke, wheel to wheel, axle to axle. 
II 3 II [231] 

Then these Licchavis spoke thus to the courtesan Ambapali : 
" Now then,2 why do you, Ambapali, drive up against the 
many young Licchavis pole to pole, yoke to yoke, wheel to 
wheel, axle to axle ? " 

" Indeed, young gentlemen, ^ it is because the Order of 
monks with the awakened one at its head is invited by me 
for the morrow." 

" Now then, Ambapali, give up this meal to us for a hundred 
thousand."* 

" But if, young gentlemen, you were to give up Vesali with 
its produce,^ I would not give up this meal." 

^ nlla is defined at Vin. iv. 120. VA. 1096 says that these colours are 
for the sake of distinguishing the Licchavis. They are not " dark green " 
and so on by nature, but are coloured with a dark green cosmetic — as some 
of the faces of the Ajanta frescoes are meant to be. 

\je. 

• ayyaputta. 

* Rrobably kahdpanas are to be understood. 

' sdhdra = sa-dhdra, with its food. VA. 1097, DA. 545 explain by 
sa-janapada. No justification for " with its subject territory " of Vin. 
Texts ii, 107, Dial. ii. 103. 



30.4—6] MAHAVAGGA VI 317 

Then these Licchavis snapped their fingers/ saying : " Truly 
we are beaten by this mango-girl,* truly we are defeated by 
this mango-girl." || 4 |I 

Then these Licchavis approached the Lord. The Lord saw 
these Licchavis coming from afar, and seeing them, he addressed 
the monks, saying : 

" By whatever monks, monks, the Devas of the Thirty have 
not been seen before, look, monks, at the Licchavi company, 
look again, monks, at the Licchavi company, compare, monks, 
the Licchavi company to the company of the Devas of the 
Thirty." Then these Licchavis, having gone by vehicle as far 
as the ground ... (as in \\ i, 2 || down to :) " Lord, may the 
Lord consent to a meal with us on the morrow ? " 

" I have promised, Licchavis, (to take) a meal with the cour- 
tesan Ambapali to-morrow." Then these Licchavis snapped 
their fingers, sajdng : 

" Truly we are beaten by this mango-girl ; truly we are 
defeated by this mango-girl." 

Then these Licchavis, having approved of what the Lord 
had said and having given thanks for it, rising from their seats, 
having greeted the Lord, departed keeping their right sides 
towards him. || 5 |I 

Then the Lord, having stayed in Kotigama for as long as 
he found suiting, approached J^atika. The Lord stayed there 
at f^atika in the Brick Residence. Then the courtesan 
Ambapali, having had sumptuous food, solid and soft, prepared 
towards the end of that night in her own park, had the time 
announced to the Lord, saying : ... {as in 28. 10 down to :') 
[232] ... sat down at a respectful distance. As she was 
sitting down at a respectful distance, the courtesan Ambapali 
spoke thus to the Lord : " I, Lord, would give this Ambapali 
Grove to the Order of monks with the awakened one at its 
head." 

The Lord accepted the park. Then the Lord, having 
gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted the courtesan Ambapali 



* aiigull pothesum. VA. 1097 explains by cdlesum, to move, to shake. 

• ambakd, with probably intended a play on her name, itself connected with 
the mango-grove she owned. See Dial. ii. 103, n. i ; Vin. Texts ii. 1,07, n. 

» Replace " Sunidha and Vassakara, chief ministers of Magadha " by 
" the courtesan Ambapali," and " good Gotama " by " Lotd ". 



3i8 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

with talk on dhamma, rising from his seat/ approached the 
Great Grove. The Lord stayed there at Vesali in the Great 
Grove in the HaU with the Peaked Gable. || 6 || 30 || 

Told is the Portion for Repeating on the Licchavis. 

Now at that time* many distinguished Licchavis, sitting 
together assembled in a mote-hall, were in many a figure 
speaking praise of the awakened one, praise of dhamma, praise 
of the Order. Now at that time the general Siha,^ a disciple 
of the Jains,* came to be sitting in that company. Then it 
occurred to the general Siha : " Undoubtedly this will be a 
Lord, a perfected one, a wholly awakened one, since these 
distinguished Licchavis, sitting together assembled in the 
mote-hall, are in many a figure speaking praise of the awakened 
one, praise of dhamma, praise of the Order. Suppose I were 
to go up to see this Lord, perfected one, wholly awakened 
one?" l|i|| 

Then the general Siha approached Nataputta the Jain* ; 
having approached, he spoke thus to Nataputta the Jain : 
" I want, honoured sir," to go along to see the recluse Gotama." 

" But how can you, Siha, being one who asserts an ought- 
to-be-done, ^ go along to see the recluse Gotama who asserts 
an ought-not-to-be-done 8 ? For, Sflia, the recluse Gotama 
asserts an ought-not-to-be-done, he teaches a doctrine of an 
ought-not-to-be-done and in that he trains® disciples." Then 



^ To here from 80. i is in all material respects the same as D. ii. 95-98. 
The D. version says the Lord went to Beluva. 

• From there to nearly the end of 31. 14 = ^. iv. 179-188. 

' Cf. A. iii. 38 f., iv. 79. His interest in giving gifts may have been 
due to Gotama's talk to him (below 31. 11) just after he became a layfollower. 

• Niganthas. Literal meaning " without bonds ". See G.S. iv. 124, n. 2. 
" The leader of the Nigantheis, identified by Biihler and Jacobi with 

Mah3,vlra {Vin. Texts ii. 109, n. i). His views are given at D. i, 57. 

• bhante. 

' kiriyavada. This and akiriyavada each had its own adherents. Gotama 

?ut his own interpretation on each theory, see below 81. 6 and Vin. iii. 2. 
hus he is able to say, as at .i4. i. 62, kiriyavddl c'aham akiriyavadl ca. At 
Vin. i. 71 he is reputed to say of the Jatilas that they are kiriyavddino and 
kammavadino, and it is apparently for this reason that he grants them a 
concession. 

• akiriyavada. See A. K. Coomaraswamy, Some Pali Words, HJAS, 
vol. IV, No. 2, July 1939, p. 119 ff. 

• vineti, to lead away, and so to pervert, divert, avert. Cf. below MV. 
VI. 84. 12, where in the same terms leaders of other sects try to dissuade 
Me94^3' from going to see the Lord. 



81.2—4] MAHAVAGGAVI 319 

that which had been the strong aspiration of general Siha for 
going* to see the Lord abated. || 2 || 

Then a second time did the distinguished Licchavis, sitting 
together assembled in the mote-hall. . . . And a second time 
did it occur to the general Siha : " Undoubtedly this will be 
a Lord, a perfected one. . . . Suppose I were to go up to see 
this Lord, perfected one, wholly awakened one ? " And a 
second time did the general Siha [233] approach Nataputta 
the Jain "... and in that trains disciples ". And a second 
time did that abate which had been the strong aspiration of 
the general Siha for going to see the Lord. And a third time 
it, occurred to the general Siha : " Undoubtedly this will be 
a Lord, perfected one, wholly awakened one, since these 
distinguished Licchavis, sitting together assembled in the 
mote-hall, are in many a figure speaking praise of the awakened 
one, praise of dhamma, praise of the Order. What can these 
Jains do to me whether I have asked for permission or have 
not asked for permission ? Suppose that I, although I have 
not asked for permission from the Jains, were to go along 
to see this Lord, perfected one, wholly awakened one ? " 

II 3 II 

Then the general Siha with some five hundred chariots 
departed from Vesali in broad daylight to see the Lord. Having 
gone by vehicle as far as the ground was (suitable) for a vehicle, 
having alighted from the vehicle, he approached the Lord on 
foot ; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat 
down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down 
at a respectful distance, general Siha spoke thus to the 
Lord : 

" Lord, I have heard this : ' The recluse Gotama affirms 
an ought-not-to-be-done, he teaches a doctrine of an ought- 
not-to-be-done, and in that trains disciples.' I assume that 
these. Lord, who say : ' The recluse Gotama affirms an ought- 
not-to-be-done . . . and in that trains disciples,' are, Lord, 
asserting (fairly) what the Lord affirms,^ and are not mis- 
representing the Lord by what is not fact, but are putting 



^ gamikdbhisamkhdra. Cf. pabbajjdbhisamkhdra at Vin. i. 194 (above, 
261). 

■ bhagavato vuttavddi. 



320 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

forth a doctrine which conforms to^ his doctrine. I assume 
that no one who is his fellow dhamnta-mBn, a holder of his 
views, comes to a position incurring blame. Indeed, we. Lord, 
do not want to misrepresent the Lord."^ || 4 || 

" There is, Siha, a way in which one speaking truly of me 
could say^ : ' The recluse Gotama asserts an ought-not-to-be- 
done, he teaches a doctrine of an ought-not-to-be-done, and 
in this he trains disciples.' There is, Siha, a way in which 
one speaking truly of me could say : ' The recluse Gotama 
asserts an ought-to-be-done* . . . trains disciples.' There is, 
Sflia, a way in which one speaking truly of me could say: 
' The recluse Gotama asserts annihilation . . . trains disciples.' 
There is, Siha, a way in which one speaking truly of me could 
say : ' The recluse Gotama is one who detests, he teaches a 
doctrine of detestation, and in this he trains disciples.' There 
is, Siha, a way in which oue speaking truly of me could say : 

* The recluse Gotama is a leader away, he teaches a doctrine 
of leading away, and in this he trains disciples.' There is, 
Siha, a way in which onfe speaking truly of me could say : 
' The recluse Gotama is a " burner up ", he teaches a doctrine 
of " burning up ", and in this he trains disciples.' There is, 
Siha, a way in which one speaking truly of me could say : 

* The recluse Gotama is not destined to another (kind of) 
becoming, he teaches a doctrine of no other kind of becoming, 
and in this he trains disciples. There is, Siha, a way in which 
one speaking truly of me could say : ' The recluse Gotama 
is confident,^ he teaches a doctrine of confidence,* and in this 
he trains disciples.' || 5 || 

"And what, Siha, is the way in which one speaking truly 
of me could say : ' The recluse Gotama is one who asserts 
an ought-not-to-be-done, he teaches a doctrine of an ought- 
not-to-be-done [234] and in this he trains disciples ' ? Indeed 

* anudhantma, explained by anukdrafia, perhaps meaning " minor tenet ", 
at VA. 1097, DA. 349, MA. in. 46. 

■ Stock, e.g. at D. i. 161, iii. 115 ; M. i. 368, 482 ; A. i. 161 ; S. ii. 33, 
ilL 6, iv. 340 ; Vin. ii. 297. 

* Cf. Vin. iii. 2-3 for tliis passage, and for notes see B.D. i. 4-6. 

* Not included at Vin. ui. 2. Cf. A. i. 62. 

* Not included at Vin. iii. 2. " Confident " is Pali assattha, rendered 
at G.S. iv. 127 " found consolation ". 

* assdsa. Cf. one who has assasa in dhammavinaya at 5. ii. 50 ; translated 
at K.S. ii. 38 as " comfort ". 



31.6—8] MAHAVAGGA VI 321 

I, Siha, assert of misconduct in body, speech and thought 
that it ought not to be done ; I assert of manifold evil and 
wrong states (of mind) that they ought not to be done. This 
is the way, Siha, in which one speaking truly of me could 
say : * The recluse Gotama asserts what ought-not-to-be-done, 
he teaches a doctrine of what ought-not-to-be-done and in this 
he trains disciples.' 

" And what, Siha, is the way in which one . . . could say : 
' The recluse Gotama asserts what ought-to-be-done . . . trains 
disciples ' ? Indeed I, Siha, assert of good conduct in body, 
speech and thought that it ought to be done ; of manifold 
right states (of mind) that they ought to be done. This is 
the way, Siha ... |1 6 || 

"And what, Siha, is the way in which one . . . could say : 
' The recluse Gotama asserts annihilation . . . trains disciples'? 
Indeed I, Siha, assert the annihilation of passion, hatred, 
stupidity ; I assert the annihilation of manifold evil and wrong 
states (of mind). This is the way, Siha . . . 

"And what, Siha, is the way in which one . . . could say : 
' The recluse Gotama is one who detests, he teaches a doctrine 
of detestation and in this he trains disciples ' ? Indeed, Siha, 
I detest misconduct in body, speech and thought ; I teach a 
doctrine of detestation for entering upon manifold evil wrong 
states (of mind). This is the way, Siha ... || 7 || 

"And what, Siha, is the way in which one . . . could say : 
' The recluse Gotama is one who is a leader away, he teaches 
a doctrine of leading away and in this he trains disciples ' ? 
Indeed I, Siha, teach a doctrine of the leading away of passion, 
hatred, stupidity ; I teach a doctrine of the leading away of 
manifold evil wrong states (of mind). This is the way, Siha 

"And what, Siha, is the way in which one . . . could say : 
' The recluse Gotama is one who is a " bumer-up ", he teaches 
a doctrine of burning up and in this he trains disciples ' ? 
Indeed I, Siha, speak of evil wrong states which are searing : 
misconduct in body, speech and thought. He for whom, Siha, 
evil wrong states that are searing are destroyed, cut off at the 
root, made like a palm-tree, so utterly done away with that 
they can come to no future existence — him I call one who is 
a ' bumer-up '. For a Truth-finder, Siha, evil wrong states 



322 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

that are searing . . . existence. This is the way, Siha, in 
which one . . . could say : ' The recluse Gotama is one who 
is a " bumer-up ", [235] he teaches a doctrine of burning-up, 
and in this he trains disciples.' || 8 || 

"And what, Siha, is the way in which one . . . could say : 
' The recluse Gotama is one who is not destined to another 
(kind of) becoming, he teaches a doctrine of no other (kind of) 
becoming and in this he trains disciples ' ? He for whom, 
Siha, future conception in a womb, becoming again and rebirth 
are destroyed, cut off at the root, made like a palm-tree, so 
utterly done away with that they can come to no future 
existence — ^him I call one not destined to another (kind of) 
becoming. For a Truth-finder, Siha, future conception . . . 
can come to no future existence. This is the way, Siha . . . 

"And what, Siha, is the way in which one speaking truly 
of me could say : ' The recluse Gotama is one who is confident, 
he teaches a doctrine of confidence and in this he trains 
disciples ' ? Indeed I, Siha, am confident with the highest 
confidence,* I teach a doctrine of confidence and in this I train 
disciples.2 This is the way, Siha, in which one speaking truly 
of me could say : ' The recluse Gotama is confident, he teaches 
a doctrine of confidence and in this he trains disciples '." 

11911 
And when he had spoken thus,' Siha, the general, spoke thus 

to the Lord : " Excellent, Lord ! Excellent, Lord ! . . .* 

May the Lord accept me as a layfollower going for refuge from 

this day forth for as long as life lasts." 

" Now, Siha, make a proper investigation. Proper investiga- 
tion is good in the case of well-known men like yourself."" 

"I, Lord, am even exceedingly pleased, satisfied with that 
which the Lord said to me : ' Now, Siha, make a proper 
investigation . . . like yourself.' For if. Lord, members of 

* A A. iv. 98 says "with the highest confidence in the four ways and 
the four fruits ". 

* Cf. D. iii. 39 where wanderers are recorded to ask Gotama the name 
of the doctrine in which he trains disciples and in which they, trained and 
attained to confidence, assasa, acknowledge a desire for (or a support in) 
the Brahma-faring. DA. iii. 835 explains assasa by tufthi, joy, and sonta- 
nassa, happiness. 

» From here to middle of 81. 12 = JIf. i. 378 f., in connection with UpJUi 
the householder. 

« Stock ; as at MV. I. 7. 10. 

* As at M. i. 379, A. iv. 185. 



31.10—12] MAHAVAGGAVI 323 

other sects had secured me as a disciple, they would have 
paraded a banner all round Vesali, saying : ' Siha, the general, 
has joined our disciplehood.' But then the Lord spoke to me 
thus : ' Now, Siha, make a proper investigation . . . like 
yourself.' So I, Lord, go for a second time to the Lord for refuge 
and to dhamma and to the Order of monks. May the Lord 
accept me as a layfollower going for refuge from this day forth 
for as long as life lasts." || 10 || 

" For a long time, Siha, your family^ has been a well-spring* 
to the Niganthas. You will bethink you to give alms to those 
who approach you ? " 

" I, Lord, am even exceedingly pleased, satisfied with that 
which the Lord said to me : ' For a long time, Siha, your 
family . . . those who approach you ? ' I have heard, Lord : 
The recluse Gotama speaks thus : ' Gifts should be given, to 
me only, not to others should gifts be given ; gifts should be 
given to my disciples only, not to the disciples of others should 
gifts be given. [236] What is given to me is alone of great 
fruit, what is given to others is not of great fruit ; what is 
given to my disciples is alone of great fruit, what is given to 
the disciples of others is not of great fruit.' But then the Lord 
urged upon me giving to the Niganthas too. Indeed, Lord, 
we shall know the right time for that. So I, Lord, go for a 
third time to the Lord for refuge and to dhamma and to the 
Order of monks. ]\lay the Lord accept me as a layfollower 
going for refuge from this day forth for as long as life lasts." 

II II II 
Then the Lord talked a progressive talk' to Siha, the general, 

that is to say talk on giving, talk on moral habit, talk on 

heaven ; he explained the peril, the vanity, the depravity of 

pleasures of the senses, the advantage in renouncing (them). 

When the Lord knew that the mind of Siha, the general, was 

ready, malleable, devoid of the hindrances, uplifted, pleased, 

then he explained to him that teaching on dhamma which the 

awakened ones have themselves discovered : ill, uprising, 

stopping, the Way And as a clean cloth without black specks 

will easily take dye, even so as he was (sitting) on that very seat, 

1 kula, explained by nivesana, a dwelling, at VA. 1097, MA. iii. 89. 
* opdnabhuta. See Dial. i. 177, n. 3 for further references. 
» As at MV. I. 7. 5-6. 



324 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

dhamma-vision, dustless, stainless, arose to Sflia, the general, 
that " whatever is of the nature to uprise all that is of the 
nature to stop ". Then Siha, the general, as one who* had 
seen dhamma, attained dhamma, known dhamma, plunged into 
dhamma, who had crossed over doubt, put away uncertainty, 
who had attained without another's help to full confidence 
in the teacher's instruction, spoke thus to the Lord^ : " Lord, 
may the Lord consent to a meal with me on the morrow 
together with the Order of monks." The Lord consented by 
becoming silent. Then Siha, the general, having understood 
the Lord's consent, rising from his seat, departed keeping his 
right side towards him. 

Then Siha, the general, enjoined a certain man, saying : 
" Go, good fellow, find out if there is meat to hand."^ Then 
Siha, the general, towards the end of that night having had 
sumptuous food, soHd and soft, prepared, had the time 
announced to the Lord, saying : " It is time, Lord, the meal 
is ready." Then the Lord, having dressed in the morning, 
taking his bowl and robe, approached the dwelling of Siha, 
the general ; having approached he sat down on the appointed 
seat together with the Order of monks. || 12 || 

Now at that time many Niganthas, waving their arms, were 
moaning* from carriage road^ to carriage road, from cross road* 
to cross road in Vesali : " To-day a fat beast, « killed by Siha, 
the general, is made into a meal for the recluse Gotama, the 
recluse Gotama makes use of this meat, knowing that it was 
killed on purpose (for him),' that the deed was (done) for his 
sake." 8 Then a certain man approached Siha, the general ; 
having approached he whispered into Siha, the general's ear : 

" Please, honoured sir, you should know that many of these 
Niganthas, waving their arms, are moaning from carriage road 
to carriage road, from cross road to cross road in Vesali : 

^ As at MY. I. 6. 32. 

• To here from VI. 81. 10 = M. i. 378-380. 
' As at Vin. i. 217 (above, p. 296). 

• katidanti. 

» Defined at Vin. iv. 271 (BJ). iii. 268). 

• pasu, meaning uncertain, but not necessarily an animal of the cow- 
tribe. A A. iv. 102 says : "a fat beast with a large body such as an elk 
or buffalo or pig ". VA . 363 says of pasuka that all four-footed animals 
beginning with the elephant should be called pasuka. 

^ Cf. fa. ii. 262 : the Telov&daj3,taka was spoken concerning Siha. 

• paficcakamtna. 



31.13— 32.1] MAHAVAGGAVI 325 

' To-day a fat beast . . . the deed was (done) for his sake '." 
" Enough, master, for a long time now these venerable ones 
have been desiring dispraise of the awakened one, have been 
desiring dispraise of dhamtna, have been desiring dispraise of 
the Order. But these venerable ones, bad, vain, lying, do not 
harm this Lord because they are misrepresenting him by what 
is not fact — ^why, even we, for the sake of our livelihood, would 
not intentionally deprive a living thing of life.''^ || 13 || 

Then Siha, the general, having with his own hand served 
and satisfied the Order of monks with the enlightened one 
at its head with sumptuous food, solid and soft, [237] when 
the Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from his bowl, 
sat down at a respectful distance. Then the Lord having 
gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted Siha, the general, with 
talk on dhamma as he was sitting down at a respectful distance, 
rising from his seat, departed.* Then the Lord on this occasion 
having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying : 

" Monks, one should not knowingly make use of meat killed 
on purpose (for one). Whoever should make use of it, there 
is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, fish and 
meat that are quite pure in three respects : if they are not 
seen, heard, suspected (to have been killed on purpose for 
amonk)."» |I 14 II 31 1| 

Now at that time Vesali was well off for food, crops were 
good, almsfood was easy to obtain, and it was easy to keep 
oneself going by gleaning and by favour. Then as the Lord 
was meditating in seclusion a reasoning arose in his mind 
thus : " Those things which were allowed by me to monks 
when food was scarce, crops bad, and almsfood difficult to 
obtain : what was cured indoors, cooked indoors, cooked by 
oneself* ; receiving (formally) what was picked up^ ; what 

» Cf. Pac. LXI. 

* To here from 31. i = A. iv. 179-188. 

' Cf. Vin. iii. 172 (B.D. i. 298) where Devadatta, wanting a schism, tries 
to make the Lord say that monks should eat no fish or meat. But Gotama 
answers him that fish and meat are " pure " if they have the three points 
which are also mentioned above. Macchatnatfisa is I think not " the flesh 
of fish " (as at G.S. iv. 130, n. i) but " fish and meat ". The story leading up 
to this allowance is concerned with meat ; and many instances show that 
monks ate this without incurring criticism or blame. 

* VI. 17. 7. 
» VI. 17. 9. 



326 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

was taken back from there^ ; what was accepted before a 
meal^ ; what grows in a wood, what grows in a lotus-tank' 
— do the monks still make use of these things to-day ? " 

Then the Lord, arising from his meditation towards evening, 
addressed the venerable Ananda, saying : " Those things 
which were allowed by me to monks when food was scarce 
... do the monks still make use of these things to-day ? " 

" They make use of them, Lord." 1| i i| 

Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having 
given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying : " Those 
things, monks, allowed by me to monks when food was scarce, 
crops bad and almsfood difficult to obtain : what was cured 
indoors . . . what grows in a lotus-tank — ^these things I object 
to from this day forth. Monks you should not make use of 
what is cured indoors, cooked indoors, cooked by yourselves ; 
of (formally) receiving what is picked up (by you). Whoever 
should make use of (any of these things), there is an offence 
of wrong-doing. Nor should you, monks, having eaten, being 
satisfied, make use of food that is not left over if it is brought 
back from there ; if it is accepted before a meal ; if it grows 
in a wood, grows in a lotus-tank. Whoever should make use 
of (any of these things) should be dealt with according to the 
rule."* II 2 II 32 ii 

Now at that time country people, having loaded much salt 
and oil, and husked rice and solid food into wagons,^ having 
made an enclosure for the wagons in a porch outside a 
monastery, waited, thinking : " When our turn comes, then 
we will make a meal,"^ but a great [238] cloud came up. Then 
these people approached the venerable Ananda ; having 
approached, they spoke thus to the venerable Ananda : 

" Now, honoured Ananda, having loaded much salt . . . 
solid food into wagons, they are standing (there), but a great 
cloud has come up. What line of conduct, honoured Ananda, 
should be followed by us ? " Then the venerable Ananda 
told this matter to the Lord. || i [j 

1 VI. 18. 4- 

» VI. 19. 2. 

» VI. 20. 4. 

« PSc. XXXV. 

» As at VI. 24. 1 ; 34. 17. 



82.2—4] MAHAVAGGAVI 327 

" Well then, Ananda, the Order having agreed upon a place 
for what is allowable^ near^ a dwelling-place : a dwelling-place 
or a curved house or a long house or a mansion or a cave,' 
let there be kept* there whatever the Order desires. And 
thus, monks, should it be agreed upon : The Order should be 
informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying : 
' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right 
to the Order, the Order may agree upon such and such a 
dwelling-place as a place for what is allowable. This is the 
motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The Order 
is agreeing upon such and such a dwelling-place as a place for 
what is allowable. If the agreement on such and such a 
dwelling-place as a place for what is allowable is pleasing to 
the venerable ones, they should be silent ; he to whom it is 
not pleasing should speak. Such and such a dweUing-place 
is agreed upon by the Order as a place for what is allowable. 
Therefore they are silent. Thus do I understand this '." 

Now at that time the people boiled conjeys, boiled rice, 
prepared soups, cut up meats, chopped wood, just there at a 
place for what was allowable and which had been agreed upon. 
As the Lord was getting up at the end of the night towards 
dawn he heard a loud noise, a great noise, a noise (like) the 
cawing of crows, ^ and hearing it, he addressed the venerable 
Ananda, saying : " What, Ananda, is this loud noise, this 
great noise, this noise (like) the cawing of crows ? " || 3 [j 

"At present, Lord, people boil conjeys . . . chop sticks just 
there at a place for what is allowable and which has been 



^ kappiyabhumi. VA. does not explain this word, but in commenting 
on the three kinds of places allowed at the end of || 4 ||, Bu. at VA. 1098 f., 
uses the word kappiyakutl, hut for what is allowable. It seems probable 
that the kappiyabhumi was a place for doing certain operations some of which 
were allowable only in times of scarcity : cooking for oneself, cooking indoors 
and curing indoors. Bu. at VA. 1 099-1 100 appears to connect these with 
a kappiyabhumi. It should however be noticed that at III. 5. 9 the "kitchen" 
which a lay follower may build for himself replaces the kappiyakutl which 
he may build for an Order or a member of it at III. 5. 6. For in normal times 
monks did not cook, and hence a place for doing allowable operations (of 
this nature) would be superfluous. A. K. Coomaraswamy, Indian Architectural 
Terms, J. A .O.S., Vol. 48, No. 3, p. 260 calls kappiyabhumi an " outhouse site ". 

• paccantima. VA. 1098 says this is only an expression. 

• For these five " abodes " cf. above, p. 75 and notes. 

• vasetu. 

» = Vin. iv. 82. 



328 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

agreed upon. It is this loud noise, great noise, noise (like) 
the cawing of crows that the Lord (hears). "^ Then the Lord, 
on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed the 
monks, saying : 

" Monks, one should not make use of a place for what is 
allowable that has been agreed upon.* Whoever should make 
use of it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, 
monks, three places for what is allowable : that depending 
upon a proclamation,' that connected with what is fortuitous,* 
that (given by) a householder."'' || 4 || 

Now at that time the venerable Yasoja* came to be ill. 

^ so eso bhagavd uccdsaddo . . . kdkoravasaddo. One would have expected 
bhante here instead of bhagava, and the sentence then to be tran^ted : 
it is this. Lord, that is the loud noise. . . . 

' Presumably there is the risk of being in the lay-people's way and also 
of being disturbed by the noise they make. 

• ussavanantika. Ussdvana is not a proclamation in a technical sense 
and has nothing to do with proceedings at formal acts of the Order. But 
Bu. explains, VA. 1098, that having made all preparations with pillars, 
walls and stones, the people utter the phrase {vdcam nicchdrenti) " we are 
making a kappiyakutl ". The two Commentaries which he quotes also 
mention a kappiyakutl as being spoken about or resolved upon. Antika is used 
in the same sense as above at MV. VII. 1. 7. 

• gonisddika. Cf. gonisddi at Vin. iii. 46, where a village arranged 
" fortuitously " comes into the definition of village. Gonisddi is not an 
ox-stall \Vin. Texts ii. I2i). VA. 298 explains that as two or three cows 
sit down here and there, so, having built two or three houses, they are arranged 
here and there. The idea is that something is left to a haphazard element. 
VA. 1099 explains that there are two kinds of gonisddika: one of the 
monastery (type), one of the dwelling-place. Wherever neither the monastery 
itself is fenced in nor the lodgings, this is the monastery-type of what is 
" fortuitous ". Wherever all or some of the lodgings are fenced in but not 
the monastery, this is the dwelling-place type. So in both kinds the 
non-fencing in of the monastery is a criterion. VA. does not say which kind 
is intended here ; perhaps both are. 

• gahapati. VA. 1099 says, " people having built a residence say, ' we are 
giving a kappiyakutl, make use of it ' — this is called gahapati. It means 
this too if they say, ' We are giving (something) to build a kappiyakutl ' ". 
VA . on this whole passage uses kappiyakutl and never k-bhUmi. Cf. kappiya- 
kufiyo which, among other things, Anathapindika caused to be buUt in 
the Jeta Grove, at Vin. ii. 159, and the kappiyakutl which a lay disciple 
might cause to be built for an Order, at Vin. i. 139 (above, p. 186). - 

• Verses at Thag. 243-5. There is a story about five hundred monks 
with Yasoja at their head at Ud. 24-27. The lord dismissed them for making 
a great noise ; they spent the rains in earnest endeavour and reaUsed the 
three knowledges ; they were then able to spend a whole night in as 
concentrated meditation as the Lord himself. VA. 1098 says "At the 
conclusion of the Kapilasutta he (Yasoja) was the chief person of the five 
hundred who had gone forth". SnA. i. 312, DhA. iv. 45 call these five 
hundred "fishermen's sons". See DhA. iv. 37 ff. (Kapilamacchavatthu), 
SnA. i. 305 ff. (both of which tell about the golden fish, Kapila), UdA. 179, 
Pss. Breth., p. 166 for the circumstances in which the Kapilasutta was spoken 
to Yasoja. This Sutta is referred to at DhA . iv. 42 as being in the Suttanipdta. 
Kapilasutta is there {Sn., p. 49) a v.l. for Dhammacariyasutta, but the Comy. 
{SnA. i. 312) refers to it as Kapilasutta. 



88.5—34.1] MAHAVAGGAVI 329 

Medicines were conveyed for him. Monks put these outside, 
but vermin ate them and also thieves carried them off.^ They 
told this matter to the Lord. He said : "I allow you, monks, 
to make use of a place for what is allowable^ and which has 
been agreed upon. [239] I allow four places for what is 
allowable : that depending upon a proclamation, that connected 
with what is fortuitous, that given by a householder, that which 
is agreed upon." || 5 II 33 || 

Told is the Twenty-fourth Portion for Repeating. 

Now at that time the householder Mendak:a^ lived in the 
town of Bhaddiya.* He came to have this kind of eminence 
in psychic power : having washed his head, having had a 
granary swept, he sat down just outside the door, and a shower 
of grain, having fallen down through the air, filled the granary. 
His wife^ came to have this kind of eminence in psychic power : 
having sat down beside only one bowl of the capacity of an 
dlhaka^ and one helping of curry and condiments, she served 
food' to slaves, workmen and servants® ; not until she got up 
was it exhausted. His son® came to have this kind of eminence 

1 As at VI. 17. 7. ~~ 

* This paragraph probably refers to allowable medicines. See too VA.xioi 
which refers to sappi, ghee, which was a medicine. 

• Father of Dhanaiijaya, who was Visakha's father. At DhA. i. 384 
Mendaka is called " householder ", at DhA. i. 385, Vism. 383 " merchant ", 
setthi, and he and his wife, son, daughter-in-law and slave are said to be 
five people of great merit. His story is told in detail at DhA. iii. 363 ff. 
Cf. DhA. iv. 203, 217. According to DhA. iii. 363 the Dhp. verse (252) 
was spoken by the Lord while he was staying in the Jatiya Grove at Bhaddiya 
concerning Mendaka. 

* In the Anga kingdom. 

' Her name was Candapaduma (because she came to have the moon 
and the lotus represented on the palms of her hands and the soles of her feet), 
DhA. i. 385, iii. 363 ; or Candapadumasiri at Vism. 383. Her meritorious act 
is noticed at DhA . iii. 369. 

• alhakathalikd. See B.D. i. 103, n. i. 

' bhatta can also mean rice, the staple dish, but here in all likelihood 
meaning food, for probably no implication that she served rice without 
the curry and condiments is intended. 

* dasa-kammakara-porisd. Same compound at ^. i. 145, 206, ii. 78, iii. 45 
(puttaddrdddsa-), 260. AA. ii. 241 explains as " slaves as well as workmen 
earning a daily wage of food, and people living in dependence on (one) ", 
jivatndnapurisd. See definitions of " slave " and " workman " at B.D. iii. 180. 

• Called Dhanaiijaya the merchant, setthi, atDhA . i. 386 fif., iii. 363, Vism. 383, 
and Mendaka's eldest son at DhA. i. 385. His psychic power is referred to 
&t DhA. iii. 370. He was lent by Bimbisara to Pasenadi ; and the latter 
built Saketa to house Dhanaiijaya's retinue during the night's halt on the way 
to SavatthI, DhA. i. 386 f. Dhananjaya was the father of Visakha and of 
her youngest sister, Sujata, in respect of whom the Sujata-Jataka (No. 269) 
was told. 



330 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

in psychic power : having taken hold of only one purse 
containing a thousand/ he gave six months' wages to (each) 
slave, workman and servant ; not until he removed his hand 
was it^ exhausted. || i || 

His daughter-in-law' came to have this kind of eminence 
in psychic power ; having sat down beside only one basket 
of the capacity of four doTias* she gave six months' food^ to 
(each) slave, workman and servant ; not until she got up was 
it exhausted. His slave ^ came to have this kind of eminence 
in psychic power : when he ploughed with one ploughshare 
seven furrows came from (it).' || 2 || 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha heard : " They 
say that the householder Men^aka is living in our kingdom 
in the town of Bhaddiya. He has this kind of eminence in 
psychic power . . . {as in\\i, 2\\) . . . when he ploughs with 
one ploughshare seven furrows come from (it)." || 3, 4 || 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha addressed a certain 
chief minister who was concerned with all the affairs, ^ saying : 
" It is said, my good man,* that the householder Men^aka 
is living in our kingdom in the town of Bhaddiya ; he has 
this kind of psychic power : [240] having washed his head 
. . . seven furrows come from (it). Go along, my good man, 
and find out. When you have seen, it will be the same as if 
I myself saw." 

" So be it, your majesty ", and that chief minister, having 
answered King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha in assent, marched 
forty for Bhaddiya with a four-winged army.*^ || 5 || 



^ The word kahdpapa supplied at DhA. iii. 370. 

* I.e., the contents of the purse. 

' Called Sumanadevi at DhA. i. 384, SumanadevI at DhA. iii. 363, Vism. 
383. She was Dhananjaya's chief wife, aggamahesi, DhA . i. 384, and Visakha's 
mother, SA. i. 148. Her act of psychic power referred to at DhA. iii. 370. 

* A measure of capacity, generally equivalent to four alhakas, see B.D. 
i. 103, n. 

» bhatta, see n. 7 above, p. 329. 

• Called Pun^a at DhA. i. 385, iii. 363, Vism. 383. His psychic gift 
referred to at DhA. iii. 370. 

' According to DhA. iii. 370 one in the middle and three at each side. 
' sabbeUthaka mahdmatta as at Vin. iii. 249. 

• bhape, as at Vin. iii. 249 where Bimbisara is again recorded to be 
addressing a chief minister concerned with aU the affairs. Bhajie is a common 
mode of address from a superior to an inferior. 

^^ pdyasi. Cf. payata at Vin. iv. 105. 

* ^ Elephants, horses, chariots and infantry. See definition of army at Vin. 
iv. 105 ; and B.D. ii 375, n. 3. 



34.6—9] MAHAVAGGAVI 331 

In due course he approached Bhaddiya and Mendaka the 
householder ; having approached he spoke thus to Men<Jaka 
the householder : " Now I, householder, have been enjoined 
by the King, saying : ' It is said, my good man, that the 
householder Mendaka is living in our kingdom. . . . When you 
have seen, it will be the same as if I myself saw.' Let us see, 
householder, your eminence in psychic power." Then the 
householder Mendaka, having washed his head, having had 
a granary swept, sat down outside the door, and a shower 
of grain, having fallen down through the air, filled the granary. 
" Your eminence in psychic power has been seen, householder. 
We will see your wife's eminence in psychic power." || 6 || 

Then the householder Mendaka enjoined his wife, saying : 
" WeU now, serve this four-winged army with food." Then 
the wife of Mendaka the householder, having sat down beside 
only one bowl of the capacity of an dlhaka and one helping 
of curry and condiments, served food to the four-winged army ; 
not until she got up was it exhausted. " Your wife's eminence 
in psychic power has been seen, householder. We wiU see 
your son's eminence in psychic power." || 7 || 

Then the householder Mendaka enjoined his son, saying : 
" Well now, my dear, give this four-winged army six months' 
wages." Then the son of Mendaka the householder, having 
taken hold of only one purse containing a thousand, gave the 
four-winged army six months' wages ; not until he removed 
his hand was it exhausted. " Your son's eminence in psychic 
power has been seen, householder. We will see your daughter- 
in-law's eminence in psychic power." || 8 || 

Then Mendaka the householder enjoined his daughter-in-law, 
saying : " WeU now, give this four- winged army six months' 
food." Then the daughter-in-law of Mendaka the householder, 
having sat down beside only one basket of the capacity of 
four donas, gave six months' food to the four-winged army ; 
not until she got up was it exhausted. " Your daughter-in- 
law's eminence in psychic power has been seen, householder. 
We wiU see your slave's eminence in psychic power." 

" Our slave's eminence in psychic power, sir,^ can be seen 
in the field." 



332 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Enough, householder, your slave's eminence in psychic 
power has been seen." 

Then that chief minister went back again to Rajagaha with 
the four-winged army, and approached King Seniya Bimbisara 
of Magadha ; having approached, he told this matter to King 
Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha. || 9 || [241] 

Then the Lord, having stayed in Vesali for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Bhaddiya with the large 
Order of monks, together with the twelve hundred and fifty 
monks. Then the Lord, walking on tour, in due course arrived 
at Bhaddiya. The Lord stayed there in Bhaddiya in the 
Jatiya Grove.^ II 10 II 

Then the householder Mendaka heard : " Verily,^ the recluse 
Gotama, the son of the Sakyans, who has gone forth from 
a Sakyan family, has reached Bhaddiya and is staying at 
Bhaddiya in the Jatiya Grove. A lovely reputation has gone 
forth concerning the Lord Gotama, thus : he is indeed Lord, 
perfected one, fully awakened one, endowed with knowledge 
and conduct, well-farer, knower of the worlds, unrivalled 
charioteer of men to be tamed, teacher of devas and mankind, 
the awakened one, the Lord. Having realised by his own 
super-knowledges, he makes known this world with its devas, 
with its Maras, with its Brahmas, a race with recluses and 
brahmins, with devas and men. He teaches dhamma, lovely 
at the beginning, lovely in the middle and lovely at the ending. 
He explains with the spirit and the letter the Brahma-life 
completely fulfilled and wholly pure. Good indeed it were 
to see perfected ones like this." || 11 || 

Then the householder Mendaka, having had many magnifi- 
cent vehicles harnessed,^ having mounted a magnificent vehicle, 
went off with the magnificent vehicles from Bhaddiya to see 
the Lord. But many members of (other) sects* saw the house- 
holder Mendaka coming in the distance, and seeing him they 
spoke thus to the householder Mendaka : " Where are you 
going, householder ? " 

^ Mentioned at Vin. i. 189 f., iii. 37 ; A. iii. 36. 

• To end of ||ii || is stock and recurs at e.g. Vin. i. 35, 245, iii. 1, D. i. 87. 
For notes on above passage, see B.D. i. i ff. 

» As in VI. 80. i, 3. 

* A highly compressed version of the following incidents occurs at DhA. 
iii. 374 f- 



34.12—15] MAHAVAGGAVI 333 

" I am going, honoured sirs, to see the Lord, the recluse 
Gotama." 

" But how can you, householder, being one who asserts 
an ought-to-be-done,i go along to see the recluse Gotama 
who asserts an ought-not-to-be-done ? For, householder, the 
recluse Gotama asserts an ought-not-to-be-done, he teaches 
a doctrine of an ought -not-to-be-done and in this he trains 
disciples." || 12 || 

Then it occurred to the householder Mendaka : " Undoubt- 
edly this will be a Lord, a perfected one, a fully awakened one^ 
inasmuch as these members of (other) sects are jealous of 
him," and having gone by vehicle as far as the ground was 
(suitable) for a vehicle, having alighted from the vehicle, he 
approached the Lord on foot ; having approached, having 
greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As 
Mendaka the householder was sitting down at a respectful 
distance, the Lord talked a progressive talk^ to him, that is 
to say talk on giving, talk on moral habit, talk on heaven. 
. . . Then the householder Mendaka, as one who had . . . 
attained without another's help to full confidence in the 
teacher's instruction, spoke thus to the Lord : 

" Excellent, Lord ! Excellent, Lord !* . . . May the Lord 
accept me as a layfoUower going for refuge from this day forth 
for as long as life lasts ; [242] Lord, may the Lord consent 
to a meal with me on the morrow together with the Order 
of monks." The Lord consented by becoming silent. || 13 || 

Then the householder Mendaka, having understood the Lord's 
consent, rising from his seat, having greeted the Lord, departed 
keeping his right side towards him. Then Mendaka the house- 
holder towards the end of that night having had sumptuous 
food, solid and soft, prepared, had the time announced to the 
Lord, saying : " It is time. Lord, the meal is ready." Then 
the Lord, having dressed in the morning, taking his bowl and 
robe, approached the dwelling of the householder Mendaka ; 
having approached, he sat down on the appointed seat together 
with the Order of monks. || 14 || 

Then the wife and son and daughter-in-law and slave of 
the householder Mendaka approached the Lord ; having 

1 As in VI. 31. 2. « As in VI. 31. I. 

» As in VI. 81. 12. « Stock, as at MV. I. 7. 10 ; VI. 81. 10. 



334 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a 
respectful distance. The Lord talked a progressive talk to 
these, that is to say talk on giving. . . . Then these as ones 
who had . . . attained without another's help to full confidence 
in the teacher's instruction, spoke thus to the Lord : " Excel- 
lent, Lord ! Excellent, Lord ! . . . We, Lord, are going to 
the Lord for refuge and to dhamma and to the Order of monks. 
May the Lord accept us as layfolloweis going for refuge from 
this day forth for as long as life lasts." || 15 || 

Then the householder Men^aka, having with his own hand 
served and satisfied with sumptuous food, solid and soft, the 
Order of monks with the awakened one at its head, when the 
Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his hand* from his bowl, 
sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at 
a respectful distance, Men^aka the householder spoke thus to 
the Lord : 

" Lord, for as long as the Lord stays at Bhaddiya, for so long 
will I (supply) with perpetual food the Order of monks with 
the awakened one at its head." Then the Lord, having 
gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted the householder Men^aka 
with talk on dhamma, rising from his seat, departed. || 16 || 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Bhaddiya for as. long as 
he foimd suiting, without asking the householder Mendaka 
(for permission)^ set out on tour for Anguttarapa ^ together with 
the large Order of monks, with the twelve hundred and fifty 
monks. Then Mendaka the householder heard : " They say 
that the Lord is setting out on tour for Anguttarapa 
together with a large Order of monks, with twelve hundred 
and fifty monks." Then Mendaka the householder enjoined 
slaves and workmen saying : " Well now, my good men, 
having loaded much salt and oil and husked rice and solid 
food into wagons,^ come along, and let there come along twelve 
hundred and fifty cowherds bringing twelve hundred and fifty 
milch cows. Wherever we see the Lord there will we offer 
him fresh milk." || 17 || 

* andpuccha, not asking (for permission) is defined, at Vin. iv. 343, by 
anapaloketva, not having obtained permission, while this is defined at Vin. 
iv. 226, 232, 316 by andpuccha. 

• An Anga country North of the river Mahl {MA. iii. 34, SnA. 437). 
Mentioned at Sn., p. 102, M. i. 359, 447, DhA. iii. 363. 

» As at VI. 24. I : 88. i. 



34.18—20] MAHAVAGGAVI 335 

Then Men^aka [243] the householder met the Lord on a 
wilderness road. Then IVTen^aka the householder approached 
the Lord ; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he 
stood at a respectful distance. As he was standing at a 
respectful distance, Mendaka the householder spoke thus to 
the Lord : " Lord, may the Lord consent to a meal with me 
on the morrow together with the Order of monks." The Lord 
consented by becoming silent. Then Mendaka the householder, 
having understood the Lord's consent, having greeted the Lord, 
departed keeping his right side towards him. Then Mendaka 
the householder, towards the end of that night having had 
sumptuous food, solid and soft, prepared, had the time 
announced to the Lord, saying : " It is time. Lord, the meal 
is ready." || 18 || 

Then the Lord, having dressed in the morning, taking his 
bowl and robe, approached the food distribution of Mendaka 
the householder ; having approached he sat down on the 
appointed seat together with the Order of monks. Then 
Men<Jaka the householder enjoined the twelve hundred and 
fifty cowherds, saying : " Well now, my good men, let each 
one (of you) having each taken a milch cow, look after a monk, 
and we will offer them fresh milk." Then Mendaka the house- 
holder with his own hand served and satisfied the Order of 
monks with the awakened one at its head with sumptuous 
food, solid and soft, and (offered^ them) fresh milk. The 
monks, being scrupulous, did not accept the milk. (The Lord 
said :) "Accept it, monks, make use of it."' || 19 || 

Then Mendaka the householder, having with his own hand 
served and satisfied the Order of monks with the enlightened 
one at its head with sumptuous food, solid and soft and with 
fresh milk, when the Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his 
hand from his bowl, sat down at a respectful distance. As he 
was sitting down at a respectful distance Mendaka the house- 
holder spoke thus to the Lord : 

" There are. Lord, wilderness roads with little water, with 



^ I think this verb, bhojeti (lit. to make to eat, to feed, so to offer, to regale, 
to entertain with), which Mendaka has already used, should be inserted here. 
For the monks refused the milk until told, as recorded, to accept it. So long 
as they refused it, it cannot be said that they were " served and satisfied with " 
it. 



336 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

little food* ; it is not easy to go along them without provisions 
for the joumey.2 It were good, Lord, if the Lord allowed 
monks provisions for the journey." Then the Lord, having 
gladdened, rejoiced, roused, dehghted the householder Men^aka 
with talk on dhamma, rising froin his seat, departed. || 20 || 

Then the Lord on this occasion, having given reasoned talk, 
addressed the monks, saying : "I allow you, monks, five 
products of the cow : nulk, curds, butter-milk, butter, ghee. 
There are, monks, wilderness roads with little water, with little 
food ; it is not easy to go along them without provisions for 
the journey. I allow you, monks, to look about for provisions 
for a journey : husked rice for him who has need of husked 
rice; kidney-beans for him who has need of kidney-beans; 
beans for hiin who has need of beans ; salt for him who has 
need of salt ; [244] sugar for him who has need of sugar ; 
oil for him who has need of oil ; ghee for him who has need 
of ghee. There are, monks, people who have faith and are 
believing ; these deposit gold (coins)' in the hands of those 
who make things allowable,* saying : ' By means of this give 
the master that which is allowable.' I allow you, monks, 
thereupon 5 to consent to that which is allowable. But this, 
monks, I do not say : that by any method* may gold and 
silver' be consented to, may be looked about for." || 21 1| 34 || 

Then the Lord, walking on tour,^ in due course arrived at 
Apana." The matted hair ascetic Keniya*® heard : " Verily, 

• To these kinds of wilds, kantdra, three others are added at Jd. i. 99 
lyhichgives a short explanation of each), SA. ii. 103 : cora". vala", amanussa,". 
See B.D. i. 147, n. i. 

» As at Vin. i. 270. Cf. Vin. iv. 79 f. » hira^Ha, see B.D. i. 28, n. 

• kappiyakdraka, see VI. 17. 8. ' tato. 

• pariydya, perhaps here " in any circumstances ". 

' jdtarilparajata. See B.D. i. 28, n. ; ii. 100, n. 2, 102, n. i. If a monk 
takes gold and silver or gets another to do so for him or consents to its being 
kept in deposit for him, he incurs a Nissaggiya offence (No. XVIII). 

• From nere to end of j| 5 ||. cf. Sn. 102 flf. = M. ii. 146 S. 

• This is called a market town, nigatna, of Anga at S. v. 225 ; a market town 
of Anguttarapa at Sn. 103, M. i. 359, 447. Apana was so named because 
it had a quantity of shops, SnA . ii. 440, MA . iii. 37. 

* • Spelt Keniya at Sn., p. 103, MA. iii. 399. He is mentioned at Ap. i. p. 318. 
According to SnA . 440, MA . iii. 399 he was a very wealthy (mahdsdla) brahmin 
who became a.jatila (matted hair) ascetic so as to protect his wealth, and he was 
also the protector of five thousand families ; but aithough he wore the yellow 
robes by day, by night he indulged in pleasures of the senses. At DA. i. 270 
he is given as an example, among eight types of ascetics, of the type who 
supports wife and children [sa-pvUtabhdriya). See also DhA . i. 323, UdA . 241 . 



35.1—3] MAHAVAGGA VI 337 

the recluse Gotama, the son of the Sakyans, who has gone 
forth from a Sakyan family, has reached Apana and is staying 
in Apana. A lovely reputation^ has gone forth concerning the 
Lord Gotama, thus : ... He explains with the spirit and the 
letter the Brahma-faring completely fulfilled and wholly pure. 
Good indeed it were to see perfected ones like this." Then it 
occurred to Keniya the matted hair ascetic : " Now, what 
could I get conveyed to the recluse Gotama ? " I| i || 

Then it occurred to Keniya the matted hair ascetic : " Now, 
those who were^ formerly seers of the brahmins, makers of 
mantras,' preservers of mantras, whose ancient mantras as 
sung, taught,* and composed the brahmins of to-day still 
sing, still speak ; they still speak what was spoken, they still 
teach what was taught, that is to say (by) Atthaka,^ Vamaka,' 
Vamadeva,' Vessamitta, Yamataggi,* Angirasa, Bharadvaja, 
Vasettha, Kassapa,' Bhagu — ^these abstaining from food at 
night, restrained from eating at the wrong time,^'' (yet) con- 
sented to such things as drinks. I| 2 || 

" The recluse Gotama also abstains from food at night and 
is restrained from eating at the wrong time" ; the recluse 
Gotama also is worthy^^ to consent to such things as drinks," 
and having had abundant drinks prepared, having had them 
taken on carrying-poles, ^^ he approached the Lord ; having 
approached, he exchanged greetings with the Lord ; having 
exchanged greetings of friendliness and courtesy with the Lord, 
he stood at a respectful distance. As he was standing at a 
respectful distance, Keniya the matted hair ascetic spoke thus 

^ As above, p. 332. 

• Down to the name Bhagu = D. i. 104, 238, 242 ; A. in. 224, 229 ; M. 
ii. 169, 200. 

• I.e. the Vedas. 

• pavutta, explained at DA. 273 as " spoken for others,"- taught {vacita, 
made to speak). 

' On the names of these r^is or seers, see Vin. Texts ii. 130, n. 3. Atthaka 
is usually identified with A§taka. mentioned as author of RV. X. 104. 

• Cf. RV. X. 99. 
» Cf. RV. IV. 26. 

■ Under Jamadagni in Vedic Index he is connected with RV. III. 62, 18 ; 
VIII. loi, 8 ; IX. 62, 24 ; 65, 25. 

» Cf.RV.IX. 114, 2. 

10 " Wrong time " for eating defined at Vin. iv. 86 as " after noon has 
passed until sunrise ". 

" Cf.D.i.5. 

i« arahati samano pi Gotamo. The meaning is that he is worthy enough 
to confer a boon on the giver of the things which he consents to accept, 

*• kaja, cf. M. iii. 148. 



338 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

to the Lord : " Let the revered Gotama accept drink from 
me. 

" Well then, Keniya, give it to the monks." The monks, 
being scrupulous, did not accept it. (The Lord said :) "Accept 
it, monks, make use of it." || 3 || 

Then Keniya the matted hair ascetic, having with his own 
hand served and satisfied the Order of monks with the 
enlightened one at its head with abundant drinks sat down 
at a respectful distance when the Lord had washed his hand* 
and had withdrawn his hand from his bowl. Then as Keniya 
the matted hair ascetic was sitting down at a respectful distance, 
the Lord gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted him with talk 
on dhamma. Then [245] Keniya the matted hair ascetic, 
gladdened . . . delighted by the Lord with talk on dhamma, 
spoke thus to the Lord : " May the revered Gotama together 
with the Order of monks consent to a meal with me on the 
morrow." || 4 || 

" But, Keniya, the Order of monks is large, twelve hundred 
and fifty monks, and you are in favour of the brahmins." 
Then Keniya the matted hair ascetic spoke a second time to 
the Lord thus : "Although, good Gotama, the Order of monks 
is large, twelve hundred and fifty monks, and I am in favour 
of the brahmins, (yet) may the revered Gotama together with 
the Order of monks consent to a meal with me on the morrow." 

" But, Keniya, the Order of monks is large, twelve hundred 
and fifty monks, and you are in favour of the brahmins." 
Then Keniya the matted hair ascetic spoke a third time to 
the Lord thus : 

"Although, good Gotama, the Order of monks is large, 
twelve hundred and fifty monks, and I am in favour of the 
brahmins, (yet) may the revered Gotama together with the 
Order of monks consent to a meal with me on the morrow." 
The Lord consented by becoming silent. Then Keniya the 
matted hair ascetic, having understood the Lord's consent, 
rising from his seat departed. || 5 || 

Then the Lord, on this occasion having given reasoned talk, 
addressed the monks, saying : 

» As at MV. VI. 24. 4 ; 86. 8. 



36.6—7] MAHAVAGGAVI 339 

" I allow you, monks, eight (kinds of) drinks^ : mango 
drink,2 rose-apple drink, plantain* drink, banana* drink, honey 
drink, grape drink, edible lotus root drink, ^ phdrusaka' drink. 
I allow you, monks, the juice of all fruits except the juice of 
the fruit of com.' I allow you, monks, the juice of all leaves 
except vegetable® juice. I allow you, monks, the juice of all 
flowers except liquorice' juice. I allow you, monks, sugar- 
cane juice."^° II 6 II 

Then Keniya the matted hair ascetic, towards the end of 
that night having had sumptuous food, solid and soft, prepared 
in his own hermitage,^^ had the time announced to the Lord 
sa5dng : " It is time, good Gotama, the meal is ready." Then 
the Lord, having dressed in the morning, taking his bowl and 
robe, approached the hermitage of Keniya the matted hair 
ascetic ; having approached, he sat down on the appointed 
seat together with the Order of monks. Then Keniya the 
matted hair ascetic, having with his own hand served and 
satisfied the Order of monks with the awakened one at its head 
with sumptuous food, solid and soft, sat down at a respectful 



• At Nd. i. 372 two lists of eight drinks each are given, the first being 
the same as this Vin. list. These drinks occur in a controverted point at 
Kvu. 552. 

• Made from raw or cooked mangoes, VA. iioi. 

' coca, which may however be coconut or cinnamon. But VA. 1102 
= NdA. ii. 396 declare this to be a drink made from the fruit of bananas 
(or plantains, kadali) which have kernels, atthika (stone or kernel of a fruit). 
The meaning therefore is not clear, and is further confused by the next drink, 
moca, which VA. 1102 = NdA. ii. 396 say is made of plantain fruits without 
kernels, anatthika. See Vin. Texts ii. 132, n. 

• moca, Musa sapientum. 

• saluka-pana. VA . 1 102 = NdA . ii. 396 say it is a drink that is made 
having crushed the edible roots of the red and the blue lotuses and so on. 

• Vin. Texts ii. 133, n. 2 says "this is Grewia Asiatica of Linnaeus", 
Monier Williams (under pariisha^ka)) adding " from the berries of ^vhich 
a cooling beverage is prepared ". Phdrusaka occurs also at DhA. iii. 316. 

' VA. 1 102 refers to the seven kinds of grain or corn, dhanna, which 
probably are those enumerated at Vin. iv. 264, NdA. ii. 396. See B.D. 
i. 83, n. 4. Toddy and arrack are prepared from grain. The use of toddy 
was one of the ten points not allowed by the Council of Vesali, Vin. ii. 301. 

• ddka (= Skrt. sdka), vegetable, herb, potherb. VA. 1102 ejtplains as 
cooked ddka. See below, VI. 86. 8 where all kinds of vegetables are allowed. 

• madhuka: This is the tree Bassia latifolia. 

*" VA. 1 103 says "in allowing these drinks (mango drink and so on), 
these four (kinds of) juices are allowed as well ". 

^^ Sn., p. 104 here breaks off the account, although it adds, before going on 
to the Sela story, that Keniya's friends, servants and relations helped him 
in all kinds of ways in the preparation of the meal. Sn. p. 1 10 then takes up 
the account again, as Vin. above, and thus includes the two verses appearing 
below. The Sn. version naturally does not include the "allowances" of ||6||. 



340 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

distance when the Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his 
hand from his bowl. ||7l! 

As Keniya the matted hair ascetic was sitting down at a 
respectful distance, the Lord thanked him in these verses : 
" Sacrifices^ are chief in fire-worship,* Savitri' chief of 

(Vedic) metres, 
A king is chief of men, the ocean chief of waters. 
The moon is chief of the lamps of night,* the sun chief 

of luminaries,* 
For those giving alms, desiring merit, the Order is indeed 
the chief." 
Then the Lord, having thanked Keniya the matted hair ascetic 
in these verses, rising from his seat, departed. || 8 || 35 1| [246] 

Then the Lord, having stayed in Apana for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Kusinara* with the large 
Order of monks, with the twelve hundred and fifty monks. 
The MaUas of Kusinara heard : " It is said that the Lord is 
coming to Kusinara together with a large Order of monks, 
with twelve himdred and fifty monks ". These made a compact 
that, " Whoever does not go out to meet the Lord is fined five 
hundred''. Now at that time Roja the Malla was a friend 
of the venerable Ananda.^ Then the Lord, walking on tour, 
in due course arrived at Kusinara. || 1 1| 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara went out to meet the Lord. 



• These two verses = Sn. 568-9. 

• The Jatilas were fire-worshippers. Yaiina, sacrifice, became under 
Buddhist usage an alms-gift to an Order or to monks, a deyyadhamma, gift 
of faith, Nd. ii. 523. 

» A Vedic metre. Cf. Sn. 457, "three lines (pada) twenty-four syllables^". 
SnA . ii. 403 states that Savitrl in the discipline of the nobles would be : 
buddham sarofiam gacchdmi / dhammam saranam gacchami j samgham saranarn 
gacchdmi. 

• nakkhatta, usually meaning a constellation or lunar mansion. SnA. ii. 
456 says, "According to the conjunction of the moon, so that from a sign, 
from its brightness {dlokakarapa) and from its gentleness one can say, ' To-day 
is Kattika, to-day is Rohini ' (name of two months or lunar mansions) it is said 
' The moon is chief of the nakkhattas ' ". 

• tapatam = tapantdnam, of shining, of bright, of radiant (things). 

• One of the two capitals of the Malla country, the other being PSva. 
The Lord died at Kusinara, and the Pavejryaka MaUas sent to claim their share 
of his relics (jD. ii. 165), showing that the Malla country was divided into 
two separate parts (see D.P.P.N.). 

' Doubtless kahdpafias. 

• As at Vin. i. 296. The Vacchanakha-jataka (No. 235) is said to have 
been spoken concerning Roja. 



36.2—4] MAHAVAGGAVI 341 

Then Roja the Malla, having gone out to meet the Lord, 
approached the venerable Ananda ; having approached, having 
greeted the venerable Ananda, he stood at a respectful distance. 
As Roja the Malla was standing at a respectful distance, the 
venerable Ananda spoke thus to him : " This is splendid of 
you, friend Roja, that you have come out to meet the Lord." 

" I, honoured Ananda, am not much impressed by^ the 
awakened one or dhamma or the Order, but a compact was 
made among the kinsfolk that whoever does not go out to 
meet the Lord is fined five hundred. It was only from fear 
of the kinsfolk's compact that I, honoured Ananda, went out 
to meet the Lord." Then the venerable Ananda was dis- 
appointed and thought : " How can this Roja the Malla speak 
thus ? " II 2 II 

Then the venerable Ananda approached the Lord ; having 
approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a 
respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful 
distance, the venerable Ananda spoke thus to the Lord : 
" Lord, this Roja the Malla is a distinguished, weU-known man. 
Surely the faith^ in this dhamma and discipline of well-known 
men like this is very efficacious. ^ It were well. Lord, if the 
Lord acted in such a way that Roja the Malla could have faith 
in this dhamma and discipline." 

" But, Ananda, it is not difficult for a Truthfinder (to do) 
that by which Roja the Malla could have faith in this dhamma 
and discipline." || 3 || 

Then the Lord, having suffused Roja the Malla with a mind 
of love,^ rising from his seat, entered a dwelling-place. Then 
Roja the Malla, suffused by the Lord with a mind of love, 
even as young calves (follow) kine, so having approached 
dwelling-place after dwelling-place, ceU after cell, he asked the 
monks : " Where, honoured sirs, is this Lord staying at present. 



^ bahukata. VA. 1103 says this means, " I have not come here out of 
respect for and belief in the awakened one and the rest " (i.e. dhamma and 
the Order). 

* pasada. This phrase is the same as that put into the mouth of 
Anathapindika concerning Prince Jeta, CV. VI. 4. 10. 

' mahiddhiya. Here having no connection with psychic powers. Cf. iddha, 
effective, at Vin. iv. 50, 54, 313. 

* See Mrs. Rhys Davids, What was the Original Gospel in Buddhism ? 
p. 92 ff., Sakya, p. 222 ff.. Outlines, p. 30. Amity, metta, is the first of 
the brahm.avikdras. 

2A 



342 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

the perfected one, the fully awakened one ? For I long to see 
this Lord, perfected one, all awakened one."^ 

" This,2 friend Roja, [247] is his dwelling-place, the door 
is closed ; having approached quietly, having entered the 
verandah^ (but) without crossing it, having coughed, tap on 
the door-bolt.* The Lord will open the door to you." || 4 || 

Then Roja the Malla, having quietly approached that 
dweUing-place with its closed door, having entered the verandah 
(but) not crossing it, having coughed, tapped on the bolt. 
The Lord opened the door. Then Roja the Malla, having 
entered the dwelling-place, having greeted the Lord, sat down 
at a respectful distance. The Lord talked a progressive talk^ 
to Roja the Malla as he was sitting down at a respectful distance, 
that is to say talk on giving, talk on moral habit, talk on heaven, 
he explained the peril, the vanity, the depravity of pleasures 
of the senses, the advantage in renouncing (them). When the 
Lord knew that the mind of Roja the Malla was ready, 
malleable, devoid of the hindrances, uplifted, pleased, then he 
explained to him that teaching on dhamma which the awakened 
ones have themselves discovered : ill, uprising, stopping, the 
Way. And as a clean cloth without black specks will easily 
take dye, even so as he was (sitting) on that very seat 
dhamma-wision, dustless, stainless, arose to Roja the Malla, 
that " whatever is of the nature to uprise, all that is of the 
nature to stop ". Then Roja the Malla, as one who had seen 
dhamma, attained dhamma, known dhamma, plunged into 
dhamma, who had crossed over doubt, put away uncertainty, 
who had attained without another's help to full confidence in 
the teacher's instruction, spoke thus to the Lord : 

• As at M. ii. 119, A. v. 65 ; cf. D. i. 89. 

• As at jD. i. 89, spoken by monks to Ambattha ; M. ii. 119, ^. v. 65 by 
monks to Pasenadi. 

• alinda, terrace or verandah in front of the door of a dwelling-place. 
Coomaraswamy questions this meaning {Ind. Architectural Terms, J.A.O.S.. 
Vol. 48, No. 3, p. 252) as used by Geiger in Mahavamsa transLa., p. 246. 
Geiger cites D. i. 89 ( = above passage) as evidence that alinda " is the terrace 
before the house-door ". There is also the word pamukha meaning verandah 
as at Vin. iv. 45. But DA. 252 = MA. iii. 351 explain alinda by pamukha. 
Alinda allowed at Vin. ii. 153, while at Vin. ii. 169 Visakha wanted to build 
a palace with an alinda supported on pillzirs with elephant capitals 
(hatthinakha) ; in this passage therefore alinda may have the meaning of 
a gallery or balcony. 

• «ggV«. bolt or crossbar, but explained at DA. 252 = MA. iii. 351 by 
kavata, i.e. the door itself, that which closes the aperture. 

• As at Vin. i. 15. 



36.5—7] MAHAVAGGA VI 343 

" It were well, Lord, if the masters might receive the requis- 
ites of robes, almsfood, lodgings, medicines for the sick only 
from me, not from others." 

" But those, Roja, who with the knowledge of a learner, 
with the vision of a learner have seen dhamma, as you have 
done, would also think : ' Now indeed the masters should 
receive the requisites of robes, sdmsfood, lodgings, medicines 
for the sick only from us, not from others '. Well then, Roja, 
they shall receive them from you as well as from others," || 5 || 

Now at that time in Kusinara a succession of meals of 
sumptuous foods Came to be arranged.^ Then because Roja 
the Malla did not obtain a tum,^ he thought : " Suppose I were 
to look into the refectory and prepare that which I do not see 
in the refectory ? "* Then Roja the Malla, looking into the 
refectory, did not see two things : vegetables* and solid food 
(made) with flour. ** Then Roja the Malla approached the 
venerable Ananda ; having approached, he spoke thus to the 
venerable Ananda : 

" Now, honoured Ananda, it occurred to me because I did 
not obtain a turn : ' Suppose I were to look into the refectory 
and prepare that which I do not see in the refectory ? ' So I, 
honoured Ananda, looking into the refectory, did not see two 
things : vegetables and solid food (made) with floiu". If I, 
honoured Ananda, were to prepare vegetables and solid food 
(made) with flour, would the Lord accept them from me ? " 

" Well then, Roja, I will inquire of the Lord." || 6 || 

Then the venerable Ananda told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " Well then, Ananda, let him prepare them." 
(Ananda said :) " Well then, Roja, prepare them." Then Roja 

* As at Vin. i. 57 (at Rajagaha), Vin. ii. 1 19, iv. 75 (at Vesali). " Succession 
of meals " is bhatta-patipati. Patipati is succession, order ; but " turn " 
(place in the succession) is the better English rendering in the next sentence 
above and at Vin. i. 220 (above, p. 300). Cf. patipdtiya, one after the other, 
successively, in order, at Vin. iv. 91. 

* patipati. » Cf. VI. 24. 2-4. « 4aka, as above in VI. 35. 6. 

' pittha-khadaniya. P.E.D. gives " ' flour-eatables ', i.e. pastry ". But 
we cannot assume that the only thing made with flour is pastry. Khddaniya 
has two meanings, the technical one of " solid food ", and the untechnical one 
of what may be eaten, edible. The definition of solid food, khddaniya, 
at Vin. iv. 83 by the exclusion of soft foods and certain medicines raises 
the question whether in many cases where khddaniya occurs it should not 
be translated as " solid " food in preference to " edible ". Thus at Vin. 
i. 215 we should get " solid food that is fruit " (or " fruit that is solid food ") 
and not " edible fruit". VA. 1193 explains pitthakhddahiy a as pitthamaya 
khddaniya, " solid food (or something edible) made with flour ". 



344 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

the Malla towards the end of that night having had a quantity 
of vegetables and soHd food (made) with flour prepared, brought 
them to the Lord, saying : " Lord, may the Lord accept from 
me vegetables and solid food (made) with flour." 

" Well then, Roja, give them to the monks." The monks, 
being scrupulous, [248] did not accept them. (The Lord said :) 
"Accept them, monks, make use of them." || 7 || 

Then Roja the Malla, having with his own hand served and 
satisfied the Order of monks with the awakened one at its head 
with a quantity of vegetables and solid food (made) with flour, 
sat down at a respectful distance when the Lord had washed 
his hand^ and had withdrawn his hand from his bowl. The 
Lord, rising from his seat, departed, having gladdened, rejoiced, 
roused, delighted Roja the Malla with talk on dhamma as he 
was sitting down at a respectful distance. Then the Lord on 
this occasion, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, 
saying : 

" I allow you, monks, all (kinds of) vegetables^ and all (kinds 
of) solid food (made) with flour." || 8 || 36 || 

Then the Lord having stayed in Kusinara for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Atuma' together with the 
large Order of monks, with the twelve hundred and fifty monks. 
Now at that time a certain (person), formerly a barber,* who 
had gone forth when old, was living in Atuma. He had two 
boys, sweet-voiced,^ intelligent," skilled, accomplished in their 

1 dhdtahattha, as above, e.g. MV. VI. 35. 4. 

« See VI. 35. 6 where the juice of vegetables forms an exception to an 
" allowance ". VA . 1 103 says " whatever is a vegetable, whether it is cooked 
or not with ghee ". 

' Mentioned also at D. ii. 131. 

* vu4dhapabbajito nahapitapubbo, identified by Bu. at DA. 599 with 
the Subhadda mentioned at D. ii. 162 who felt relief at the Lord's death. 
In neither the D. passage nor above is he called dyasma, the venerable, and 
D.P.P.N. says that at the time of the Buddha's visit to Atuma he had been 
a sdmatiera. DA . 599 f . refers to the above Vin. episode at some length. 

» maHjuka. I see no reason to object, as does Vin. Texts ii. 140 (q.v. n. 2), 
to Bu's exegesis as madhuravacana, sweet-voiced. 

• patibhdneyyaka, explained at VA. 1103 as "endowed with patibhana 
in their own craft ". Here again Vin. Texts ii. 140, n. 3 objects to Bu's 
exegesis, and translates as " skilled in discourse ". Cf. A. i. 25, patibhdney- 
yakdnatfi (of Radha), translated at G.S. i. 21 as " of impromptu speakers ". 
Childers, besides giving " understanding, intelligence, wisdom ; readiness 
or confidence of speech, promptitude, wit ", refers to Jd. i. 60 and translates 
patibhdna as " skill ", a rendering followed by Rhys Davids in Bud. Birth 
Stories, p. 79. The whole Vin, context above suggests the meaning of 
" persuasive ". 



37.1—4] MAHAVAGGA VI 345 

craft/ in the barber's profession (as learnt from) their own 
teachers. 2 || 1 1| 

Then that (man) who had gone forth when old' heard : 
" They say that the Lord is coming to Atuma together with 
a large Order of monks, with twelve hundred and fifty monks ". 
Then that (man) who had gone forth when old spoke thus 
to his boys : " It is said, my dears,* that the Lord is coming 
to Atuma together with a large Order of monks, with twelve 
hundred and fifty monks. Do you go, my dears, and taking 
a barber's equipment,^ tour from house to house for ndli 
measures of offerings, « and collect salt and oil and husked rice 
and solid food, and when the Lord comes we will make him 
a conjey drink." || 2 || 

" Very well, father," and these boys, having answered him 
who had gone forth when old in assent, taking a barber's 
equipment toured from house to house for nd/i measures of 
offerings, collecting salt and oil and husked rice and solid food. 
Those people who, having seen these sweet-voiced, intelligent 
boys, but had not wanted to have (offerings) made, even they 
had them made, and having had them made, also gave much. 
So these boys collected much salt and oil and husked rice and 
solid food, jl 3 II 

Then the Lord, walking on tour, in due course arrived at 
Atuma. The Lord stayed there in Atuma in the House with 



^ At Vin. iv. 6 the barber's is placed among the " low crafts ". 

* sake acariyake. Cf. sakam dcariyakam uggahetvd at D. ii. 104. DA. ii. 
556 explains as " the speech of their own teachers ", attano dcariyavddam. 

• Vin. Texts ii. 140 now and henceforth calls him " dotard " on the grounds 
that " it is impossible to repeat this long phrase " (translated at Vin. Texts 
ii. 140 in the first instance as " a certain man who had entered the Order 
in his old age "), and that vuddhapabbajita " connotes contempt, and even 
censure ", thus justifying the translation " dotard ". At A. iii. 78 there are 
two not entirely disparate lists of things hard to attain by one gone forth 
in old age. But it would be against the whole spirit of Buddhism to censure 
or penalise anyone for not having entered the Order when young. 

* tdta, not tdtd, although more than one person is being addressed, as 
pointed out at Vin. Texts ii. 141, n. i. But tdtd at DA. 599 where this passage 
is quoted. 

» khurabhafi^a. That this is not "a barbers' lad" (Vin. Texts ii. 141) 
is made clear at Vin. ii. 134 : "I allow a razor [khura), a whetstone (khurasild), 
a razor-case {khurasipdtikd), a piece of felt (namataka), a whole barber's equip- 
ment (sabba khurabhanda)." It is a shaving set, the outfit for a razor." 

• ndliydvdpakena. VA. 1103 says ndliyd ca dvdpakena ca, and adds that 
dvdpaka is also wherever they offer [dvapanti), deposit what is received. 
On ndll see B.D. i. 12, n. 2 ; 103, n. i. 



346 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

the threshing-floor.i Then he who had gone forth when old 
having had a quantity of conjey prepared towards the end 
of that night, brought it to the Lord, saying : " Lord, may 
the Lord accept conjey from me." [249] Now Truth-finders 
(sometimes) ask knowing, ^ and knowing (sometimes) do not 
ask ; they ask, knowing the right time (to ask), and they do 
not ask, knowing the right time (when not to ask). Truth- 
finders ask about what belongs to the goal, not about what 
does not belong to the goal ; there is bridge-breaking for 
Truth-finders in whatever does not belong to the goal. 
Awakened ones. Lords, question monks concerning two 
matters, either : " ShaU we preach dhamma ? " or, " Shall we 
lay down a rule of training for disciples ? " Then the Lord 
spoke thus to him who had gone forth when old : 

" Where is this conjey from, monk ? " Then he who had 
gone forth when old told this matter to the Lord. || 4 || 

The awakened one, the Lord rebuked him, saying : " It is 
not suitable, foolish man, it is not fitting, it is not becoming, 
it is not worthy of a recluse, it is not allowable, it is not to be 
done. For how can you, foolish man, one who has gone forth, 
cause (others) to take what is not allowable ? It is not, foolish 
man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased. . . ." And 
having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed 
the monks, saying : 

" Monks, one who has gone forth should not make (others) 
take what is not allowable. Whoever should make (others) 
take (these things), there is an offence of wrong-doing. Nor, 
monks, should one who was formerly a barber carry about a 
barber's equipment. Whoever should carry it about, there is 
an offence of wrong-doing." || 5 || 37 || 

Then the Lord, having stayed at Atuma for as long as he 
found suiting, set out on tour for Savatthi. In due course, 
walking on tour, he arrived at Savatthi. The Lord stayed 
there at Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapin^ika's 

* Reading here and in Siam. edn. Bhusd,g3xa. Sinh. edn. and D. ii. 131 
read Bhus&gSra, as also D.P.P.N. under Bhus&g&ra, but Bhus&gara under 
AtumS, ; cf. bhusdgdra at A. i. 241. DA. ii. 569, AA. ii. 355 explain by 
khala-sdla, hall with a threshing-floor, which I follow. Bhus4gara would mean 
the House with the Ornaments. 

» As at Vin. i. 59, 158, iii. 6, etc. 



38.I--40.I] MAHAVAGGAVI 347 

monastery. Now at that time there was a great quantity of solid 
food that was fruit^ at Savatthi. Then it occurred to monks : 
" Now, what solid food that is fruit is allowed by the Lord, 
what is not allowed ? " They told this matter to the Lord. 
He said : " I allow, monks, all solid food that is fruit." 
Ill II 38 II 

Now at that time seeds belonging to an Order were sown 
on ground belonging to an individual, and seeds belonging to 
an individual were sown on ground belonging to an Order. 
They told this matter to the Lord. He said : " When, monks, 
seeds belonging to an Order are sown on ground belonging to 
an individual, having given back a portion,^ (the rest) may be 
made use of. When seeds belonging to an individual are sown 
on ground belonging to an Order, having given back a portion, 
(the rest) may be made use of." || i || 39 || 

Now at that time scruples arose in the monks as to this 
and that occasion, thinking : " Now, what is permitted by 
the Lord ? What is not permitted ? " They told this matter 
to the Lord, He said : " Whatever, monks, has not been 
objected to by me, saying : ' This is not allowable ', if it fits 
in with what is not allowable, if it goes against what is allow- 
able, that is not allowable to you. Whatever, monks, has not 
been objected to by me, sa5dng : * This is not allowable ', [250] 
if it fits in with what is allowable, if it goes against what is 
not allowable, that is allowable to you. And whatever, monks, 
has not been permitted by me, saying : * This is allowable ', 
if it fits in with what is not allowable, if it goes against what 
is allowable, that is not allowable to you. Whatever, monks, 
has not been permitted by me, saying : ' This is allowable ', 
if it fits in with what is allowable, if it goes against what is 
not allowable, that is allowable to you." || 1 1| 



^ phalakhadaniya. Cf. above, VI. 17. 8, 9 ; VI. 21. i, and cf. pitthakhadaniya 
and note at above VI. 36. 6. 

* bhdgam datva. There is no justification for Vin. Texts ii. 143 " half 
the produce, O bhikkhus, you may have ". VA. 1103 says " having given 
a portion that is a tenth. This, they say, is an old practice in India, therefore 
having made ten shares, one share should be given to the owners of the 
ground ", So presumably if the Order is the ovmer it gets one share. 



348 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Then it occurred to monks : " Now, is (food that may be 
eaten) during a watch of the night^ allowable with (food that 
may be eaten) during a short period, ^ or it is not allowable ? 
Now, is (food that may be eaten) during seven days^ allowable 
with (food that may be eaten) during a short period or is it not 
allowable ? Now, is (food that may be eaten) during life* 
allowable with (food that may be eaten) during a short period 
or is it not allowable ? Now, is (food that may be eaten) during 
seven days allowable with (food that may be eaten) during 
a watch of the night or is it not allowable ? Now, is (food 
that may be eaten) during life allowable with (food that may 
be eaten) during a watch of the night or is it not allowable ? 
Now, is (food that may be eaten) during life allowable with 
(food that may be eaten) during seven days or is it not 
allowable ? " They told this matter to the Lord. || 2 || 

He said : " Monks, (food that may be eaten) during a watch 
of the night with (food that may be eaten) during a short period 
is allowable at the right time^ on the day it is accepted ; it is 
not allowable at the wrong time. ^ Monks, (food that may be 
eaten) during seven days with (food that may be eaten) during 
a short period is allowable at the right time on the day it is 
accepted ; it is not allowable at the wrong time. Monks, 
(food that may be eaten) during life with (food that may be 
eaten) during a short period is allowable at the right time on 
the day it is accepted ; it is not allowable at the wrong time. 
Monks, (food that may be eaten) duiing seven days with (food 
that may be eaten) during a watch of the night is allowable 
in a watch of the night on the day it is accepted ; it is not 
allowable after the watch of the night is ended. Monks, (food 
that may be eaten) during life with (food that may be eaten) 
during a watch of the night is allowable in a watch of the 
night on the day it is accepted ; it is not allowable after the 
watch of the night is ended. Monks, (food that may be eaten) 
during life with (food that may be eaten) during seven days 



• yamakalika, see B.D. ii. 330. n. i. These " foods " really refer to 
medicines. 

■ ydvakalika, see B.D. ii. 330, n. i. 

• scUtdhakalika, see B.D. ii. 330, n. 2. 

• yavajlvika, see B.D. ii. 330, n. 3. 

• Before noon from sunrise. 

• After noon until sunrise, Vin. iv. 86, 166. 



40.3] MAHAVAGGAVI 349 

is allowable for (the length of) seven days ; it is not allowable 
after the seven days are ended." || 3 I| 40 || 

The Section on Medicines : the Sixth 

In this Section the itenis are one hundred and six items. 
This is its key : 

In the autumn, also at the wrong time, tallow, roots, (they 

had need of) what was pounded off, 
of astringent decoctions, leaves, fruits, resinj salt, and dung, / 
Chunam, sifter,^ and flesh, ointment, powder, 
ointment-box, all kinds, ^ not covered, ^ sticks, case for sticks, / 
A bag, strap at the edge, thread, oil for the head, and the nose, 
nose-spoon, and steam, a pipe, and a lid, a bag,^ / 
Decoction of oil, and strong drink, too much, an ointment, 
a vessel, sweating, and all kinds of herbs, thereupon the great 

(sweating), hemp-water, / 
Water- vat, and blood, a horn, foot-unguent, 
foot-salve, lancet, and astringent (water), sesamum paste, a 

compress, / [251] 
Piece of cloth, and mustard-powder, fumigation, and crystal, 
oil for the sore, linen bandage, and the irregular things, and 

what is (formally) received, / 
A (decoction of) dung, is making, and mud turned up by the 

plough, lye, urine and yeUow myrobalan, 
perfumes, and a purgative, clarified, unprepared, prepared- 
unprepared, / 
IMeat-broth, (mountain-) slope, monastery attendant, and for 

seven days,* 
sugar, kidney-bean, sour gruel, cooking for oneself, one may 

cook again, ^ / 
He allowed it however,* short of cilmsfood, and fruit, sesaminn, 

solid food, 
before a meal, fever, and discharged, an ulcer, / 



^ Reading here calinl, above cdlani. 

* Reading here ucca-parutd. 

* Reading thavi. Cing. edn. reads yamakatthavl, double bag (13. 2). 

* Cing. edn. drama, satd pancahi, referring to the five hundred monastery 
attendants of 15. 4. 

* pund pace, replacing the punapakd of VI. 17. 6. 

* pundnwRndsi. 



350 BOOK OF DISCIPLIx^E 

And clyster-treatment ajid Suppi(ya),i and indeed human flesh, 
elephants, horses, and a dog, a snake, lion, tiger, leopard, / 
And the flesh of bears (and) hyenas, and a turn, and conjey, 
a certain one who was young, sugar, Sunidha, rest-house, / 
And Ambapali, the Licchavis, the Ganges, the Koti(gama) talk 

on truths, 
killed on purpose, he objected when (they were) well off again 

for food, / 
A cloud, Yasoja, and Men^aka, products of the cow, and 

provisions for a journey, 
Keni(ya), mango, rose-apple, plantain, banana, honey, grape, 

edible lotus root, / 
Phdrusakas, vegetables, flour, the barber at Atuma, 
fruit and seed at Savatthi, and On what occasion ?, as to the 

right time. [252] 



^ Reading Suppi, as below Koti and Keni. 



351 



THE GREAT DIVISION (MAHAVAGGA) VII 

At that time the awakened one, the Lord was staying at 
Savatthi in the Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's monastery. 
Now at that time as many as thirty monks of Pava/ all forest- 
dwellers, all almsmen, aU wearers of rag-robes, ^ aU wearers of 
the three robes,^ going to Savatthi so as to see the Lord when 
the beginning of the rains was approaching, were unable to 
reach Savatthi for the begijming of the rains ; they entered 
upon the rains on the way, at Saketa. They spent the rains 
in a state of longing,* thinking : " The Lord is staying close ^ 
to us, six yojanas from here, but we are not getting a chance 
to see the Lord." 

Then these monks having, after the lapse of three months, 
kept the rains, after the Invitation" had been carried out, while 
the god was raining, while waters were gathering, while swamps 



* timsamattd Patheyyakd bhikkhu, mentioned also at S. ii. 187, where called 
Paveyyaka, and also described a s sabbe sasamyojand, all (still) with the fetters ; 
it is said that they all became freed from the dsavas (cankers) with no 
substrate remaining after the Lord had given them a discourse on the 
incalculability of the beginning of this faring-on, anamataggdyatn samsdro, 
which is part of the A namatagga-samyutta. This event is referred to at VA . 
1 106 ; and also at DhA. ii. 32 (called anamataggadhammadesand), from which 
it appears that Dhp. 65 was uttered in connection with these monks. See 
also above, p. 31, n. 2 for their identification with the timsamattd bhaddavaggiya 
sahdyakd. 

D.P.P.N. takes Pavejryaka (also a variant reading at Vin. i. 253) as the 
right one and says that it is the " name given to the inhabitants of Pava ". 
Pava is mentioned at e.g. D. ii. 162. At D. iii. 207 it is called a city of the 
Mallas, the people being referred to as Paveyyaka Malla. According to 
VA. 1 105 Patheyya is a kingdom situated to the west of the Kosala country. 
See Vin. Texts ii. 146, n. 

* Cf. Vin. iii. 230 ff., where it is specifically stated in an " allowance " 
ascribed to Gotama that the first three of these types of monks may, if they 
so wish, come up to see the Lord. Cf. also M. iii. 40 ff. These three, 
combined with the monk who is teclvariko, wearer of the three robes, occur 
at M. i. 214 ; and cf. A. i. 38. These four practices [anga) are explained 
in much detail at Vism. 59 ff. At ^. ii. 26 it is said that " among robes, 
rag-robes are trifling, easy to get, blameless ", quoted at Vism. 64. 

* Prescribed at Nissag. I. The three robes would be made of rags. See 
also MV. VIII. 12. 

* ukkanthitarupd. 

' dsanneva, right near. 

* Pavdrarid ; see MV. IV ; also B.D. i. 283, n. 5 ; G.S. iv. 183, n. 3. 



352 BOOK OF DISCIPLIME 

were forming/ with drenched robes and in a state of weariness 
approached Savatthi, the Jeta Grove, Anathapindika's monas- 
tery, the Lord ; having approached, having greeted the Lord, 
they sat down at a respectful distance. || i || 

Now it is the custom^ for awakened ones, for Lords to 
exchange friendly greetings with in-coming monks. So the 
Lord spoke thus to these monks : 

" I hope, monks, that things went well with you, I hope 
you had enough to support life, I hope that, in unity, being 
on friendly terms and harmonious, you spent a comfortable 
rainy season and did not go short of almsfood ? " 

" Things did go well with us. Lord, we had enough to support 
life. Lord, and in unity we. Lord, being on friendly terms and 
harmonious, spent the rainy season^ and did not go short 
of almsfood. Here are we. Lord, as many as thirty monks of 
Pava, coming to Savatthi so as to see the Lord, (but) when 
the beginning of the rains was approaching, we were unable 
to reach Savatthi for the beginning of the rains ; we entered 
on the rains on the way, at Saketa. We spent the rains. Lord, 
in a state of longing for you, [253] thinking : ' The Lord is 
staying close to us, six yojanas from here, but we are not 
getting a chance to see the Lord.' Then we. Lord, having, 
after the lapse of three months, kept the rains, and after the 
Invitation had been carried out, while the god was raining, 
while waters were gathering, while swamps were forming, with 
drenched robes and in a state of weariness came along on the 
journey." || 2 || 

Then the Lord, on this occasion, having given dhamma-taXk*' 
addressed the monks, saying : 

" I allow you, monks, to make up kathina-c\oth} when monks 
have completed the rains. Five (things) wiU be allowable to 
you, monks, when the kathina-cloihs have been made up : going 



^ udakacikkhcdle. 

« Cf. Vin. iii. 88 {B.D. i. 154). 

' VA. 1 106 says that on account of their longing to see the Lord, they 
did not say that they had spent a " comfortable " rainy season. 

* According to VA. 1106 this was the talk on the incalculabihty of the 
beginning of this faring-on, see above, p. 351, n. i. 

» kathinam attharitum, i.e. the formal or ceremonial making of the 
Aa/Aino^loth, given by the laity, into robes. See B.D. ii. 5, n. i ; 26, n. 3. 



1.3—4] MAHAVAGGAVII 353 

(to families for alms) without having asked for permission/ 
walking (for alms) not taking the three robes,^ a group-meal,' 
as many robes as you require,* and whatever robe-material 
accrues^ there, that will be for them." These five (things) will 
be allowable to you, monks, when the kathina-cloths have been 
made. And thus, monks, should kathina-cloth be made : jj 3 || 
" The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent 
monk, saying : ' Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. 
This material for kathina-cloth'^ has accrued to the Order. If 
it seems right to the Order, the Order should give this material 
for kathina-cloth to the monk so and so for making kathina- 
cloth. ^ This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen 
to me. This material for kathina-cloth has accrued to the 
Order. The Order is giving this material for kathina-cloth 
to the monk so and so for making kathina-cloth. If the giving 



1 andmantacdra. VA. 1106 says that " so long as the kathina privileges are 
not removed, it is allowable to go (to families for alms) anamantetvd ", i.e. 
not having asked for permission, " and it will be no offence in regard to the 
Carittasikkhapada ", i.e. Pac. 46. In this Pacittiya, if a monk, although 
invited, nimantita, but not having asked (for permission, andpucchd) if a monk 
be there, should call upon families, except at a right time, there is a pacittiya 
offence. One of the right times is the time of making robes, although the 
making up of the kathina-cloth. is not specifically mentioned in this Pacittiya 
rule. Vin. Texts ii. 150, n. i says that dmanteti must be equal to dpucchati ; 
while CPD, under andmantacdra, refers to Vin. iv. 100, santam bhikkhum 
andpucchd. The Sk. Dictionaries give " invitation " and " interrogation " 
among the meanings of dmantrana. The word occurs at A. iii. 259; A A. 
iii. 330 quotes Vin. iv. 100. 

• asamdddnacdra. VA. 1107 says " walking not taking with one the 
three robes, ticivaram asamdddya, the meaning is that it will be allowable 
to be away, separated from a robe ". This therefore is a relaxation of Nissag. 
II. At Vin. i. 298 it is also said that an outer cloak may be laid aside when 
the kathina cloth has been made. 

' ganabhojana ; thus a relaxation of Pac. XXXII, although as the 
formulation of this rule developed, one of the exceptions to its general terms 
came to be the legality of eating a group-meal at the time of making robes. 

* ydvadatthacivaram. VA. 1107 says that as many robes as are required 
will be allowable as long as they are not allotted, not assigned. Cf. Nissag. I 
where it is said that an extra robe may be worn for at most ten days when 
the kathina privileges have been removed and the robes settled. " Till that 
has taken place, a Bhikkhu may use (temporarily, and without actually 
appropriating them) as many robes as he likes " (Vin. Texts ii. 151, n. 3, q.v.). 
According to Vism. 64 f. the strict wearer of the three robes, teclvarika, 
should not accept a fourth robe, which, to less ascetic monks, would be of use 
when washing and dyeing the set of three robes. 

• clvaruppdda. 

« nesant bhavissati. VA. 1107 says that this may be the robe of a dead 
monk, or a gift to the Order, or a robe that accrues to the Order in any way. 

^ kathinadussa. 

' VA. 1 1 09 says that neither a samgha. Order, nor a gana, group, makes 
the kathina cloth, but an individual. 



354 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

of this material for kathina-cloth to the monk so and so for 
making kathina-cloth is pleasing to the venerable ones, let them 
be silent. He to whom it is not pleasing should speak. This 
material for kathina-cloth is given by the Order to the monk 
so and so for making kathina-cloth. It is pleasing to the Order, 
therefore they are silent. Thus do I understand this.' || 4 || 

" Monks, kathina-cloth becomes made thus, not made thus. 
And how, monks, does kathina-cloth become not made ? 
Kathina-cloth does not become made only by marking it,* 
kathina-cloth does not become made only by washing it ; 
kathina-cloth does not become made only by calculating (the 
number of) robes (that it will make)^ ; kathina-cloth does not 
become made only by cutting it ; kathina-cloth does not become 
made only by tacking it* ; kathina-cloth does not become made 
only by making the lengths* ; kathina-cloth does not become 
made only by marking with a piece of cloth ^ ; kathina-cloth 
does not become made only by strengthening the work' ; 
kathina-cloth does not become made only by making a braiding' ; 
kathina-cloth does not become made only by making a binding*; 

* ullikhitamattena, according to VA. iiio for the purpose of measurement 
lengthwise and across. The monk marks it, ullikhati, with his nails, showing 
the measurement of each strip, padesa, so that he can recognise it. 

* clvaravicarafiamattena, VA. mo saying, "let it be for five or seven 
nine or eleven ". 

• bandhanamattend ti moghasuttakdropanamattena, so VA. mo, i.e. by 
putting false threads in (the material). Vin. Texts ii. 153 reading " when 
it has only been pieced together ", takes it that the false threads are " put 
in the cloth to show where it is to be cut or sewn ". But in the series of actions 
necessary for completing the making of Aa/Atna-cloth " cutting ", or cutting 
out, has been done already. Moghasuttaka, allowed at Vin. ii. 116, is defined 
by Bu. in an exegesis on Culavagga V. 11. 3, see VA. 1206. Cf. 
bandhanamatta above, p. 260, n. 2 ; and also at Vin. ii. 135 although here it seems 
to have a different meaning. 

• ovattikakarai^amattend ti moghasuttakdnusarena dighasibbitamattena, so 
VA. mo, i.e. only by sewing a long (strip) by following the " false threads ". 
Ovaftika allowed at Vin. i. 290. 

* kan^Hsakaranamattend ti muddhiyapafabandhanamattena, so VA. mo, 
i.e. only by putting on a piece of cloth as a sign. Kajt4ilsaka allowed at 
Vin. i. 290, on which VA. 11 28 says katt4'i*sakatfi vuccati muddikd, a mark 
(or sign) (the disfigurement) is called kafi^usaka. 

• dalhikammakaraftantattena. This is apparently done by sewing the cloths, 
cimUikd, together, VA. mo ; Vin. Texts ii. 153 reading " when it has only 
been made strong (in the seams) ". Dalhikamma allowed at Vin. i. 290. 

' anuvdtakara'fiamattena. It appears from VA. mo that the anuvdta was 
put along the back (of the cloth). See Vin. iv. 121 ( = B.D. ii. 409 q.v. n. 7.) 
where the Corny, on the rule for disfiguring a new robe says there is no offence 
if it is on a braiding, anuvdta. Anuvdta allowed at Vin. ii. 116. 

' paribhaifi^akaraxiamattena The paribhap4<^ appears to have been put 
inside the cloth Again see Vin. iv. 121, and B.D. ii. 409, n. 8. Allowed 
at Vin. ii. 116. 



1.5] MAHAVAGGAVII 355 

kathina-cloth does not become made only by patching^ ; kathina- 
cloth does not become made only by dyeing the garment* ; 
kaihina-cloih does not become made by insinuation^ ; kathina- 
cloth does not become made by roundabout talking* ; kathina- 
cloth does not become made by its being temporary ^ ; kathina- 
cloth does not become made by postponement^ ; kathina-cloth 

1 ovaddheyyakaravtamattena. VA. iiii says, " only by putting it on the 
in-coming cloth. Or taking cloth from a kathina-rdbe, only by putting the 
cloth on another kathina-rohe ". The v. I. for this last is akathinacivara, 
what is not Aa/Ai«a-cloth. The whole meaning is obscure. It perhaps refers 
to the sanghatl, the outer cloak, which had to be made of double cloth. On 
the other hand ovaddheyya may mean " patching ". 

• kambalamaddanamattena. Kambala, usually a garment or blanket made 
of wool, is allowed at Vin. i. 281. But the kathina material was of cotton 
cloth. Maddana too usually means crushing or kneading. But VA. iiii 
says " throwing it once into the dye, raj ana, for the colour of ivory, for 
the colour of withered leaves ". Monks' robes are of the colour of old ivory, 
and russets, yellows, browns and reds. 

» nimittakatena. P.E.D. gives for nimittant karoti, " to pick out the aim, 
to mark out ", and Childers " to drop a hint ". There is nothing in the Comy. 
to support the rendering given at Vin. Texts ii. 154, and the alternative 
suggestion put forward, loc. cit. n. 5 is more pertinent : " Or perhaps according 
to some commentators, when it has been decided to accept the gift as a kathina, 
that is, when it has been decided that the cloth is of a suitable kind to make 
robes out of." For VA. iiii, defining nimittakatena, says " ' 1 will make 
a kathina (-robe) with this cloth (dussena) ', this is called nimittakatena. 
For it is called just this in the Parivara " (see Vin. v. 172 which defines 
nimittakamma as nimittant karoti imind dussena kathinam attharissdmi ti). 
" But " VA, IIII continues, " in some commentaries it is said that he (i.e. 
the monk) says, " this cloth (or cloak, sataka) is excellent, it is possible to make 
a kathina (-robe) with this " ; this means : having thus insinuated (dropped 
a hint, or made a sign, nimittakammarn katvd) as to getting it." C.P.D. 
gives for a-nimittakata, " of which no decision has been made ". 

Vism. 23 = Vbh. 352 asks, " What here is nemittakata ? " i.e. insinuation. 
The answer is (following trans, at P. Purity, i. 27) " What to others is a sign, 
nimitta, making a sign, nimittakamma, a hint, obhdsa, giving a hint, roundabout 
talk, winding speech, parikathd (see next term in Vin. text and next note) 
on the part of one of evil desires ", etc. Vism. 28 explains nimitta and 
nimittakamma so as to leave no doubt that by them " hinting " or 
" insinuating " is meant. Cf also VbhA. 483. 

* parikathdkatena. VA. iiii says "he ought to give kathina cloth, 
the benefactor giving kathina-cloth produces much merit ", thus is meant 
" by making parikathd ", roundabout talk. At Vism. 23 = Vbh. 353 
parikathd is included in definition of nemittikata, see previous note. It is 
defined at Vism 29 = VbhA . 484 as " speaking round and round until one gets 
what is wanted". Vin. v. 172 says "parikathd means that he makes 
roundabout talk, saying, ' I will bring forth Aa//una-cloth by this roundabout 
talk ' ". C.P.D. gives for a-parikathdkata, not " obtained by speaking of 
its worth ". 

* kukkukatend ti tdvakdlikena, VA. ini. Vin. v. 172 says that it is called 
a gift that is not appropriated. 

• sannidhikatena , so Vin. Texts ii. 154 and P.E.D. Vin. v. 172 = VA. 
IIII says that there are two " postponements " or " storings up ", sannidhi, 
that of karana, doing or making, and that of nicaya, possessions. VA . 1 1 1 1 
further explains, " postponement of doing (or making) is not doing (or making) 
it to-day) putting the doing (or making) to one side ; postponement of 
possessions means that the Order, receiving kathina-cloth. to-day, gives it (to the 
monks) the next day ", Sannidhikata occuis at Vin. iu 270 in reiference to food. 



356 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

does not become made if it has to be abandoned^ ; kathina- 
cloth does not become made if it is not made allowable* ; 
kathtna-cloth does not become made if it is (made) except for 
the outer cloak^ ; [254] kathina-cloth does not become made 
if it is (made) except for the upper robe ; kathina-cloth does 
not become made if it is (made) except for the inner robe ; 
kathina-cloth does not become made unless five parts* or more 
than five parts ^ (of kathina-cloth) are cut out, are hemmed 
together^ on that same day ; kathina-cloth does not become 
made imless the making is by an individual.'' And even if 
kathina-cloth comes to be quite properly made, but if no one 
gives thanks for it standing outside the boundary, ^ thus also 
kathina-cloth comes to be not made. And thus, monks, does 
kathina-cloth come to be not made. || 5 || 

"And how, monks, does kathina-cloth come to be made ? 
Kathina-cloth comes to be made when it is imsoiled' ; kathina- 



• nissaggiyena. Vin. v. 172 = VA. iiii saying " while it is being made 
the dawn breaks ". All the various processes in the making of the kathina 
robes had to be carried out on one and the same day. 

• akappakatena. Cf. Pac. LVIII, where a new robe has to be disfigured 
so that the o'\*Tier can identify it. The three modes of disfigurement consisted 
in applying some kind of smudge {bindu) to the robe. Cf. B.D. ii. 409, n. 5, 
and V,A . 1 1 1 1 anddinnakappabinduna, by not giving the smudge (that makes 
the robe) allowable. 

• aniiatra samghdtiya, if the outer cloak is lacking, not finished. 

• Cf. Vin. i. 287 where each of the -three robes of a monk was allowed 
to be worn chinnaka, cut up into pieces to resemble the divisions of a paddy 
field ; and Vin. i. 297 where it is said that one of the three robes might be worn 
acchinnaka, not cut up. VA . 1 1 1 1 says that five or more parts are to be made 
by taking pieces, showing mahdman^ala-ad^hamandala, i.e. either ciicular 
or semi-circular seams (see C.P.D. under ad^hamandala) 01 " the greater circles 
and the lesser circles " (see Vin. Texts ii. 209 and VA. 1127), or " the seams 
and the short seams " (cf. Vin. i. 287). VA. iiii continues, " thus it (the 
robe) comes to be made with seams (or circles) ; setting that to one side 
there ought not to be another that is not cut up or that is in (only) two, 
three or four pieces ". 

» atirekapancaka , C.P.D. gives " more than one of the five parts ". 

• saman^allkatena, see last note but one. 

' aiinatra puggalassa atthdrd. VA. iiii says "setting to one side the 
maJcing by an individual, it does not become made because of another making 
by either an Order or a group ". It seems that each monk must make up 
the kathina cloth distributed to him by the Order, and not rely upon the Order 
or a group to do so for him ; see above || 4 || and cf. VA . 1 109. 

■ nisslmattho anumodati. VA, iiii merely says, "if he (or, one) gives 
thanks standing, thito, outside, bahu, the boundary of the precincts " (i.e. 
of the residence where the work is being done). Anumodati more likely 
refers to a monk thanking the Order than to an Order thanking the donors 
of the kathina-cloth., for see |i 4 I| where the Order gives the monks the material 
for making into kathina-clotb.. 

• ahaiena, which VA. mi explains by aparibhuttena, not used. 



1.6—7] MAHAVAGGAVII 357 

cloth comes to be made when what is allowable is unsoiled^ ; 
kathina-cloth comes to be made when it is (made) out of pieces 
of cloth^ ; kathina-cloth comes to be made when it is (made) 
out of rag-robes* ; kathina-cloth comes to be made when it is 
(made) out of (bits picked up near) a shop* ; kathina-cloth 
comes to be made if there is no insinuation ; kathina-cloth 
comes to be made if there is no roundabout talking ; kathina- 
cloth comes to be made if it is not temporary ; kathina-cloth 
comes to be made if there is no postponement ; kathina-cloth 
comes to be made if it has not to be abandoned ; kathina-cloth 
comes to be made if it is made allowable ; kathina-cloth comes 
to be made if there is the outer cloak ; kathina-cloth comes 
to be made if there is the upper robe ; kathina-cloth comes 
to be made if there is the inner robe ; kathina-cloth comes to 
be made if five parts or more than five parts are cut out, are 
hemmed together on that same day ; kathina-cloth comes to 
be made if the making is by an individual. And if kathina- 
cloth comes to be quite properly made, and if one gives thanks 
for it standing on the boundary, kathina-cloth thus also comes 
to be made. And thus, monks, does kathina-cloth come to 
be made. || 6 || 

"And how, monks, do the kathina (privileges) become 
removed^ ? Monks, there are these eight grounds^ for the 

^ ahatakappena. VA. iiii says " by washing it once or twice (so as 
to make it) as though unsoiled. 

* pilotikdya, which VA. iiii explains by hatavatthakasatakena, out of a 
cloak or garment which are soiled ; v.l. gatavatthukasdtakena. 

' VA. 1 1 12 says " when rag-robes have accrued in twenty- three fields " ; 
the idea being that a monk must wander about in order to acquire his rags. 
VA., quoting another commentary, says that the meaning there is that 
when a monk who is a rag-robe wearer is touring for alms and rags, colaka, 
then {kathina-cloth. comes to be made) when the robe is made up from the 
rags received. 

* pdpanikena. VA. 1112 saying "if taking pieces of cloth, pilotika, 
dropped at the door of a shop, he gives them for kathina-clotYi., the meaning 
is because of this". Cf. VA. 1128, pdpanike ti antardpanato patitapilotika- 
clvare, robes of piles of cloth taken amidst a shop. At Vism. 62, pdpanika, 
" shop-rag " is included under pamsukula, rag-robes. 

* ubbhatam kathinam. See Nissag. I, II, III, and B.D. ii. p. 5, n. 3 ; 
p. 6, n. 5 ; p. 13, n. 2. 

* mdtikd, channels, headings. See Vin. Texts ii. 157 for these eight grounds 
for the removal of the five kathina privileges being " closely connected " 
with the description in MV. VII. 13 of the two so-called palibodhas. 
" Palibodha seems to mean the continued existence of a claim on the Bhikkhu's 
side to a share in the distribution of the kathina. " There are in this connection 
two palibodhas, that concerned with the monk's residence, dvdsa, and that 
concerned with his robes, civara. The mdtikd are exemphfied in the following 
stories. See also Vin. v. 177 and B.D. ii, p. 5, n. 3 ; p. 6, n. 5. 

2B 



358 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

removal of the kathina (privileges) : that depending on (a 
monk) going away ; that depending on (his robe) being settled* ; 
that depending on his resolves^ (not to have it made up and 
not to come back) ; that depending on (the robe) being lost ; 
that depending on his hearing (of the general removal of the 
privileges in the residence to which he has gone) ; (that depend- 
ing on) the disappointment of his expectation' (that a special 
gift of a robe would be made to him) ; that depending on his 
having crossed the boundary* ; (that depending on) the removal 
(of the kathina privileges) together with (those of the other 
monks) ".6 ||7||l|| 

A monk, after kathina-cloih. has been made, taking a robe 
that is made up,' goes away, thinking: "I will not come 
back ". That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because 
of his going away. "^ 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made, taking robe- 
material ^ goes away. When he has gone outside the boundary, ' 
it occurs to him,^° " I will get this robe-material made up here, 
I will not come back ", and he gets that robe-material made 
up. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of 
(his robes) being settled. 

^ nitthdna. Cf. nittkita, " settled ", B.D. ii. p. 6. 

2 sannitthdna. Word occurs at Jd. i 187, iv. 167 + katva. 

' asdvacchedikd. Cf. B.D. ii. p. 6, n. 4. 

* I.e. of the residence to which Afl/At«a-cloth had been given, and where 
he should have made up his portion. 

* Ed. Vin. Texts ii. 156, n. 4 thinks that this section should have begun 
" the new chapter ". I hold it to be correct as it is, for with it cease the words 
ascribed to Gotama. The stories that follow, VII. 2-12 inclusive, are not 
supposed to have been told by him, but are exemplifications of the grounds 
for removing the kathina privileges, and which some later person or persons 
apparently thought wise to incorporate in the " text ". 

• kataclvara, a robe that is finished, ready to wear. Cf. B.D. ii. p. 6, n. 2. 
' VA .1112 says that in this removal of the kathina privileges on the ground 

of his going away, first the robes-impediment, clvarapalibodha, is cut off, 
afterwards the residence-impediment, dvdsapalibodha. For by going thus, 
the robes-impediment is cut off mside the boundary, the residence-impedi- 
ment when he has crossed the boundary. See also Vin. v. 1 77. 

■ VA. 1 1 12 calls this akataclvara, a robe, or robe-material, that is not 
made up, not ready to wear. 

• VA. 1 1 12, " when he has gone to another neighbouring residence ". 

*» Ibid., " it occurs to him seeing comfortable lodgmgs or the happiness 
of friends. In this removal of the kathina privileges on the ground of (the 
robes) being settled, first the residence-impediment is cut off, fox he thinks, 
' I will not come back ' ; when no more than the thought has arisen, it is 
cut off ". Cf. Vin. v. 178 clvare nitthite clvara-palibodho chijjati, when 
the robes are settled the impediment to robes is cut off. 



2.1—2] MAHAVAGGAVII 359 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away. When he has gone outside the boundary- 
it occurs to him : "I will not get this robe-material made up 
nor will I come back ". That monk's kathina (privileges) are 
removed because of his resolves.^ 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away. When he has gone outside the boundary 
it occurs to him : "I will get this robe-material made up here, 
I will iiot come back ", and he gets that robe-material made 
up, but while that robe-material is being made up, it is lost. 
That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of (the 
robe-material) being lost.^ || i || 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary he gets that robe-material 
made up ; when that robe has been made up,^ he hears : [255] 
" The kathina (privileges) are removed in this residence ". 
That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of his 
hearing (this news).* 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary he gets that robe-material 
made up ; when that robe has been made up, he, thinking 
again and again, " I will come back ", spends the time outside 
(the boundary) until the kathina (privileges) are removed. 
That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of his 
having crossed the boundary. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary he gets that robe-material 
made up ; when that robe is made up, he, thinking again and 
again, " I will come back ", (his return) coincides with^ the 

* VA. 1 113 says " because of the resolves, sannitthdnantike, " I will not 
have this robe-material made up " and " I will not come back ", the two 
impediments are both cut off when no more than these thoughts have arisen ". 
Vin. V. 1 78 says that they are cut off simultaneously. 

* VA. 1 1 13 says of this that first the residence-impediment is cut off; 
tiie robes-impediment is cut off when the robe is lost, Cf. Vin. v. 178. 

* kataclvara. 

* VA. 1 1 13 says that first the robes-impediment is cut off ; the residence- 
impediment is cut off with his hearing (the news). Cf. Vin. v. 178. 

' sambhuftati. 



36o BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

removal of the katkina (privileges). That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed together with (those of the other) 
monks.i |1 2 || 2 || 

Told are the seven cases on Taking.* 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made, taking with him' 
a robe that is made up, goes away, thinking, " I will not come 
back ". That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because 
of his going away. . . .* |1 2 || 3 || 

Told are the seven cases on Taking with him. [256] 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made, taking a robe 
that is imperfectly executed,^ goes away. When he has gone 
outside the boundary it occurs to him : "I will get this robe- 
material made up here, I will not come back ", and he gets 
that robe-material made up. That monk's kathina (privileges) 
are removed because of (his robe) being settled . . . (= Chap. 
2 ; read taking a robe that is imperfectly executed instead of 
taking a robe). . . . That monk's kathina (privileges) are 
removed together with (those of the other) monks. || i || 4 1| 

Told are the six cases on Taking" 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking with him 
a robe that is imperfectly executed, goes away. When he has 
gone outside the boundary it occurs to him : "I will get this 
robe-material made up here, I will not come back ", and he 
gets that robe-material made up. That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed because of (his robe) being settled 
. . . ( = Chap. 3 ; read taking with him a robe that is im- 
perfectly executed instead of taking with him a robe). . . . 

* This must mean a general removal for all monks resident within one slma, 
boundary. 

* dddyasattakam niithitam. 
' samddaya. 

* Vin. Texts, ii. i6o, n. i says, " This chapter is word for word identical 
with Chap. 2 : only instead of ' takes ' (dddya) read ' takes with him ' 
{samddaya). We cannot say what different meanings these two words 
are intended to convey ". 

' vippakatacivara. Cf. vippakata at Vin. iii. 155, 225, 227, 229. 

* " Six of the seven cases specified in Chap. 2 (with the exception of the first 
of the seven). . . . The first case is necessarily "omitted, because it is essential 
to that case, that the Bhikkhu going away takes with him a robe ready 
for wear ", so Vin. Texts, ii. 160, n. 3. 



5.1—6.3] MAHAVAGGAVII 361 

That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed together with 
(those of the other) monks.^ II i II 5 || 

The six cases on Taking with him 

A monk, after kathina-cloih. has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away. When he has gone outside the boimdary 
it occms to him : "I will get this robe-material made up here, 
r will not come back ", and he gets that robe-material made 
up. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of 
(his robe) being settled. . . .2 || i || 

A monk, after kathina-c\oth. has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will not come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary it occurs to him : "I will 
get this robe-material made up here ", and he gets that robe- 
material made up. That monk's kathina (privileges) are 
removed because of (his robe) being settled. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will not come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary it occurs to him, " I will 
not get this robe-material made up ". That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed because of his resolves. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will not come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary it occurs to him, " I will 
get this robe-material made up here ", [257] and he gets that 
robe-material made up, but while that robe-material is being 
made up, it is lost. That monk's kathina (privileges) are 
removed because of (the robe) being lost.' || 2 || 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away without having determined,* for it neither 

^ Again the first case is omitted. If there is, op the monk's part, no 
going away with a robe ready to wear, there is no ground for removing the 
kathina privileges depending on " going away ". These can only be removed 
if the monk has gone away taking, or taking with him, a robe that is (already) 
made up, ready to wear. 

* " This case is word for word identical with the second case in Chap. 2. i. 
After it follow the third and fourth case of Chap. 2. i, which it is unnecessary 
to print here again in full extent. The triad of these cases is repeated here 
in order to serve as a basis for the variations which are to follow in §§ 2, 3," 
so Vin. Texts ii. 161, n. i. 

■ In these clauses, the monk, before he has got to the boundaiy and not 
after, as in || i ||, thinks that he will not return. 

* anadhitthitena. 



362 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

occurs to him that " I will come back ", nor does it occur to 
him that " I will not come back ". When he has gone outside 
the boundary it occurs to him, " I will get this robe-material 
made up here, I will not come back ", and he gets that robe- 
material made up. That monk's kathina (privileges) are 
removed because of (his robe) being settled. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away without having determined, for it neither 
occurs to him that " I will come back ", nor does it occur to 
him that " I will not come back ". When he has gone outside 
the boundary, it occurs to him : "I will not get this robe- 
material made up, nor will I come back ". That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed because of his resolves. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away without having determined, for it neither 
occurs to him that " I will come back ", nor does it occur to 
him that " I will not come back ". When he has gone outside 
the boundary it occurs to him : "I will get this robe-material 
made up here, I will not come back ", and he gets that robe- 
material made up ; but while that robe-material is being made 
up, it is lost. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of (his robe) being lost.i I| 3 || 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary it occurs to him, " I will get 
this robe-material made up here, I will not come back ", and 
he gets that robe-material made up. That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed because of (his robes) being settled. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary it occurs to him, " I will not 
get this robe-material made up, nor will I come back ". That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of his resolves. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will come back." When he 
has gone outside the boundary it occurs to him, " I will get 
this robe-material made up here, I will not come back," and 



* The same as || i || except for the words added in each case in 
" without having determined . . . ' I will not come back '." 



6.4—7.1] MAHAVAGGAVII 363 

he gets that robe-material made up, but while that robe-material 
is being made up, it is lost. That monk's kathina (privileges) 
are removed because of (his robe) being lost. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary he gets that robe-material 
made up. When that robe is made up he hears, " The kathina 
(privileges) are removed in this residence." That monk's 
kathina (privileges) are removed because of his hearing this 
news).i 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boimdary he gets that robe-material 
made up. When that robe is made up, he, thinking again 
and again, " I will come back," spends the time outside (the 
boundary) until the kathina (privileges) are removed. That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of his having 
crossed the boundary. ^ 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking robe- 
material, goes away, thinking, " I will come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary he gets that robe-material 
made up. When that robe is made up, he, thinking again and 
again, *' I will come back," [258] (his return) coincides with 
the removal of the kathina (privileges). That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed together with (those of the other) 
monks. || 4 || 6 || 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, taking with him 
robe-material, goes away ... it should be given in full thus, 
like the portion on "going away, taking" ... A monk, after 
kathina-cloth is made, taking a robe that is imperfectly 
executed, goes away ... it should be given in full thus, like 
the portion on " going away, taking with him "... A monk, 
after kathina-cloth is made, taking with him a robe that is 
imperfectly executed, goes away . . . ( = Chap. 6 ; read taking 
with him a robe that is imperfectly executed instead of taking 



^ = VII. 2. 2 above. 
• = VII. 2. 2 above. 



364 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

robe-material) . . . That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
together with (those of the other) monks.^ || i || 7 || 

Told is the Portion for Repeating on Taking 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe.^ When he has gone outside the 
boundary he attends to^ that expectation of a robe ; he obtains 
one contrary to his expectation, he does not obtain one in 
accordance with his expectation. It occurs to him, " I will 
get this robe-material made up here, I will not come back ", 
and he gets that robe-material made up. That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed because of (his robe) being settled. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe. ... It occurs to him, " I will not 
get this robe-material made up, nor will I come back ". That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of his resolves. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made. ... It occurs 
to him, " I will get this robe-material made up here, I will 
not come back ", and he gets that robe-material made up, 
but while that robe-material is being made up, it is lost. That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of (the robe) 
being lost. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe. When he has gone outside the 
boundary, it occurs to him, " I will attend to this expectation 
of a robe here, I will not come back ", and he attends to that 
expectation of a robe, but that expectation of a robe is dis- 
appointed for him.* That monk's kathina (privileges) are 
removed because of the disappointment of his expectation. ^ 



^ " The whole Chapter 6 is repeated here three times, the first time replac- 
ing the woids ' takes a robe ' by ' takes a robe with him ' (cf. Chap. 3) ; the 
second time replacing ' takes a robe ' by ' takes a lobe not ready ' (imper- 
fectly executed) (cf. Chap, 4) ; and the third time with these two modifica- 
tions combined (cf. Chap. 5) " — so Vin. Texts, ii. 162, n. 2. 

' see Nissag. Ill, B.D. ii. p. 26, and p. 27, definition of " expectation ". 

* payirupdsati. 

* tassa sd clvardsa upacchijjati. 

* dsdvacchedikd. VA. 11 13 says that first the residence-impediment is 
cut off ; the robes-impediment is cut off when the expectation of a robe 
is disappointed. Cf. above, p. 358, n. 3. 



8.2—3] MAHAVAGGAVII 365 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, thinking, " I will not come back ". 
When he has gone outside the boundary he attends to that 
expectation of a robe ; he obtains one contrary to his expecta- 
tion, he does not obtain one in accordance with his expectation. 
It occurs to him, " I will get this robe-material made up here ", 
and he gets that robe-material made up. That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed because of (his robes) being 
settled. 

A monk, after kathina-cloih. has been made. ... It occurs 
to him, " I will not get this robe-material made up ". That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of his resolves. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made. ... It occurs 
to him, " I will get this robe-material made up here ", and he 
gets that robe-material made up, but while that robe-material 
is being made up, it is lost. That monk's kathina (privileges) 
are removed because of (the robe) being lost. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, thinking, " I will not come back ". 
When [259] he has gone outside the boundary, it occurs to him, 
" I will attend to this expectation of a robe here ", and he 
attends to that expectation of a robe, but that expectation 
of a robe is disappointed for him. That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed because of the disappointment of his 
expectation. || 2 || 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, (but) without having determined, 
for it neither occurs to him, " I wiU come back ", nor does it 
occiu" to him, " I will not come back ". When he has gone 
outside the boundary he attends to that expectation of a robe ; 
he obtains one contrary to his expectation, he does not obtain 
one in accordance with his expectation. It occurs to him, 
" I will get this robe-material made up here, I will not come 
back ", and he gets that robe-material made up. That monk's 
kathina (privileges) are removed because of (his robe) being 
settled. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made. ... It occurs 
to him, " I will not get this robe-material made up, nor will I 
come back ". That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of his resolves. 



366 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

A monk, after kaihina-cloth has been made. ... It occurs 
to him, " I will get this robe-material made up here, I will 
not come back ", and he gets that robe-material made up, 
but while that robe-material is being made up, it is lost. That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of (the robe) 
being lost. 

A monk, after kathina-cloih has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, (but) without having determined, 
for it neither occurs to him, " I will come back ", nor does it 
occur to him, " I will not come back ". When he has gone 
outside the boundary, it occurs to him, " I will attend to this 
expectation of a robe here, I will not come back ", and he 
attends to that expectation of a robe, but that expectation 
of a robe is disappointed for him. That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed because of the disappointment of his 
expectation. || 3 || 8 || 

Told are the twelve cases on Contrary to Expectation.* 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, thinking, " I will come back ". When 
he has gone outside the boundary he attends to that expectation 
of a robe ; he obtains one in accordance with his expectation, 
he does not obtain one contrary to his expectation. It occurs 
to him, " I will get this robe-material made up here, I will not 
come back ", and he gets that robe-material made up. That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of (his robes) 
being settled. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him, " I will not have this robe- 
material made up, nor will I come back". That monk's 
kathina (privileges) are removed because of his resolves. 

A monk. . . . It occurs to him, " I will get this robe-material 
made up here, I will not come back ", and he gets that robe- 
material made up, but while that robe-material is being made 
up, it is lost. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of (his robe) being lost. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, thinking, "I will come back". 
When he has gone outside the boundary it occurs to him, " I 



^ anasadolasakam nitthitam. 



9.1—3] MAHAVAGGAVII 367 

will attend to this expectation of a robe here, I will not come 
back ", and he attends to that expectation of a robe, but that 
expectation of a robe is disappointed for him. That monk's 
kathina (privileges) are removed because of the disappointment 
of his expectation. || i || 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, thinking, " I will come back ". 
When he has gone outside the boimdary he hears that [260] 
" In this residence the kathina (privileges) are removed ". It 
occurs to him, " Inasmuch as in this residence the kathina 
(privileges) are removed, I wiU attend to this expectation of 
a robe here ", and he attends to that expectation of a robe ; 
he obtains one in accordance with his expectation, he does not 
obtain one contrary to his expectation. It occurs to him, 
" I will get this robe-material made up here, I will not come 
back ", and he gets that robe-material made up. That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of (his robes) 
being settled. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him, " I will not get this robe- 
material made up, nor will I come back ". That 
monk's kathina (privileges) cire removed because of his 
resolves. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him, " I will get this robe-material 
made up here, I will not come back ", and he gets that robe- 
material made up, but while that robe-material is being made 
up, it is lost. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of (his robe) being lost. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, thinking, " I will come back ". . . . 
It occurs to him, " I will attend to this expectation of a robe 
here, I will not come back ", and he attends to that expectation 
of a robe, but that expectation of a robe is disappointed for 
him. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because 
of the disappointment of his expectation. || 2 || 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, thinking, " I will come back ". 
When he has gone outside the boundary he attends to that 
expectation of a robe ; he obtains one in accordance with his 
expectation, he does not obtain one contrary to his expectation. 
He gets that robe-material made up ; when that robe is made 



368 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

up, he hears, " The kathina (privileges) are removed in this 
residence ". That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of his hearing (this news). 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, thinking, " I will come back ". 
When he has gone outside the boundary, it occurs to him, 
" I will attend to this expectation of a robe, I will not come 
back ", and he attends to that expectation of a robe, but that 
expectation of a robe is disappointed for him. That monk's 
kathina (privileges) are removed because of the disappointment 
of his expectation. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, thinking, " I will come back ". 
When he has gone outside the boundary, he attends to that 
expectation of a robe ; he obtains one in accordance with his 
expectation, he does not obtain one contrary to his expectation. 
He gets that robe-material made up ; when that robe is made 
up, he, thinking again and again, " I wiU come back ", spends 
the time outside (the boundary) until the kathina (privileges) 
are removed. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of his having crossed the boundary. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away with 
the expectation of a robe, thinking, " I will come back ". 
When he has gone outside the boundary he attends to that 
expectation of a robe ; he obtains one in accordance with his 
expectation, he does not obtain one contrary to his expectation. 
He gets that robe-material made up ; when that robe is made 
up, he, thinking again and again, " I will come back ", (his 
return) coincides with the removal of the kathina (privileges). 
That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed together with 
(those of the other) monks. || 3 || 9 || 

Told are the twelve cases on In accordance with 
Expectation [261] - 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away on 
some business. When he has gone outside the boundary there 
arises^ the expectation of a robe. He attends to that expecta- 
tion of a robe ; he obtains one contrary to his expectation, 

^ uppajjati. 



10.1—2] M.AHAVAGGA VII 369 

he does not obtain one in accordance with his expectation. 
It occurs to him, " I will get this robe-material made up here, 
I will not come back ", and he gets that robe-material made 
up. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of 
(his robe) being settled. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him, " I will not get this robe- 
material made up, nor will I come back ". That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of his 
resolves. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him, " I will get this robe-material 
made up here, I will not come back ", and he gets that robe- 
material made up, but while that robe-material is being made 
up, it is lost. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of (his robe) being lost. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made, goes away on 
some business. When he has gone outside the boundary there 
arises the expectation of a robe. It occurs to him, " I will 
attend to this expectation of a robe here, I will not come back " , 
and he attends to that expectation of a robe, but that expecta- 
tion ot a robe is disappointed for him. That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed because of the disappointment of his 
expectation. || 1 1| 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away on 
some business, thinking, " I will not come back ". When he 
has gone outside the boundary there arises the expectation 
of a robe. He attends to that expectation of a robe ; he 
obtains one contrary to his expectation, he does not obtain 
one in accordance with his expectation. It occurs to him, 
" I will get this robe-material made up here ", and he gets 
that robe-material made up. That monk's kathina (privileges) 
are removed because of (his robes) being settled. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him, " I will not get this robe- 
material made up ". That monk's kathina (privileges) are 
renioved because of his resolve. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him, " I will get this robe-material 
made up here ", and he gets that robe-material made up, but 
while that robe-material is being made up, it is lost. That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of (his robe) 
being lost. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away on 



370 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

some business, thinking, " I will not come back ". When he 
has gone outside the boundary there arises the expectation 
of a robe. It occurs to him, " I will attend to this expectation 
of a robe here ", and he attends to that expectation of a robe, 
but that expectation of a robe is disappointed for him. That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of the dis- 
appointment of his expectation. || 2 || 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away on 
some business, (but) without having determined, for it neither 
occurs to him, " I will come back ", nor does it occur to him, 
" I will not come back ". When he has gone outside the 
boundary there arises the expectation of a robe. He attends 
to that expectation of a robe ; he obtains one contrary to 
his expectation, he does not obtain one in accordance with 
his expectation. It occurs to him, " I will get this robe-material 
made up here, I will not come back ", and he gets that robe- 
material made up. That monk's kathina (privileges) are 
removed because of (his robes) being settled. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him, " I will not get this robe- 
material made up, nor will I come back ". That 
monk's [262] kathina (privileges) are removed because of 
his resolves. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him, " I wiU get this robe-material 
made up here, I will not come back ", and he gets that robe- 
material made up, but while that robe-material is being made 
up, it is lost. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of (his robe) being lost. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made, goes away on 
some business, (but) without having determined, for it neither 
occurs to him, " I will come back ", nor does it occur to him, 
" I will not come back ". When he has gone back outside 
the boundary there arises the expectation of a robe. It occurs 
to him, " I will attend to this expectation of a robe here, I 
wiU not come back ", and he attends to that expectation of 
a robe, but that expectation of a robe is disappointed for him. 
That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of the 
disappointment of his expectation. || 3 || 10 || 

Told are the twelve cases on Business. 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away. 



11.1—2] MAHAVAGGAVII 371 

travelling to distant parts,^ without collecting^ his share of 
the robe-material. While he is thus travelling to distant 
parts, monks ask him, " Where have you, your 
reverence, spent the rains, and where is your share of the 
robe-material ? " 

He speaks thus, " I spent the rains in such and 
such a residence, and my share of the robe-material 
is there ". 

These speak thus, " Go, your reverence, fetch that robe- 
material. We will make up that robe-material for you 
here." 

He, going to that residence, asks the monks : " Where, 
your reverences,' is my share of the robe-material ? " 

These speak thus : "This, your reverence, is your share of 
the robe-material. WTiere are you going ? " 

He speaks thus : "I am going to such and such a 
residence. The monks will make up the robe-material for 
me there." 

These speak thus : " No, your reverence, do not go ; we 
will make up the robe-material for you here." 

It occurs to him : "I will get this robe-material made up 
here, I will not come back," and he gets that robe-material 
made up. That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of (his robes) being settled. 

A monk. , . . That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of his resolves. 

A monk. . . . That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of (his robe) being lost. || i || 

A monk, after kathina-cloth has been made, goes away, 
travelling to distant parts without collecting his share of the 
robe-material. . . . 

"This, your reverence, is your share of the robe-material." 

He, taking that robe-material, goes to that residence. On 

* disarhgamika. Cf. Vin. i. 119. 

* apacinayamano. P.E.D., C.P.D., Vin. Texts li, 166 all suggest 
" guarding his claim ", as from apacindii. It would seem however to be 
the negative of pacinati. " to take up, to collect ". The monk, according 
to the context, leaves his robe-material behind, he then goes away without 
gatheiing it up and taking it Avith him. It is true however that in going 
away he does not renounce his claim to his share of the robe-material. 

* This seems the only time that this monk uses a form of address, dvuso . 
in speaking to other monks. 



372 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

the way (some) monks ask him : " Your reverence, where are 
you going ? " 

He speaks thus : "I am going to such and such a 
residence. The monks will make up the robe-material for 
me there." 

These speak thus : " No, your reverence, do not go ; we will 
make up the robe-material for you here." 

It occurs to him : "I will get this robe-material made up 
here, I will not come back," and he gets that robe-material 
made up. [263] That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
because of (his robes) being settled. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him : "I will not get this 
robe-material made up, nor will I come back." That 
monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of his 
resolves. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him : "I will get this robe- 
material made up here, I wiU not come back," and he gets 
that robe-material made up, but while that robe-material is 
being made up, it is lost. That monk's kathina (privileges) 
are removed because of (his robe) being lost. || 2 || 

A monk, after kathina-cloth. has been made, goes away, 
travelling to distant parts without collecting his share of the 
robe-material. . . . 

" This, j'^our reverence, is your share of the robe-material." 

He, taking the robe-material, goes to that residence ; while 
he is going to that residence, it occurs to him : "I will get 
this robe-material made up here, I will not come back ", and 
he gets that robe-material made up. That monk's kathina 
(privileges) are removed because of (his robes) being 
settled. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him : "I will not get this robe- 
material made up, nor will I come back." That monk's 
kathina (privileges) are removed because of his resolves. 

A monk. ... It occurs to him : "I will get this robe- 
material made up here, I will not come back ", and he gets 
that robe-material made up, but while that robe-material is 
being made up, it is lost. That monk's kathina (privileges) 
are removed because of (his robe) being lost. 1| 3 || 11 \\ 
Told are the nine cases on Without collecting. 



12.1] MAHAVAGGAVII 373 

A monk, one who lives in comfort/ after kathi na-cloth has 
been made, taking robe-material, goes away, thinking, " I will 
go to such and such a residence ; if there comes to be comfort 
for me there, I will stay, but if there does not come to be comfort 
for me, I will go to such and such a residence ; if there comes 
to be comfort for me there, I will stay, but if there does not 
come to be comfort for me, I will go to such and such a residence; 
if there comes to be comfort for me there, I will stay, but if 
there does not come to be comfort for me, I will come back ". 
When he has gone outside the boimdary, it occurs to him : 
" I will get this robe-material made up here, I will not come 
back," and he gets that robe-material made up. That monk's 
kathina (privileges) are removed because of (his robes) being 
settled. 

A monk. . . . When he has gone outside the boundary, it 
occurs to him, " I will not get this robe-material made up, 
nor will I come back ". That monk's kathina (privileges) are 
removed because of his resolves. 

A monk. . . . When he has gone outside the boundary, it 
occurs to him : "I will get this robe-material made up here, 
I will not come back," and he gets that robe-material made up, 
but while that robe-material is being made up, it is lost. 
That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed because of (his 
robe) being lost. 

A monk. . . . When he has gone outside the boundary, he 
has that robe-material made up ; when that robe-material 
is made up, he, thinking again and again, " I will come back ", 
spends the time outside (the boundary) until the kathina 
(privileges) are removed. That monk's [264]. kathina (privi- 
leges) are removed because of his having crossed the 
boundary. 

A monk. . . . When he has gone outside the boundary, he 
has that robe-material made up ; when that robe-material is 
made up, he, thinking again and again, " I will come back ", 
(his return) coincides with the removal of the kathina 



^ phdsuvihdrika. " Intent on finding a comfortable place (to live in) " 
of Vin. Texts ii. i68, although justified by the context, ascribes both more 
and less to the compound, phdsuvihdrika, than it actually contains. Cf. 
the jungle-dweller who, if he was thinking about phdsuvihdra, might live 
independently of guidance, at MV. I. 73. 4 (above p. 118). 

20 



374 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

(privileges). That monk's kathina (privileges) are removed 
together with (those of the other) monks. || i H 12 || 

Told are the five cases on Living in comfort. 

" Monks, there are these two impediments,^ these two non- 
impediments to (the removal of) the kathina (privileges). And 
what, monks, are the two impediments to (the removal of) 
the kathina (privileges) ? The residence-impediment and the 
robes-impediment. And how, monks, does the residence- 
impediment come to be ? Monks, in this case a monk who is 
either staying in or who is longing for that residence, goes 
away, thinking, ' I will come back '.^ Thus, monks, does 
the residence-impediment come to be. And how, monks, does 
the robes-impediment come to be ? Monks, in this case, a 
monk's robe-material comes to be not made up or it is 
imperfectly executed or the expectation of a robe is not 
fulfilled. Thus, monks, does the robes-impediment come to 
be. Monks, these are the two impediments to (the removal 
of) the kathina (privileges). || i I| 

"And what, monks, are the two non-impediments to (the 
removal of) the kathina (privileges) ? The residence-non- 
impediment and the robes-non-impediment. And how, monks, 

^ palibodha, obstruction, hindrance, obstacle, impediment, drawback. 
Ten palibodhas are enumerated at KhA. 39, and explained in detail at Vism. 
90 ff. But in its explanation of dvdsap-, the first on the list, the Vism. 
makes no reference to kathina ; clvarap- does not occur here or in KhA . 

The idea of the palibodhas and apalibodhas is somewhat difficult to follow. 
After kathina-cloth is made, five privileges are allowable to monks (MV. 
VII. 1. 3), and there are eight grounds for the removal of these privileges 
(MV. VII. 1. 7). But then, it seems-, these eight grounds are in turn 
subject to the two impediments and the two non-impediments. That is to 
say, the kathina privileges cannot be removed if there is present an impedi- 
ment to the grounds for removing them, but only if there is no impediment 
to these grounds. VA. 11 14 says, " Having shown the removal of the 

kathina (privileges), now whatever are impediments are said to be cut off 
in regard to these kathina (privileges)." See Vin. Texts ii. 149, n. and 157, 
n. 2. 

• The first of the grounds for removing the kathina privileges is that 
depending on a monk having gone away. But here, although he goes away, 
he intends to come back. Thus the ground for removing the privilege meets 
with an obstruction. 

Text here reads, idha bhikkhave bhikkhu vassati vdtasmim dvdse sdpekkho 
vd pakkamati (with v. 1. vesati) which has led translator at Vin. Texts ii. 169 
to render, "A Bhikkhu, O Bhikkhus, goes away (for a time), when it is 
raining or storming, with the intention of returning to that residence." 
But Cing. edn. 1933, vol. ii. 322 and Siam. edn. both read, idha bhikkhave 
bhikkhu vassati vd tasmirtt dVdse sapekho vd pakkamati, which I follow as 
making more sense. 



13.2] MAHAVAGGA VII 375 

does the residence-non-impediment come to be ? In this case, 
monks, a monk goes away from that residence because of giving 
up, because of renunciation, because of sacrifice, because of 
indifference, thinking, ' I will not come back '.^ Thus, monks, 
does the residence-non-impediment come to be. And how, 
monks, does the robes-non-impediment come to be ? In this 
case, monks, a monk's robe-material comes to be made up 
or it is lost or destroyed or burnt or the expectation of a robe 
is disappointed, 2 Thus, monks, does the robes-non-impediment 
come to be. These, monks, are the two non-impediments to 
(the removal of) the kathina (privileges)." || 2 || 13 || 

The Section on Kathina^ : the Seventh. 

In this Section are twelve items, the words* of abridgment 
are one himdred and eighteen. This is its key : 
Thirty monks of Pava stayed longing in Saketa, 
at the end of the rains they went with drenched (robes) to see 

the Conqueror. / 
This item of kathina-cloih., and the five things called allowable :^ 
Without asking permission, nor taking three robes, a joint-meal 

likewise, / 
As much as is required, and one that accrues will be for the 

makers. 
The motion, and just what is made and just what is not made. / 
Marking, washing, and calculating, and cutting, 
tacking, making lengths, using a piece of cloth, and strengthen- 
ing, braiding, / [265] 
Binding, patching, dyeing, talk with hints, ' 
temix)rary, postponement, abandonment, not (made) if it is 
not allowable, but for these three, / 

^ As he does not intend to return there is no reason why his kathina 
privileges should not be removed. His intention provides the non- 
impediment. 

' These aie no impediments to the grounds for removing the kathina 
privileges. They may be removed, as we have seen, because a monk's 
robe is made up, because he resolves not to have it made up, because it is 
lost, or because his expectation of a robe is disappointed. C/. Nissag. I, 
definition of " when the robes are settled ", and see B.D. ii. pp. 6, 15. 

• Kathinakkhandhaka. Cf. Kathinavagga, Yin. iii. 195-223. 

• mukha, the mouth, so what issues from it. 

' kappiyan ti ; Cing. edn. kappissanti, will be allowable. 

• nimitta-kathd here. It may be a composite word for nimittakata and 
parikathdkata ; otherwise the latter is not included in this part of the 
" key ", although it is mentioned lower down. 



376 BOOK OF DISCIPLI^iE 

Unless five parts or more when they are cut out are henuned 

together, 
not (made) unless by an individual, if properly (made) he gives 

thanks standing outside the boundary : / 
Kathina-cloth comes to be not made, thus it is taught by the 

awakened one. 
Unsoiled, when what is allowable (is unsoiled), pieces of cloth, 

rags, and bits near a shop, / 
Not insinuation, nor roundabout talking, not temporary and 

no postponement, 
not abandoned, made allowable, and inasmuch as it is for 

(a set of) three robes, / 
If five parts or more are cut out and hemmed together, 
if the making is by an individual, if properly (made) he gives 

thanks standing on the boundary : / 
Thus the making of kathina-cloth. Eight grounds for removal : 
that depending on going away, on being settled, on resolve 

and on loss, / 
On hearing, on disappointment of an expectation, over the 

boundary, and the eighth is with the removal (of other 

monks'). 
Taking a robe that is made up, he goes away, thinking, " I 

wiU not come back ", / 
His kathina (privileges) become removed because of his going 

away. 
Taking robe-material he goes away,^ when he is outside the 

boundary, he thinks, / 
" I will have it made up here, I will not come back " ; his 

kathina (privileges) are removed because of (his robes) 

being settled. 
Taking it, when he is outside the boundary, he intends, thinking, 

" Neither that nor will I come back ", / 
His kathina (privileges) become removed depending on that* 

of resolve. 
Taking robe-material he goes away, when he is outside the 

boundary, he thinks, / 
" I will have it made up here, I will not come back," but while 

it is being made up, it is lost ; 

* yati. 

• tatn, doubtless " ground " is to be understood. 



MAHAVAGGA VII 377 

his kathina (privileges) become removed depending on that 

of loss. / 
Taking it, he goes away, thinking, " I will come back ", and 

has the robe-material made up outside, 
when the robe has been made up, he hears that the kathina 

(privileges) are removed there ; / 
His kathina (privileges) become removed depending on that 

of hearing. 
Taking it, be goes away, thinking, " I will come back ", and 

has the robe-material made up outside, / 
When the robe has been made up, (staying) outside he does not 

go back^ until the removal of the kathina (privileges) ; 
his kathina (privileges) become removed depending on that of 

having crossed the boundary. / 
Taking it, he goes away, thinking, " I will come back ", and 

has the robe-material made up outside, 
when the robe has been made up, thinking, " I will come back ", 

(his return) coincides ^ with the removal of the kathina 

(privileges) ; / 
The removal of his kathina (privileges) is because it occurs^ with 

(that of) the other monks. 
Taking and taking with him, the going away* is seven times 

sevenfold. / 
There is no sixfold^ going away, (the robes) imperfectly executed 

depending on " going away ". 
Taking it, this arises, " I will have it made up when I am 

outside the boundary " ; / 
Settled and resolves and loss, these three. 
Taking it, thinking, " I will not come back ", "I am making 

it up outside the boundary " ; / 
Settled, then resolves, then loss, this is three (fold). 
Without having determined, for it does not (occur) to him, 

the threefold meaning below.' / [266] 



* nameti , cf. Sn. 1143, ndpenti with v. 1. ndmenti. 

* sambhoti. 

* jayati. 

* gati- 

' chaccd . Sinh. edn. chatthe. 

* Pali has " below ", referring to the leaves of the palm-leaf MSS., where 
we say " above ". 



378 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Taking it, he goes away, thinking, " I will come back ", " I 

am making it up outside the boundary ", 
thinking, " I will not come back ", he gets it made up ; his 

kathina (privileges) are removed because of (his robes) 

being settled. / 
Resolves and loss, hearing, having crossed the boundary, 
it may arise with (those of the other) monks ; thus there is 

going away fifteen times. / 
Taking with him, imperfectly executed, taking it with him 

Ukewise again, 
these are four turns i where all is fifteen-fold. / 
And contrary to expectation, in accordance with expectation, 

and business, these three. 
One should understand this from what has been said :^ there 

are three that are each twelve (-fold). / 
Here are nine on " without collecting ", there is a set of five 

on comfort ; 
impediments, non-impediments ; the key is made from what 

has been said.^ [267] 



* vara, i.e. for recitation. 

• Nayato, perhaps " from the method ". 



379 



THE GREAT DIVTSION (MAHAVAGGA) VIII 

At one time the awakened one, the Lord was sta5dng at 
Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels' feeding-place. 
Now at that time Vesali was prosperous and flourishing, full 
of folk, thronged with people,^ and it was well off for food ; 
and there were seven thousand seven hundred and seven long 
houses,^ and seven thousand seven hundred and seven gabled 
buildings, and seven thousand seven hundred and seven parks,' 
and seven thousand seven hundred and seven lotus-tanks. 
There was the courtesan Ambapali,* beautiful, good to look 
upon, charming, she was possessed of the utmost beauty of 
complexion, was clever at dancing and singing and lute-playing, 
much visited by desirous people and she went for a night for 
fifty, ^ and through her Vesali shone forth all the more. || i || 

Then the urban council* of Rajagaha went to Vesali on some 
business. The urban council of Rajagaha saw that Vesali was 
prosperous and flourishing, full of folk, thronged with people, 
and well off for food ; and (they saw) the seven thousand seven 
hundred and seven long houses . . . seven thousand seven 
hundred and seven lotus-tanks, and Ambapali, the courtesan, 
beautiful, good to look upon, charming . . . and (they saw) 
that through her Vesali shone forth aU the more. Then the 
urban council of Rajagaha, having transacted that business 
in Vesali, came back again to Rajagaha ; they approached 
King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha ; having approached they 
spoke thus to King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha : 

" Sire, Vesali is prosperous and flourishing . . . and through 
her Vesali shines forth all the more. It were good, sire, if we 
too might establish a courtesan." 

^ Cf. D. i. 211, D. ii. 146, M. i, 377, A. iii. 215. 

* pasada , cf. B.D. ii. 16, n. 5. 

' drama , not " monasteries " here. See B.D. ii. 2, n. 2. 

* Here called Ambapalika. Mentioned above, p. 315. 

' VA. 1 1 14 says, "taking fifty kahdpaitas, she goes night by night." 

* negama. VA. 11 14 calls this a kutumbikagaria, a group of leading men. 
Cf. negama at Vin. iii. 220. 



38o BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Well now, good sirs/ do find such a girl as you might 
estabUsh as a courtesan." || 2 || 

Now at that time there was in Rajagaha a girl called Salavati, 
who was beautiful, good to look upon, charming, she was 
possessed of the utmost beauty of complexion. Then the urban 
council of Rajagaha established the girl, Salavati, ^ [268] as 
courtesan. And the courtesan Salavati soon came to be clever 
at dancing and singing and lute-playing ; she was much visited 
by desirous people, and she went for a night for the fee of a 
hundred.' Then the courtesan Salavati soon became pregnant. 
Then it occurred to the courtesan Salavati : " Men do not like 
a pregnant woman. If anyone should find out concerning me 
that * The courtesan Salavati is pregnant ', all respect for me 
would dwindle. What now if I should make it known that 
lamiU ?" 

Then the courtesan Salavati enjoined the door-keeper, saying: 
" Good door-keeper, do not let any man come in, and if anyone 
asks for me, make it known that I am ill." 

" Very well, lady," that door-keeper answered the courtesan 
Salavati in assent. || 3 || 

Then the courtesan Salavati when (the child of) her womb 
was mature, gave birth to a son. Then the courtesan Salavati 
enjoined a slave-woman, saying : " Now then, come along, 
having put this boy into a winnowing-basket,* having taken him 
out, throw him away on a rubbish-heap."^ 

" Very well, lady," and that slave-woman having answered 
the courtesan Salavati in assent, having put that boy into a 
winnowing-basket, having taken him out, threw him away on 
a rubbish-heap. 

Now at that time the king's son, Abhaya* by name, going 
in the morning to the royal audience, saw that boy surrounded 



^ bhane, a form of address sometimes used by kings to their subjects. 
■ Cf. SnA. i. 244. 

• patisatena. Vin. Texts ii. 172 takes this to mean that she asked for a 
hundred kahdpanas a night which undoubtedly balances Ambapali's price 
of fifty kahdpapas, see VA. 11 14, VA. in its exegesis of patisatena does 
not mention coinage or currency. Patisatena however probably means 
" for a hundred in return ", " against a hundred ". 

• VA. 1 1 14 calls this jippasuppa, an old winnowing-basket. 
» Cf. DhA. i. 174. 

• See D.P.P.N. 



1.4—6] MAHAVAGGA VIII 381 

by crows ; seeing this, he asked the people : " Good sirs, what 
is this that is surrounded by crows ? " 

" It is a boy, sire." 

" Is he alive, good sirs ? " 

" He is alive, sire." 

" Well now, good sirs, having brought that boy to our 
women's quarters, give him to foster-mothers to care for." 

" Very well, sire," and these people having answered Abhaya, 
the king's son, in assent, having brought that boy to the 
women's quarters of Abhaya, the king's son, gave him to 
foster-mothers saying, " Care for him ". 

Because it was said of him, " He is alive ",^ they gave him 
the name of Jlvaka ; because the prince'^ caused him to be 
cared for, they gave him the name of Komarabhacca.^ j| 4 |1 

And before long Jivaka Komarabhacca attained to years of 
discretion. Then Jlvaka Komarabhacca approached Abhaya, 
the king's son, and having approached he spoke thus to Abhaya, 
the king's son : 

" Who, sire, is my mother ? Who my father ? " 

" Not even I, good Jivaka, know your mother, but I am 
your father, for I had you cared for." 

Then it occurred to Jivaka Komarabhacca : 

" Without a craft, it is not easy to depend upon these royal 
families. Suppose I were to learn a craft ?* " Now at that 
time there lived a world-famed ^ doctor at Taxila. || 5 || 

Then Jlvaka Komarabhacca, without having asked (permis- 
sion) of Abhaya, the king's son, set out for Taxila ; [269] in 
course of time he arrived at Taxila and that doctor ; having 
approached, he spoke thus to that doctor : 



^ jlvati. 

* kumdra. 

' Meaning perhaps " the Prince-fed " (so G.S. i. 24). See note at Vin. 
Texts ii. 1 74, at end of which it is said, " We believe therefore, that this 
surname Komarabhacca really means ' master of the kaumdrabhrtya science' ", 
i.e. a part of the medical science which comprises the treatment of infants. 
Short account of his history given at A A. i. 398 f. At DA. 133, where 
brief synopsis of his story also appears, he is called Komarabhanda, and at 
Divy. 506 ff. Kumarabhuta. At A. i 26 he is called chief of lay followers 
who are liked by people. M. Sta. 55 is addressed to him. 

* VA. 1 1 14 says that he thought of the doctor's craft for this is on the 
side of amity towards men and their welfare, whereas elephant-lore and 
horsemanship are connected with the injury of others. 

' disdpdmokkha. Word occurs at Jd. i. 166. 



382 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" I want, teacher/ to train in the craft." 

" Well then, good Jivaka, train in it." 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca learnt much and learnt it quickly, 
and he reflected upon it weU, and he did not forget what he 
had learnt. Then at the end of seven years, it occurred to 
Jivaka Komarabhacca : "I am learning much and learning it 
quickly, and I am reflecting upon it well, and I do not forget 
what I have learnt, but after studying for seven years the end 
of this craft is not visible to me. When wiU the end of this 
craft be visible ? " || 6 || 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca approached that doctor ; having 
approached he spoke thus to that doctor : 

"I, teacher, am learning much and learning it quickly, and 
I am reflecting upon it well, and I do not forget what I have 
learnt, but after studying for seven years the end of this craft 
is not visible to me. When will the end of this craft be visible? " 

" Well now, good Jivaka, taking a spade, touring a yojana 
all round Taxila, bring whatever you should see that is not 
medicinal." 

" Very weU, teacher," and Jivaka Komarabhacca having 
answered that doctor in assent, taking a spade, touring a 
yojana all round Taxila, did not see anything that was not 
medicinal. Then Jivaka Komarabhacca approached that 
doctor ; having approached he spoke thus to that doctor : 

" Teacher, while I was touring for d^ yojana all round Taxila, 
I did not see anything that was not medicinal." 

" You are trained, good Jivaka, this much is enough for a 
livelihood for you," and he gave him trifling provisions for 
the journey, [j 7 || 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca, taking those trifling provisions 
for the journey, set out for Rajagaha. Then Jivaka Komara- 
bhacca's trifling provisions for the journey became used up en 
the way, at Saketa. Then it occurred to Jivaka Komara- 
bhacca : 

" These wilderness roads have little water, little food ; it is 
not easy to go along them without provisions for the journey.* 
Suppose 1 were to look about for provisions for the journey ? " 

Now at that time in Saketa a merchant's wife had had a 

^ acariya. 

■ Cf. Vin. i. 244, above, p. 335-6. 



1.8—10] MAHAVAGGA VIII 383 

disease of the head for seven years. Many very great, world- 
famed doctors who had come had not been able to cure her ; 
taking much gold/ they went away. Then Jivaka Komara- 
bhacca, entering Saketa, asked the people : " Who, good sirs, 
is ill ? Whom shall I attend ? "2 

" Teacher, this merchant's wife [270] has had a disease of 
the head for seven years ; go, teacher, attend this merchant's 
wife." II 8 II 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca went up to the dwelling of that 
householder, the merchant, and having gone up, he enjoined 
the door-keeper, saying : " Go, good door-keeper, say to the 
merchant's wife, ' Lady, a doctor is come who wants to see 
you ' ". 

" Very well, teacher," and that door-keeper having answered 
Jivaka Komarabhacca in assent, approached that merchant's 
wife ; having approached, he spoke thus to that merchant's 
wife : " Lady, a doctor is come who wants to see you." 

" What sort of a doctor is he, good door-keeper ? " 

" He is young, lady." 

" That's enough, good door-keeper. What could a young 
doctor do for me ? Many very great, world-famed doctors 
who have come have not been able to cure me ; they have gone 
away taking much gold." || 9 || 

Then that door-keeper went up to Jivaka Komarabhacca ; 
having gone up, he spoke thus to Jivaka Komarabhacca : 
" Teacher, the merchant's wife speaks thus : ' That's enough, 
good door-keeper . . . taking much gold '." 

" Go, good door-keeper, say to the merchant's wife : ' Lady, 
the doctor speaks thus : Do not, lady, give anything before- 
hand ; when you become well, then you may give what you 
like '." 

" Very well, teacher," and that door-keeper having answered 
Jivaka Komarabhacca in assent, went up to that merchant's 
wife ; having gone up, he spoke thus to that merchant's wife : 
" Lady, the doctor speaks thus ...'... then you may 
give what you like '." 

" Well then, good door-keeper, let the doctor come." 



^ hiranna, 

* tikicchati, to treat medically, to cure. 



384 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

" Very well, lady," and that door-keeper having answered the 
merchant's wife in assent, went up to Jivaka Komaxabhacca ; 
having gone up, he spoke thus to Jivaka Komarabhacca : 

" The merchant's wife, teacher, summons you." || 10 || 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca went up to that merchant's 
wife ; having gone up, having observed her uneasiness,^ he 
spoke thus to the merchant's wife : 

" Lady, a handful^ of ghee is wanted." 

Then that merchant's wife had a handful of ghee given to 
Jivaka Komarabhacca. Then Jivaka Komarabhacca, cooking 
up that handful of ghee with various medicines, made that 
merchant's wife lie down on her back on a couch and gave it 
(to her) through the nose. Then that ghee, given through 
the nose, came out through the mouth. Then that merchant's 
wife, spitting it into a receptacle, enjoined a slave-woman, 
saying: 

" Come, now, take up this ghee with cotton."^ H 11 |I 

Then it occurred to Jivaka Komarabhacca : " It is astonish- 
ing how stingy this housewife* is, in that she has this ghee, 
which ought to be thrown away, taken up with cotton ; [271] 
many of my very precious medicines went into it, and what 
kind of a fee^ will she give me ? " 

Then that merchant's wife, having observed Jivaka Komara- 
bhacca's uneasiness, spoke thus to Jivaka Komarabhacca : 
" Teacher, why are you perturbed ? " 

" It occurred to me in this case : it is astonishing . . . wiU 
she give me ? " 

" But, teacher, we householders know about this economy^ ; 
this ghee is excellent for the servants or workmen for rubbing 
their feet, or poured out into a lamp. Do not you, teacher, 
be perturbed, your fee will not be lacking."' || 12 || 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca removed the merchant's wife's 
seven year old disease of the head by just the one treatment 



^ vikdra. 

' pasata, a small measure of capacity ; explained at VA. 1116 as ekahattha- 
puta, what is contained in one hand. See n. at Vin. Texts ii. 178. 

'» picu, which VA. 11 16 explains by kappasapatala, a cotton covering. 

* gharanl , see B.D. ii. 203, n. i . 
' deyyadhamma. 

• samyama. 

' hdyati, to waste away, to disappear, diminish, dwindle. 



1.13— 14] MAHAVAGGAVIII 385 

through the nose.^ Then that merchant's wife, being well, 
gave four thousand^ to Jivaka Komarabhacca ; her son, 
thinking, " My mother is well ", gave four thousand ; her 
daughter-in-law, thinking, " My mother-in-law is well ", gave 
four thousand ; the householder, the merchant, thinking, " My 
wife is well ", gave four thousand and a slave and a slave- 
woman and a horse-chariot. Then Jivaka Komarabhacca, 
taking these sixteen thousand and the slave and the slave- 
woman and the horse-chariot, set out for Rajagaha ; in due 
course he approached Abhaya, the king's son, at Rajagaha ; 
having approached he spoke thus to Abhaya, the king's son : 

" Sire, this is for my first work : sixteen thousand and a 
slave and a slave- woman and a horse-chariot. May your 
highness' accept it as a tribute for having had me cared for."* 

" No, good Jivaka, let it be for you yourself ; but do build 
a dwelling in our palace®." 

" Very well, sire," and Jivaka Komarabhacca having 
answered Abhaya, the king's son, in assent, built a dwelling 
in the palace of Abhaya, the king's son. || 13 || 

Now at that time King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha came 
to suffer from a fistula ; his outer garments were stained with 
blood. The queens, seeing this, made tun of him, saying : 
" Now the king is in his courses, the king is having a period, 
soon the king will give birth." On account of this the king 
became ashamed. Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha 
spoke thus to Abhaya, the king's son : 

" Good Abhaya, I have such a disease that my outer garments 
are stained with blood. The queens, seeing this, make fun 
of me, saying, ' . . . the king will give birth '. Please, good 
Abhaya, do find a doctor such as could attend me." 

" Sire, there is this Jivaka of ours, a young doctor of high 
repute ; he will attend your majesty." 

" Very well, good Abhaya, [272] conmiand the doctor, 
Jivaka, so that he shall attend me." |! 14 || 



^ natthukamma. Allowed to monks at Vin. i. 204. Cf. Vin. iii. 83 and 
B.D. i. 143, n. 2. At D. i. 12 called by some recluses and brahmans a 
low or worldly lore from which Gotama abstains. 

• probably kahdpanas. 

• deva, masc, sing. heie. 

• posdvanika. 

' antepura, not women's quarters here. 



386 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

Then Abhaya, the king's son, commanded Jivaka Komaxa- 
bhacca, saying : " Go, good Jivaka, attend the king." 

" Very well, sire," and Jivaka Komarabhacca having 
answered Abhaya, the king's son, in assent, taking medicine 
under his nail, approached King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha ; 
having approached, he spoke thus to King Seniya Bimbisara 
of Magadha : 

" Sire, let me see the disease." 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca removed King Seniya Bimbisara 
of Magadha's fistula with just the one ointment. Then King 
Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, being well, having had five 
hundred women adorned with aU kinds of ornaments, having 
made them take (these) off, having had them made into a pile, 
spoke thus to Jivaka Komarabhacca : " Let all these ornaments 
of the five hundred women be yours, good Jivaka." 

" No, sire, may your majesty remember my office." 

" Well then, good Jivaka, may you tend me and the women^ 
and the Order of monks with the awakened one at its head." 

" Very well, sire," Jivaka Komarabhacca answered King 
Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha in assent. |! 15 || 

Now at that time a merchant of Rajagaha had had a disease 
of the head for seven years. Many very great, world-famed 
doctors who had come had not been able to cure him. Taking 
much gold, they went away. Moreover he came to be given 
up by the doctors. Some doctors spoke thus : " The house- 
holder, the merchant will pass away^ on the fifth day." Some 
doctors spoke thus : " The householder, the merchant will pass 
away on the seventh day." Then it occurred to the urban 
council of Rajagaha : " This householder, the merchant is very 
useful to the king as well as to the urban council, but yet 
he has been given up by the doctors. Some doctors speak thus : 
' The householder, the merchant will pass away on the fifth 
day.' Some doctors speak thus : ' The householder, the 
merchant will pass away on the seventh day.' Now, this 
Jivaka, the king's doctor, is young and of good repute. Suppose 
we should ask Jivaka, the king's doctor, to attend the house- 
holder, the merchant ? " |1 16 j| 



* itthdgara. 

» kalam karissati, will complete his time (here, in this birth), will die. 



1.17— 18] MAHAVAGGAVIII 387 

Then the urban council of Rajagaha approached King Seniya 
Bimbisara of Magadha ; having approached they spoke thus 
to King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha : 

" Sire, this householder, the merchant is very useful to your 
majesty as well as to the citizens ; but then he is given up 
by the doctors ...'... will die on the seventh day '. It 
were good if your majesty were to command Jivaka, the doctor, 
to attend the householder, the merchant." [273] 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha commanded Jivaka 
Komarabhacca, saying : " Go, good Jivaka, attend the house- 
holder, the merchant." 

" Very well, sire," and Jivaka Komarabhacca having 
answered King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha in assent, 
approached that householder, the merchant ; having 
approached, having observed the uneasiness of the householder, 
the merchant, he spoke thus to the householder, the merchant : 

"If I, householder, should make you well, what would be 
my fee ? " 

"All my property shall become yours, teacher, and I will 
be your slave." || 17 || 

" Now, householder, are you able to lie down on one side 
for seven months ? " 

" I am able, teacher, to lie down on one side for seven months." 

" Now, householder, are you able to Ue down on the other 
side for seven months ? " 

" I am able, teacher, to lie down on the other side for seven 
months." 

" Now, householder, are you able to He down on your back 
for seven months ? " 

" I am able, teacher, to lie down on my back for seven months." 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca, having made the householder, 
the merchant lie down on a couch, having strapped him to 
the couch, having cut open the skin of his head, having opened* 
a suture in the skull, ^ having drawn out two living creatures,' 
showed them to the people, saying : 

" Do you see, masters, these two living creatures, the one 
small, the other large ? This large living creature was seen 

^ vindmetvd . VA. 1117 explains by vivaritvd. 
2 sihbinl , cf. Jd. vi. 339, sibbdni (plural), 
• pdtiaka. 



388 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

by those teachers who spoke thus : ' The householder, the 
merchant will pass away on the fifth day ' ; on the fifth day 
it would have destroyed the brain of the householder, the 
merchant, and when the brain had been destroyed the house- 
holder, the merchant would have passed away. It was rightly 
seen by those teachers. This small living creature was seen 
by those teachers who spoke thus : ' The householder, the 
merchant will pass away on the seventh day ' ; on the seventh 
day it would have destroyed the brain of the householder, the 
merchant, and when the brain had been destroyed the house- 
holder, the merchant would have passed away. It was rightly 
seen by those teachers." And having closed the suture of the 
skull, having sewn up the skin of the head, he applied an 
ointment. || i8 || 

Then the householder, the merchant, when seven days had 
passed, spoke thus to Jivaka Komarabhacca : 

" I am not able, teacher, to Ue down on one side for seven 
months." 

" But did you not, householder, answer me in assent, saying : 

* I am able, teacher, to He down on one side for seven months'?" 

" It is true, teacher, that I answered thus, but I will die, 
I am not able to He down on one side for seven months." 

" WeU then, householder, you Ue down on the other side 
for seven months." 

Then the householder, the merchant, when seven days had 
passed, spoke thus to Jivaka Komarabhacca : [274] 

" I am not able, teacher, to He down on the other side for 
seven months." 

" But did you not, householder, answer me in assent, saying : 

* I am able, teacher, to He down on the other side for seven 
months ' ? " 

" It is true, teacher, that I answered thus, but I will die, 
I am not able to He down on the other side for seven months." 

" WeU then, householder, you Ue down on your back for 
seven months." 

Then the householder, the merchant, when seven days had 
passed, spoke thus to Jivaka Komarabhacca : 

" I am not able, teacher, to He down on my back for seven 
months." 

" But did you not, householder, answer me in assent, saying : 



1.19— 21] MAHAVAGGA VIII 389 

' I am able, teacher, to lie down on my back for seven months ' ? 

"It is true, teacher, that I answered thus, but I will die, 

I am not able to lie down on my back for seven months." 

II 19 II 
" If I, householder, had not spoken to you thus, you would 

not have lain down so long (as this) ; but I knew beforehand 

that the householder, the merchant would become well in three 

times seven days. Rise up, householder, you are well ; find 

what is my fee." 

"All my property shall become yours, teacher, and I will be 
your slave." 

" No, householder, do not give me all your property and 
do not be my slave ; give a hundred thousand to the king 
and a hundred thousand to me." 

Then the householder, the merchant, being well, gave a 
hundred thousand to the king and a hundred thousand to 
Jivaka Komarabhacca. || 20 || 

Now at that time the son of a merchant of Benares,^ while 
playing at turning somersaults, ^ came to suffer from a twist 
in the bowels, so that he did not properly digest the conjey 
that he drank nor did he properly digest the food that he ate 
or relieve himself regularly. Because of this he became thin, 
wretched, his colour bad, yellowish, the veins showing all over 
his body.^ Then it occurred to the merchant of Benares : 

" Now what kind of affliction has my son ? He does not 
properly digest the conjey that he drinks and he does not 
properly digest the food that he eats and he does not relieve 
himself regularly. Because of this he is thin, wretched, of a 
bad colour, yellowish, the veins showing all over his body. 
What now if I, having gone to Rajagaha, should ask the king 
for Jivaka, the doctor, to attend my son ? " 

Then the merchant of Benares, having gone to Rajagaha, 
approached King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha ; having 
approached, he spoke thus to King Seniya Bimbisara of 
Magadha : 

" Sire, my son has this kind of affliction : he does not 



• Baranaseyyaka, an inhabitant of Benares, BaranasI ; on the analogy 
of Paveyyaka, an inhabitant of Pava, see above, p. 31, n. 2. 

• mokkhacikdya. kllantassa. Cf. B,D. i. 316, n. i, 12. 

• stock-phrase, 

2D 



390 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

properly digest . . . the veins showing all over his body. It 
were good if your majesty [275] were to command Jivaka, 
the doctor, to attend my son." |1 21 !| 

Then King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha commanded Jivaka 
Komarabhacca, saying : " Go, good Jivaka, having gone to 
Benares, attend the son of the merchant of Benares." 

" Very weU, sire," and Jivaka Komarabhacca having 
answered King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha in assent, having 
gone to Benares, approached the son of the merchant of 
Benares ; having approached, having observed the uneasiness 
of the son of the merchant of Benares, having caused the people 
to be turned away, having surrounded him with a curtain,* 
having tied him to a post, having placed his wife in front 
(of him), having cut open the skin of his stomach, having 
drawn out the twisted bowel, showed it to his wife, saying : 
" See, this was your husband's affliction ; because of this he 
did not properly digest the conjey that he drank and did not 
properly digest the food that he ate and did not relieve himself 
regularly ; because of this he is thin, wretched, his colour bad, 
yellowish, the veins showing all over his body." Having 
straightened out the twisted bowel, having put back the bowel 
again, having sewn up the skin of the stomach, he applied 
an ointment. Then the son of the merchant of Benares soon 
became well. Then the merchant of Benares, saying : " My 
son is weU," gave sixteen thousand to Jivaka Komarabhacca. 
Then Jivaka Komarabhacca, taking those sixteen thousand, 
went back again to Rajagaha. || 22 || 

Now at that time King Pajjota^ came to be suffering from 
jaundice.^ Many very great, world-famed doctors, who had 
come had not been able to cure him ; taking much gold, they 
went away. Then King Pajjota sent a messenger to King 
Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha, saying : "I have this kind of 
disease ; it would be good if your majesty were to command 
Jivaka, the doctor, so that he should attend me." Then King 
Bimbisara of Magadha commanded Jivaka Komarabhacca, 
saying : " Go, good Jivaka, having gone to Ujjeni, attend 
King Pajjota." 

1 hrokaranl, as at Vin. ii. 152. 

' King of AvantI, capital Ujjeni; cf. DhA. i. 192. 
» pandurogdbadha. Cf. Vin. i. 206 where a monk had this disease. The 
cure " allowed " him was different from the one administered to Pajjota. 



1.23—25] MAHAVAGGAVIII 391 

" Very well, sire," and Jivaka Komarabhacca having 
answered King Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha in assent, 
having gone to Ujjeni, approached King Pajjota, and having 
approached, having observed his uneasiness, he spoke thus 
to King Pajjota : |1 23 |i 

" Sire, I will cook up some ghee, and your majesty will drink 
it." 

" No, good Jivaka, do what you can to make (me) well 
without ghee ; ghee is abhorrent to me, loathsome." Then 
it occurred to Jivaka Komarabhacca : [276] " The king's 
disease is of such a kind that it is not possible to make him well 
without ghee. Suppose I should cook up the ghee (so that 
it has) the colour of an astringent decoction, the smell 
of an astringent decoction, the taste of an astringent 
decoction^ ? " 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca cooked up the ghee with various 
medicines (so that it had) the colour of an astringent decoction, 
the smell of an astringent decoction, the taste of an astringent 
decoction. Then it occurred to Jivaka Komarabhacca : 
" When the king has drunk and digested the ghee, it will 
make him sick. This king is violent,^ he might have me killed. 
Suppose I should ask (for permission to go away) beforehand ? " 
Then Jivaka Komarabhacca approached King Pajjota ; having 
approached he spoke thus to King Pajjota : || 24 || 

" Sire, we doctors at such a moment' as this are pulling up 
roots, gathering medicines. It were good if your majesty were 
to command at the stables* and at the gateways, saying : 
' Let Jivaka go out by means of whatever conveyance^ he 
desires, let him go out by whatever gateway he desires, let 



^ kasavavannam kasdvagandham kasdvarasam. Vin. Texts ii. 187 reads 
" so that it takes the colour, the smell and the taste of an astiingent 
decoction ". P.E.D. suggests " of reddish-yellow colour, having a pungent 
smell, having an astringent taste." Four kinds of kasdva, astringent decoc- 
tions, to be used as riledicine in flavouring food, are allowed at Vin. i. 201, 
and kasdvodaka, a watery astringent decoction, at Vin. i. 205. At Vin, ii. 
151 the kasdva allowed was an astringent liquid to be applied to the colour- 
ing matter given to walls so as to make the colouring stick on. 

• ca^4^. Pajjota's full name was Candapajjota. 

• tnuhutta is a short period of time, its use here presumably implying 
that it was urgent for him to get away on his business. 

• vdhandgdra, the 100m for the conveyances, mounts, vehicles or beasts 
of burden, so stables, coach house. 

• vdhana, mount. 



392 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

him go out at whatever time he desires, let him come in at 
whatever time he desires '." Then King Pajjota commanded 
at the stables and at the gateways, saying : " Let Jivaka go 
out by means of whatever conveyance he desires, let him go 
out by whatever gateway he desires, let him go out at whatever 
time he desires, let him come in at whatever time he desires." 

Now at that time King Pajjota had a she-elephant, called 
Bhaddavatika, who could do fifty yojanas.^ Then Jivaka 
Komarabhacca offered the ghee to King Pajjota, saying : 
" Let your majesty drink an astringent decoction." Then 
Jivaka Komarabhacca having made King Pajjota drink the 
ghee, having gone to the elephant stable, hastened out of the 
city on the she-elephant, Bhaddavatika. || 25 || 

Then King Pajjota, when he had drunk and digested the ghee, 
was sick. Then King Pajjota spoke thus to the people : 
" Good sirs, the wicked Jivaka has made me drink ghee. Well 
now, good sirs, look for the doctor, Jivaka." 

" Sire, he has hastened out of the city on the she-elephant, 
Bhaddavatika." 

Now at that time King Pajjota came to have a slave called 
Kaka,* who could do sixty yojanas and who was bom of a 
non-human being. Then King Pajjota commanded the slave, 
Kaka, sa5ning : " Go, good Kaka, make Jivaka, the doctor, 
return, sa5mig, ' The king, teacher, orders you to come back '.* 
Now, good Kaka, these doctors are full of cunning, so do not 
accept anything from him." || 26 || 

And the slave, Kaka, caught up Jivaka Komarabhacca on 
the road to Kosambi as he was having breakfast. Then Kaka, 
the slave, spoke thus to Jivaka Komarabhacca : [277] " The 
king, teacher, orders you to come back." 

" Wait, good Kaka, imtil we have eaten ; come, good Kaka, 
you eat." 

" No, teacher, I am commanded by the king, saying : * Now 
good Kaka, these doctors are full of cunning, so do not accept 
anything from him '." 

Now at that time Jivaka Komarabhacca, having stripped 

1 Vin. Texts ii. i88 adds " (in one day) " ; this information is given at 
DhA. i. 196 : ekadivasam paHilasa yojandni gacchati. Above she is described 
as paiinasayojanika. 

* Mentioned at DhA. i. 196. 

• nivattapeti, " is having you sent back ". 



1.27—29] MAHAVAGGA VIII 393 

off^ the medicinal (part) with his nail, was eating an emblic 
myrobalan* and drinking water. Then Jivaka Komarabhacca 
spoke thus to Kaka, the slave : " Here, good Kaka, eat the 
emblic myrobalan and drink the water." || 27 1| 

Then Kaka, the slave, thinking : " This doctor is eating 
the emblic myrobalan and drinking the water, there should 
not be anything harmful,"' ate half the emblic myrobalan and 
drank the water. But he ejected that half emblic myrobalan 
that he was eating, on the spot. Then Kaka, the slave, spoke 
thus to Jivaka Komarabhacca : 

" Is there life for me, teacher ? " 

" Do not be afraid, good Kaka, for you will get well ; but 
the king is violent, that king might have me killed, so I am 
not coming back," and giving the she-elephant, Bhaddavatika, 
into Kaka's charge, he set out for Rajagaha ; in due course 
he approached Rajagaha, and King Seniya Bimbisara of 
Magadha ; having approached he told this matter to King 
Seniya Bimbisara of Magadha. 

" You did well, good Jivaka, in not going back, that king 
is violent, he might have you killed." || 28 || 

Then King Pajjota, being well, sent a messenger to Jivaka 
Komarabhacca, saying : " Let Jivaka come, I will grant him 
a boon." 

" No, master, let his majesty remember my office." 

Now at that time there accrued to King Pajjota a pair of 
Siveyyaka cloths* which were the chief and best and foremost 
and most excellent and loveliest of many cloths, of many pairs 

^ olumpetvd, with v.l. (see Vin. i. 390) uhimpetva, odametvd, olumpetvd. 
VA. 1 1 17 explains by odahitvd pakkhipitvd, having put in, having inseited. 

* dmalaka, phyllanthus emblica. The fruit allowed as a medicine at 
Vin. i. 201. 

' na arahati kind pdpakam hotutn. 

* Siveyyaka dussayuga. VA . 1 1 1 7 gives two explanations of Siveyyaka : 
either it means the cloths used in the Uttarakuru couutry for covering the 
dead bodies brought to the cemeteries, slvatthika, in which case a certain 
kind of bird taking a piece of fiesh to the Himalayas, eats it and throws 
aside the cloth ; tiien a forest-wanderer seeing the cloth brings it to the 
king ; this cloth was obtained by Pajjota in this way. Or, Siveyyaka 
means that the good women of the Sivi kingdom think, ' thread is spun 
from these filicules ' and they speak of a cloth woven of this thread by 
this name. " Because of this siveyyaka means cemetery-cloth in the 
Uttarakuru country, and cloth produced in the Sivi kingdom ". Vin. Texts 
ii. 190 says " No doubt the latter explication is the right one ". Cf. Pava, 
Paveyyaka, above, p. 31, n. 2. and Baranasi, Baranaseyyaka, above, p. 389 n. i. 

Dussayuga means the two cloths, tiie loin-cloth or dhoti, and the upper 
cloth, which are usually worn by laymen. 



394 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

of cloths, of many hundred pairs of cloths, of many thousand 
pairs of cloths, of many hundred thousand pairs of cloths. 
Then King Pajjota sent this pair of Siveyyaka cloths to Jivaka 
Komarabhacca. Then it occurred to Jivaka Komarabhacca : 

" This pair of Siveyyaka cloths, sent me by King Pajjota, 
is the most excellent and loveUest of many cloths . . . ; 
no one else is worthy of it but the Lord, the perfected one, 
the wholly awakened one, or King Seniya Bimbisara of Mag- 
adha." |1 29 || 

Now at that time the Lord came to have a disturbance of 
the humours of his body.^ Then the Lord addressed the 
venerable Ananda, sajdng : [278] "Ananda, the Truth-linder 
has a disturbance of the humours of his body ; the Truth- 
linder desires to take^ a purgative."' Then the venerable 
Ananda approached Jivaka Komarabhacca ; having approached 
he spoke thus to Jivaka Komarabhacca : 

" Jivaka, sir, the Truth-finder has a disturbance of the 
hurnours of his body ; the Truth-finder desires to take a 
purgative." 

" Well now, revered Ananda, lubricate* the Truth-finder's 
body for a few days." Then the venerable Ananda, having 
lubricated the Truth-finder's body for a few days, approached 
Jivaka Komarabhacca ; having approached he spoke thus to 
Jivaka Komarabhacca : 

" Jivaka, sir, the Truth-finder's body has been lubricated ; 
what do you think is right for him now ? " || 30 || 

Then it occurred to Jivaka Komarabhacca : " It is not 
suitable that I should give a strong purgative to the Lord," 
and having had three handfuls of lotuses^ mixed ^ with various 

^ kayo dosdbhisanno. Cf. Vin. i. 206 where a certain monk was abhisannas 
kdya, " had a superfluity of humours in his body " ; various purgative, 
were allowed. At Vin. ii. 119 some monks also became abhisannakaya- 
Vin. Texts ii. 60, n. 6 says that dosa " is a disturbance of the so-called humours 
in the body." Dosa is used in sense of some kind of sickness at Miln. 43. 
At Miln. 172 we get tikicchako abhisanne kdye kupite dose sinehaniyani 
bhesajjdni deti, " does a physician give softening medicines when the body 
is full of humours and afflicted by them ? " 

• pdtum, lit. to drink ; cf. same phrase at Vin. i. 206, where purging 
drinks are allowed. 

' virecana. This and three other kinds are held (at D. i. 12) by some 
recluses and brahmans to be worldly lore — abstained from by Gotama. 

* sinehetha. Cf. sinehaniyani bhesajjdni at Miln. 172. 

* uppalahatthdni. 

• paribhdvetvd, or supplied with, treated with. 



1.31—33] MAHAVAGGAVIII 395 

medicines, he approached the Lord ; having approached he 
offered the Lord one handful of lotuses, sajdng : " Lord, may 
the Lord sniff up^ (the scent of) this first handful of lotuses ; 
this will purge the Lord ten times." Then he offered the Lord 
the second handful of lotuses, saying : " Lord, may the Lord 
sniff up (the scent of) this second handful of lotuses ; this will 
purge the Lord ten times," Then he offered the Lord the 
third handful of lotuses, saying : " Lord, may the Lord sniff 
up (the scent of) this third handful of lotuses ; this will purge 
the Lord ten times " ; thus, he thought that the Lord would 
be purged all together thirty times.^ Then Jivaka Komara- 
bhacca, having given the Lord a purgative for thirty times 
all together, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping his 
right side towards him. || 31 || 

Then it occurred to Jivaka Komarabhacca when he had gone 
outside the porch : "A purgative has been given by me to 
the Lord for all together thirty times. The Lord has a disturb- 
ance of the humours of his body ; it will not purge the Lord 
all together thirty times, it will purge the Lord twenty-nine 
times, but then the Lord, being purged, will bathe ; when 
he has bathed, the Lord will purge once, thus the Lord will 
be purged all together thirty times." Then the Lord, knowing 
by mind the reasoning in the mind' of Jivaka Komarabhacca, 
addressed the venerable Ananda, sa5dng : 

" Now, Ananda, it occurred to Jivaka Komarabhacca when 
he had gone outside the porch : 'A purgative has been given 
by me to the Lord . . . thus the Lord will be purged all together 
thirty times.' Well now, Ananda, prepare (some) hot water." 

"Very well, Lord," and the venerable Ananda having answered 
the Lord in assent, [279] prepared (some) hot water. 1| 32 || 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca approached the Lord ; having 
approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respect- 
ful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, 
Jivaka Komarabhacca spoke thus to the Lord : " Lord, is the 
Lord purged ? " 

" I am purged, Jivaka." 

" Now, Lord, it occurred to me after I had gone outside 

^ upasiAghatu , cf. S. i. 204. 

• passive construction lit. : thus will there be for the Lord a purge thirty 
times. 

» cetasa cetoparivitakkam anndya, stock; cf. S. i. 103, 178. 



396 BOOK OF DISCIPLINE 

the porch : 'A purgative has been given by me to the Lord 
. . . thus the Lord will be purged all together thirty times/ 
Lord, let the Lord bathe, let the well-farer bathe." Then the 
Lord bathed in the hot water ; when he had bathed the Lord 
purged once ; thus the Lord purged all together thirty times. 
Then Jivaka Komarabhacca spoke thus to the Lord : " Lord, 
until the Lord's body comes to be normal, almsfood of juices will 
be enough."^ And the Lord's body soon became normal. || 33 I| 

Then Jivaka Komarabhacca, taking that pair of Sivej^aka 
cloths, approached the Lord ; having approached, having 
greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he 
was sitting down at a respectful distance, Jivaka Komarabhacca 
spoke thus to the Lord : " Lord, I ask one boon of the Lord." 

" Jivaka, Truth-finders are beyond (granting) boons."* 

" Lord, it is what is allowable and what is blameless." 

" Speak on, Jivaka." 

" Lord, the Lord and the Order of monks are wearers of 
rag-robes.' Lord, this pair of Siveyyaka cloths was sent me 
by King Pajjota ; of many cloths, of many pairs of cloths, 
of many hundred pairs of cloths, of many thousand pairs of 
cloths, of many himdred thousand pairs of cloths, it is the 
chief and best and foremost and most excellent and loveliest. 
Lord, may the Lord accept my pair of Siveyyaka cloths, and 
may he allow householders' robes* to the Order of monks." 
The Lord accepted the pair of Siveyyaka cloths. Then the 
Lord gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted Jivaka Komara- 
bhacca Avith dhamma-talk.^ And when Jivaka Komarabhacca 
had been gladdened . . . delighted by the Lord with dhamma- 
talk, rising from his seat, greeting the Lord, he departed 
keeping his right side towards him. 1 1 34 1 1 

Then the Lord, on this occasion, having given dhamma-izHk, 
addressed the monks, saying : 

^ alatn yiisapiti4'^pdtena. Vin. Texts ii. 193 translates " you had better 
abstain from liquid food". Natural juices, akatayusa, are allowed at 
Vin. i. 206 as a purgative. 

» atikkantavard. Cf. Vin. i. 82, 292. See above, p. 104. 

» VA. 1 1 19 says that neither the Lord during the twenty years since 
his attainment of enlightenment until this event happened, nor any monk, 
had accepted householders' robes; all were rag-robe wearers. 

* VA. 1 1 19 makes the point that these were robes (or robe-material) 
given by householders. 

» VA. 1 1 19 says "with talk connected with the advantage of giving 
clothes." 



1.35—2.1] MAHAVAGGA VIII 397 

" I allow you, monks, householders' robes. Whoever wishes 
may be a rag-robe wearer ; whoever wishes may consent to 
(accept) householders' robes.^ And I, monks, commend 
satisfaction with the one or the other. "^ 

People in Rajagaha heard : [280] " Householders' robes are 
allowed to monks by the Lord," and these people became joyful, 
elated, thinking : " Now we will give gifts, we will work merit,* 
inasmuch as householders' robes are allowed to monks by the 
Lord." And in just one day many thousand robes were 
produced in Rajagaha. 

Country-people heard : " Householders' robes are allowed 
to monks by the Lord," and these people became joyful and 
elated, thinking